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History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania

History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania, (W. W. Munsell & Co., New York : 1883) 
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OSCEOLA TOWNSHIP. Part One (Go to Part Two)

By Charles Tubbs.

Osceola was formed from the now extinct township of Elkland, in January 1857. In 1878 it acquired a large accession of territory from Deerfield. As at present constituted it is bounded north the State of New York and Elkland borough, east by Elkland borough and Farmington, south by Farmington and Deerfield, and west by Deerfield. It has an area of 7,800 acres. The height above tide is 1,166 feet at the Cowanesque bridge. The drainage is to the eastward, through the Cowanesque River and its tributaries, chief among which are the Island Stream, Holden Brook and Camp Brook from the north, and the Windfall Brook from the south. The lesser streams are Bulkley Brook and Red House Hollow Creek, which flow into Holden, and Brier Hill Creek, which flows into the Windfall Brook. The surface of the township is diversified. It consists of the extended plain of the alluvial bottom lands of the Cowanesque, and the high ridges which form divides between the tributary streams upon both sides of the valley. These ridges converge toward the village of Osceola, and terminate in abrupt elevated knobs, which stand like posted sentinels about it. They are known as Norway Ridge, Mutton Hill, Barker's Hill, Brier Hill and North Hill, which lies between the valley of the Cowanesque and Holden Brook. Immediately east of the village is a swamp which originally covered about one hundred acres, but its area has been much reduced by ditching into Camp Brook and by cutting out the alder, black ash and other trees, thereby permitting the sun's rays to penetrate its damp recesses.

Geologists state that "there is no good reason for doubting that the whole of the Coal Measures once covered this country, but the erosion of the surface through the agencies of frost and rain has been actively carried on through all the ages since the Coal Era. Most of this great formation has been gradually carried away into the Atlantic Ocean"--all of it that once covered the territory of Osceola. The rocks that remain, with a few exceptions, belong to the Chemung and Catskill formations of the Devonian Age. The State geologist thus describes the distribution of these rocks and the exceptions: "Chemung rocks form the surface of the valley of Holden Brook and the valley of the Cowanesque, and nearly all of Osceola. When the Chemung rocks appear in the valley of the Cowanesque River the red Catskill rocks form the hill on its southern side. Along the central belt the Lower Red Catskill is covered with the Vespertine gray rocks, much reduced in thickness and perhaps nowhere retaining on them a residue of the Umbral red shale, Seral Conglomerate or Coal Measures which undoubtedly once covered the country." "In fact Norway Ridge, which lies between Camp Brook and Holden Brook, is the last of the high barren hills whose summits are capped with Vespertine gray rocks, and I believe it is the only locality west of the Catskill Mountains where rocks of this upper Catskill age exist."

It is apparent to the most casual observer that in the more recent geologic ages the valley of the Cowanesque has been a lake, having its outlet about one mile west of the village of Nelson. There are plainly to be seen the well defined precipitous banks which have held in check the abundant waters that have submerged the plain that stretches to the westward, covering in part the township which is the subject of this history.

The population of Osceola at each decennial census since its formation has been as follows: 1860, 450; 1870, 523; 1880, 790.

LOCAL GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.

An abundance of elk in the forest no doubt suggested the name of Elkland to the commissioners who divided the county in 1814 and applied that name to the township covering the territory of Osceola.

In 1840 Robert H. Tubbs published some poetic effusions in the Lawrence Sentinel, edited by John C. Knox. He dated them at "Pindarville." The name thus playfully given was used in common speech among the people to designate this locality from that time until the post-office was named in 1851. When application was made to establish a post-office the name it should bear was warmly discussed. Some of those who had become familiar with the name "Pindarville" from more than ten years' usage favored that. Nathaniel Seely proposed the name "Bridgeport," and Enos Slosson suggested "Osceola," as a compliment to the bravery of the Seminole chief whose fate at that time was fresh in the public mind. A public meeting was called and the latter name was chosen. Six years later, when the township was erected out of the ruins of Elkland, it took the name of the post-office without opposition.

The name Cowanesque was given the river by the Seneca Indians, and tradition asserts that in their language it signifies "beautiful squaw." Holden Brook derived its name from William Holden, the first settler at its mouth. The Island Stream received that designation because the main body of the water of the Cowanesque came down the valley by its course from near the woolen factory at the time of the Strawbridge survey, in 1786, as appears by the map: thus making a large island of a great portion of the flats in Deerfield and Osceola.

INDIANS.

The Indians have left many evidences of their occupation of this territory. Arrow heads, spear heads and axes of flint have been found in abundance. Knives for skinning deer and stone implements for reducing skins to softness after tanning have been occasionally picked up. The Indians used a small round stone hollowed out in the center as a mortar, in which corn was ground a single kernel at a time. Such an abundance of these have been found as to indicate that an Indian village must have been located near the mouth of Holden Brook.

In 1818 Samuel Tubbs, who then owned and occupied the premises where the cooper shop is located, near the west end of Holden Brook bridge, in working his garden discovered what was evidently the shop of an Indian arrow-maker. There were bushels of chips and bits of flint and broken arrow heads. Not a single perfect arrow head was found in the heap. The quality of the flint was entirely unlike any stone known to exist in the surrounding country, which leads to the conclusion that they were brought here for the purpose of being manufactured.

"At the doorway of his wigwam
Sat the ancient arrow-maker,
Making arrow heads of jasper,
Arrow heads of chalcedony."

The Indians who frequented Osceola after the settlement of the country by white people belonged to the tribes of the Seneca nation of the Iroquois league. One of the ancient Indian trails by which Iroquois runners kept open their communications, and sent messages from the great council at Canandaigua to the Monseys and other subject tribes of the Lenni-Lenape in southern and central Pennsylvania, passed through Osceola. It came from Painted Post up the Canisteo River to Tuscarora Creek, up the same to Elk Run, up Elk Run, from thence across the ridge, and descended into the Cowanesque Valley by Camp Brook. It crossed the Cowanesque River near the village of Osceola, passed up the Windfall Brook, and from thence on southward out of Tioga county by way of Babb's Creek. Over this route passed Shikelimy, the Cayuga chief, on his way to Fort Augusta (Sunbury), where he resided many years.

The hunting parties of the Senecas often came here after the advent of the whites. One of their encampments was upon the Island Stream, on G. N. Bulkley's farm. Some seasons they remained all summer, and raised corn in open places and upon sandy bars along the river. The field north of the pond of H. & J. Tubbs mills was one of their girdlings, and was occupied and planted by them. They were very friendly in their intercourse with the whites. Reuben Cook when a boy often exchanged visits with the young bucks of an Indian cabin built a few rods from his father's house. They fished together and often ate with each other. These Indians were from Squawkey Hill, and upon the approach of winter joined the great body of the tribe upon the Genesee. This was their invariable custom. They used this valley as a hunting ground, and when game got scarce they ceased to come, and about 1825 their visits were discontinued altogether.

                             "And they are gone,
With their old forests wide and deep,
And we have built our homes upon
Field where their generations sleep."
LAND OWNERSHIP.

The people of Osceola hold their lands by virtue of--

1. The charter of Charles II. king of Great Britain granting the province of Pennsylvania to William Penn, under date of March 4th 1681. In 1718 William Penn died, leaving his vast landed estate in America (with slight exception) to his children by his second wife.

2. In them the title remained until November 27th 1779, when the State of Pennsylvania confiscated their estate for the nominal reimbursement of £130,000.

3. The Indian title to this part of Pennsylvania was purchased by the State, of the chiefs of the Six Nations or Iroquois, at Fort McIntosh (Beaver), in October 1784--103 years after the grant to Penn.

These results, which appear so self-evident to men of the present generation, were not accomplished without difficulty, fierce conflicts and even bloodshed.

May 1st 1785 the State opened a land office for the sale of these lands, and under date of May 17th 1785 John Strawbridge obtained five warrants, which were located in Osceola, in whole or in part, as below set forth. To each tract he gave a distinguishing name, under the English fashion. They were the first English names applied to our territory. They are given below:
 
No. Of Warrant Name No. Of Acres When Surveyed Where Located
551 Chatham 326 June 22nd 1786 In Cowanesque Valley, from Elkland line to mouth of Holden Brook, 226 rods deep.
373 Huntingdon 289 June 22nd 1786 About the mouth and in valley of Holden Brook, and on south side of river.
416 Coventry 320 June 23d 1786 In Cowanesque Valley, from C. L. Hoyt's east line to Charles Bulkley's east line.
529 Cornwall 324¼ June 23d 1786 In Cowanesque Valley, from Chas. Bulkley's to west line of estate of A. H. Bacon, deceased
355 Colchester 301¼ Sept. 2nd 1786 From Holden Brook north to State line, including farm of Allen Seely and vicinity.

John Strawbridge paid the State for the above lands at the rate of $80 per 100 acres, which was the price fixed by statute. April 2nd 1792 the price was reduced to $13.33 per 100 acres, and the warrants laid in whole or in part on the remaining territory of Osceola were purchased at that price. The name of the Strawbridge tracts are given below, with location and some facts about the others:
 
No. of 
Warrant.
Name Warrantee No. Acres Date of Issue Date of Survey Where Located
3,697 Confidence John Strawbridge 1,092¾ 31 Jan. 1793 30th 5 mo. 1794 Along New York State line and Holden Brook, from C. S. Lonham's to James Work's.
5,179 Pleasant Valley James Strawbridge 1,099 25 Feb. 1794 31st 5 mo. 1794 At mouth and up valley of Bulkley Brook.
5,180 Spring Garden James Strawbridge 1,099 25 Feb. 1794 30th 5 mo. 1794 Upon headwaters of Bulkley Brook and along New York State.
5,182 Saint James James Strawbridge 564½ 25 Feb. 1794 30th 5 mo. 1974 Along New York State line and Camp Brook.
1,064   William Lloyd 549½ 5 Apr. 1792 Sept. 19th 1792 Owned in part by Jonas B. Seely, Morris Seely and Harry Tyler.
1,346   Robert Blackwell 1,099 27 Apr. 1792 Sept. 21st 1792 Norris Butler owns a small part of this warrant in this town.
2,030   T. M. Willing 1,100 9 Nov. 1792 Nov. 14th 1793 Owned by L. L. Kimball, Charles Tubbs in part,
2,035   T. M. Willing 1,097 9 Nov. 1792 Nov. 14th 1793 Owned by Henry Tubbs, C. Kimball and Charles Tubbs.
2,039   Thomas Willing   12 Dec. 1792 Nov. 8th 1793 Brier Hill; owned by George Tubbs, Mancier Gleason and others.

A part of the subsequent history of the lands of the Strawbridge tract is told in the recitals of a deed executed in 1807:

"Whereas John Strawbridge, late of the city of Philadelphia, being seized in fee of sundry tracts of land situated on the Cowanesque in the now county of Tioga, by virtue of several patents under the great seal of the commonwealth, did by his last will and testament, bearing date the thirteenth day of September in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety-three, direct and order all his real property to be sold, and appointed James Strawbridge, James Read and Israel Morris his executors, and the said James Strawbridge being since deceased, and the said Israel Morris and James Read being discharged from the further execution of the said will administration with the will annexed, D. B. N. was granted to George Strawbridge by the register for the probate of wills, granting letters of administration in and for the city of Philadelphia on the 20th day of August A. D. 1806.

"And whereas James Strawbridge, late of the city of Philadelphia, being seized in fee of certain other lands adjoining above mentioned lands of John Strawbridge, executed a mortgage in fee to Jonathan Smith and others as trustees for the widow and heirs of John Strawbridge deceased, and judgment being had thereon at the May term A. D. 1807, in the county of Lycoming, and execution was issued thereon, and the said lands being exposed to sale were purchased by George Strawbridge; all which proceedings will more fully appear on reference to the aforesaid record and the sheriff's deed, bearing date the 30th day of November A. D. 1807."

George Strawbridge, who was a son of John Strawbridge and brother of James, came thus into control of the tract as administrator and owner. In December of the same year he came in person upon the lands, and effected sales to many persons who were already in possession of them. They village of Osceola is situated at the mouth of Holden Brook, and covers part of the two tracts named "Chatham" and "Huntingdon." Strawbridge deeded this land December 31st 1807 to Nathaniel White, for $1.50 per acre. The same day he deeded the Charles L. Hoyt farm to James Whitney, at the rate of $2.50 per acre. The same day he also deeded Ebenezer Taylor the farm owned at present by John Tubbs, at the price of $3.30 per acre.

John Strawbridge died in 1793, leaving five children, one of whom was James. James died previous to 1806, unmarried, without issue and intestate. In 1815 three children of John Strawbridge survived, who owned the title to the estate of which George Strawbridge was administrator,(1) to wit George, John jr. and Jane. Partition was had in 1815 of the lands of the estate unsold, in which proceeding the land upon the Cowanesque fell to George and Jane. Jane married Jonathan D. Ledyard. George Strawbridge sold his interest in the estate on the Cowanesque January 24th 1822 to Ledyard, "for $100 and other considerations." Jonathan D. Ledyard and Jane (Strawbridge) his wife sold the same land March 6th 1822, consisting of 7,000 acres or thereabout, for $2,000, to Silas Billings.

Silas Billings and his heirs have sold these lands to actual settlers upon the soil.

The warrantee rights of William Lloyd, Thomas Willing, T. M. Willing and Robert Blackwell were acquired by William Bingham the elder, and to him or to the trustees named in his will the patents were issued. These lands then became a part of the Bingham estate, and from the trustees named in the will of William Bingham and their successors deeds have been issued to purchasers who are residents upon the land.

SETTLEMENT.

Of the original pioneers of Osceola but little is known. It is a remarkable fact concerning them none of their descendants in a single instance remain upon the soil. They possessed the genuine pioneer spirit, and while the forests were yet thick around them removed to the westward.

The first settler in the township was William Holden. He was a bachelor, and built his cabin on the eastern bank of the stream that bears his name, near where the barn of Albert S. Crandall is now situated. His settlement was made about 1795. He had made a previous settlement at Lawrenceville as early as 1783. While residing here his main employment was building post and rail fence for the new settlers.

Cooper Cady was the first settler upon the farm now owned by Samuel G. Barker. Next above him came Caleb Griggs. He built his cabin on the bank of the Cowanesque River, just below the Tubbs grist-mill. A man by the name of Smith was the first settler where John Tubbs now resides. His log cabin stood a short distance west of the brick house. The second settler upon the site of the village of Osceola was Nathaniel White. His cabin stood near there Hiram Stevens now resides.

Daniel Phillips was the first settler near the mouth of the Island Stream. The site where Charles L. Hoyt now lives was first occupied by James Whitney. James Whitney sold his land to Henry Mott. John Whitney sold his land to Henry Mott. John Parker first owned and occupied the farms of Alvers Bosard, U. A. Bosworth and Chester B. Hoyt.

A Mr. Randall was the first settler upon the farm now owned by George Newton Bulkley. His log cabin was located on the Island Stream. The next cabin further up the stream was built by one Sesher, north of the residence of Charles Bulkley. One night Sesher's cabin burned up, and he was never seen or heard of afterward. Reports of foul play were rife at the time, but the guilt of his murder (if such there was) was never fixed upon anyone. This took place in the year 1800. Nathan Lewis made a clearing on the hillside north of Osceola. It has since been known as the "Lewis lot."

These names complete the list of first settlers. Not very much is known about them-especially as to the places from which they came. They seem to have been adventurers, ready upon the slightest pretext to move on. Caleb Griggs and Smith died and were buried here. Cooper Cady removed to Troupsburg, N. Y., and died there. Henry Mott, Daniel Phillips and Nathaniel White went to Olean Point, and thence down the Allegheny and Ohio rivers to Marietta, O. John Parker removed to the Genesee Valley in the State of New York.

Several of these settlers came previous to 1800, and not long after 1810 the last of them had disappeared from our territory. Some of them, as has already been seen, purchased land; others were mere squatters. This is about all that is known of their subsequent history. They were succeeded from time to time by new families, who have become permanent residents of the township.

First among these-in 1800-came Israel Bulkley, from Colchester, Mass. He lived near the line dividing Massachusetts from Connecticut. He had married Lucy Chapin, of Salisbury, Conn., and had several children. Bulkley purchased the possession of Randall, and when Sesher's cabin burned and Sesher disappeared Bulkley purchased the possession of Randall, and when Sesher's cabin burned and Sesher disappeared Bulkley at once occupied the territory thus made vacant.

The chain of land titles heretofore set forth was not at that time (1800) established by decisions of the courts. If it was asserted by some, it was doubted by others, and in their ignorance of the truth these questions gave much trouble and disquietude to the people seeking homes in the forest. In every cabin the title was the theme of general conversation, and at every gathering it was the topic uppermost in the discussions.

Cooper Cady and Israel Bulkley brought with them Connecticut titles to the land they occupied in this township. Cyprian Wright, of Nelson, claimed his land under the same title. Thus in the valley of Cowanesque the rival claims of Connecticut and Pennsylvania to the jurisdiction and right of soil, which had caused so much suffering and bloodshed at Wyoming, were set up, and they call for a brief statement of the grounds on which they rest. The grants of land in America, by the sovereigns of Great Britain, were made with a lavishness which can only exist where acquisitions are without cost and their value unknown, and with a want of precision in boundaries which can only result from entire ignorance of the country. In this way the same territory was granted to different parties by the same king, as witness the words of the royal charters: Under date of 20 April 1662 Charles II. granted letters patent to John Withrop et al., incorporating them as a body politic by the name of "The Governor and Company of the English Colony of Connecticut in New England in America," and granting and confirming to them "all that part of our dominions in New England, in America, bounded on the east by Narragansett River where the said river falleth into the sea; and on the north by the line of the Massachusetts Colony running from east to west; that is to say from the said Narragansett Bay in the east to the South Sea on the west part." Nineteen years later--under date of 4 March 1681-King Charles II. granted to William Penn "all that tracte or parte of land in America as the same is bounded on the east by the Delaware River from twelve miles distance northwarde from New Castle Towne unto the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, if the said river doth extend soe farre northwarde. But if the said river soe farre as it doth extend, and from the head of the said river the easterne bounds are to bee determined by a meridian line, to bee drawn from the head of the said river unto the three and fortieth degree; the said land to extend westwards five degrees in longitude, to be computed from the eastern bounds, and the said lands to bee bounded on the north by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude".

By consulting a map it will be found that "the line of the Massachusetts colony "mentioned in the first character is almost identical with "the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude" mentioned in the second, which is the northern boundary of Pennsylvania. When it is further explained that the "South Sea" meant the Pacific Ocean it is clear that both charters covered the territory of the northern part of Pennsylvania.

Here is ample ground for a controversy. It was fought out on the battle-field, in the courts, in the Legislature and before a commission appointed by Congress. In lasted from 1757 to 1802. Under the first of the two charters cited above Connecticut had a right to the territory. She issued grants of land, and it was with these in their pockets that Israel Bulkley and Cooper Cady entered upon their possessions in Osceola. The controversy was decided in favor of Pennsylvania on grounds of policy and she enforced her advantage by many legislative enactments. April 6th 1802 a law was passed "to maintain the territorial rights of this State," wherein it was provided "that nothing shall be so construed as to make valid any conveyance heretofore made by the colony or State of Connecticut." Heavy penalties were attached to its violation.

Cooper Cady sought the first opportunity to sell his improvements, and Israel Bulkley, yielding to the inevitable, purchased the right of soil from the owner of the Pennsylvania title, and afterward became his attorney in fact for the sale of other lands. Israel Bulkley was a man of considerable pecuniary means. He brought with him from the east into the wilderness a jack and a jenny ass, horses, and several head of an improved breed of cattle. Among his other possessions was a female negro slave. She lived and served in his family several years in that capacity. Her freedom was subsequently purchased of Mr. Bulkley by a negro, who paid for her in labor and took her away. The terms of this sale were probably light, as the State of Pennsylvania in 1780 had enacted a law providing for the gradual abolition of slavery, by the provisions of which all slaves were to become absolutely free in 1808. During the first year of Mr. Bulkley's residence upon the Cowanesque he went to Williamsport to mill. He loaded his grist upon a pack saddle, and with his horse or ass pursued his way by Indian trails through the wilderness, taking five days to make the journey.

The Taylor family was the next that came to stay. It consisted of the widowed mother, Permelia, and three sons, Ebenezer, Philip and Mitchell. They came from the Delaware Water Gap in New Jersey, emigrating first to the Wyoming Valley, where they were engaged in the Pennamite war;(2) from thence to Pipe Creek below Owego, and in 1806 to the Cowanesque Valley. Their first settlement here was at Barney Hill, below Elkland. Ebenezer made several purchases of land in Osceola-first, the Samuel G. Barker farm of Caleb Griggs, which he soon sold to his brother Philip; second, the farm now owned by John Tubbs, which he sold to Robert Tubbs February 1st 1811; and, third, the farm of Henry Mott, now owned by C. L. Hoyt. On this farm he made his home and resided during his life, and his descendants after him. Permelia Taylor, the mother, and Philip and Mitchell died soon after their arrival, and were buried at Barney Hill. Ebenezer Taylor married Polly, only daughter of Reuben Cook. She eloped with him at the age of fifteen years, while they resided at Pipe Creek.

In 1809 Paul Gleason, who had a few years before married Juda Warren, came into the township from Dudley, Worcester county, Mass. After residing a few years here and there he purchased a part of the Daniel Phillips farm at the mouth of the Island Stream, and lived upon it about thirty years. He was the first shoemaker who located in the township. The first year he followed his trade, to use the phrase of that day, he "whipped the cat." He afterward established a shop, which was located in front and a little to the east of the residence of Charles Tubbs. This shop, which was built of logs and heated from a huge fire-place, was for many years the most important neighborhood resort. Here were to be found for several years the only newspaper taken in the vicinity and a copy of the "Farmers' Almanac" for the current year. Here politics, religion and the news of the day were most discussed. In front of this shop was established the only grindstone in the neighborhood. It had been purchased by contribution, and any one was free to use it.

The Tubbs family came originally from Litchfield county, Connecticut, in 1760; occupied land in the Wyoming Valley under title from that State, and took part on the Yankee side in the struggle which followed. After the "decree at Trenton" had virtually dispossessed them of their lands they emigrated to Newtown, N. Y., and from thence to the Cowanesque Valley in 1811. Samuel Tubbs sen. located near Elkland, and with his sons, Samuel, James and Benjamin, and his sons-in-law, David Hammond, Martin Stevens and John Ryon, owned and occupied all the land from Barney Hill to the Stull farm, including the Davenport Island and farm on the south side of the river. Robert Tubbs, another son of Samuel, purchased, in what is now Osceola, the farm of Ebenezer Taylor and the possession of Mr. Smith, and at once moved upon his land. The first year he lived in a small log house situated near the site of the grist-mill. To this house he built an addition, roofing it in bark. In 1817 Samuel Tubbs jr. removed from Elkland, and purchased a part of the Daniel Phillips farm, now owned by Morgan Seely, and he continued to reside in the township until his death.

Robert Tubbs married Clara Hoyt, and Samuel Tubbs married Permelia, daughter of Ebenezer Taylor.

Lebbeus Tubbs, the ancestor who emigrated from Connecticut, was one of the old men who marched out of Fort Forty to defend the Wyoming settlement July 3d 1778, and escaped death at the massacre that followed. (Life of Moses Van Campen, p. 127.) Samuel Tubbs sen. enlisted August 26th 1776 in the Revolutionary army, in Captain Robert Durkee's company, and served during the war. Durkee was killed July 3d 1778, and Captain Simon Spalding succeeded to the command of his company. Tubbs was engaged in the battles of Millstone, Bound, Brook, Mad Creek, Brandywine and Germantown. He also participated in Sullivan's expedition against the Indians in 1779. (Penn. Archives.) Samuel Tubbs sen. married Susannah Dorrance, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel George Dorrance, who was killed in the battle at Wyoming July 3d 1778. Lebbeus Tubbs married Basha Hamilton before he left Connecticut, and Samuel sen. was born in that State.

In 1812 Nathaniel Seely came into the township from Southport, N. Y. He had married Lucy Kelsey, of Newtown, in 1809, and they had one child. Upon his arrival he purchased the farm of Nathaniel White, and subsequently the "lot" of Nathan Lewis. Upon the former of these two farms the main part of the village of Osceola is built. He was a justice of the peace from 1820 to 1840, and took a prominent part in the business of the township.

In January 1813 Andrew Bozzard immigrated hither. He was born at Stroudsburg, Northampton county, Pa. His father, Malachi Bozzard, was a native of Germany. Andrew Bozzard married Nancy Hammond, who was a daughter of Dudley Hammond of Goshen, Conne. Mr. Bozzard was the first carpenter and joiner that settled in the township. He manufactured household furniture, spinning wheels and coffins. He purchased part of the farm originally occupied by John Parker.

In 1823 Stennett Crandall settled upon the farm originally occupied by David Jay, upon Holden Brook, and now owned by B. F. Colvin. He was born in Rhode Island, but had lived many years in Madison county, N. Y. He was a shoemaker and had his shop at his dwelling house.

In 1835 Abel Hoyt, of Kingston, Pa., bought a portion of the Parker farm and became a resident of Osceola. His ancestors were from Connecticut and promient in the land troubles at Wyoming. He married Esther Hurlbut.

A glimpse of life in this new settlement is given by Judge Gaylord Griswold Colvin in his "Reminiscences of Cowanesque Valley," from which the following quotation is taken:

"In the summer of 1809 my father removed his family and effects from Herkimer county, N. Y., to the Cowanesque Valley with two teams. Nothing occurred on the journey worthy of note until we arrived at Tuscarora. We staid over night there at William Wambaugh's. Early the next morning we started to cross the mountain between that place and the Cowanesque Valley. We toiled steadily on during most of the day, getting near the summit, when the kingbolt of the forward wagon broke. Finding there was no possibility of passing with the hind wagon it was decided to abandon both, and make our way with the women and children on horseback and others on foot. Between 10 and 12 o'clock at night we arrived at the first house on the bank of the Cowanesque River, occupied by Nathaniel White (the appearances were rather forbidding), and asked for entertainment. We were cordially received (as was the custom those days), but were informed they were destitute of eatables except potatoes. Some of these were soon boiling over the fire built on the hearth with stone back, the smoke escaping through a hole in the roof. After devouring the potatoes we retired, weary, to rest, our beds being the soft side of a split pine floor. The next morning at early dawn my father went up to Mr. Bulkley's and returned with a small roll of butter, and for breakfast we had potatoes and butter. Although our fare was humble and lodging hard we respected Mr. White and wife for their kind and generous treatment, and were never allowed thereafter by our parents to speak disrespectfully of them."

Reuben Cook relates that the following expedients were resorted to to furnish the luxuries of pioneer life at Osceola. Saleratus was made by boiling corn cobs in lye and then burning the cobs. The ashes were used for saleratus.

Crab apples grew plentifully. After boiling the cores were punched out and the apple mashed with boiled pumpkin. This made a good sauce.

Choke cherries grew in abundance. When ripe they were mixed with fine Indian meal, put in a bag and boiled in water until done. This made choke cherry pudding.

Salt was very scarce in this new settlement. Israel Bulkley sent Calvin Chamberlain in 1807 to Onondaga (Syracuse) with a herd of mules, and brought in all the salt they could carry on their backs. A few years later Robert Tubbs hauled salt from Onondaga in wagons and sold it for $10 per barrel. Asahel Nobles, of Brookfield, chopped an acre of heavy pine timber for Tubbs for a barrel of salt. The salt cost $5 per barrel at the works.

WILD ANIMALS.

were very plentiful in the woods at Osceola when it was first settled by white people.. The encounters of the pioneers with these denizens of the forest will never lose their interest to those who inhabit the territory where they took place. Bears, deer, elk, panthers, otter, wild cats, mink, martin, beaver, wolves and other animals abounded. Deer and elk were hunted for many years without the use of dogs, and were mainly killed at "licks." The most famous lick in this town was at the sulphur spring in the "Lewis lot." A thicket of wild plum trees surrounded it in which the hunter concealed himself, and when the deer or elk emerged from the swamp to taste its peculiar waters he made it an easy prey. It was first visited in 1787 by Mr. Kelsey, father of Mrs. Nathaniel Seely, who accompanied Ellicott and Porter, surveyors of the State line, as a hunter, to furnish provisions to the party. It was long known as "Tom lick," from a hunter by the name of Tom Wilson, who frequented it. The waters of this spring are strongly impregnated with sulphur and other minerals, and in recent years it has become noted for its medicinal qualities. The next most famous deer lick was located just across the New York State line, and was known by the name of "Mik-re-que." Many deer were killed at this lick.

The beaver once held their court in a low marsh north of the residence of John G. Hammond. Across the waters of Camp Brook, overflowing a large tract of this level land, they built their "beaver dam" upon the most scientific principles of the engineering art, living upon ash, birch, popular and the softer woods, of which they were particularly fond. In the deepest part of the pond they built their houses, somewhat resembling the wigwam of the Indian, with a floor of saplings, sloping toward the water like an inclined plane. Here, secure in their moated castle, they slept with their tails under water, ascending the floor with the rise of the stream. They were exceedingly sagacious and difficult to entrap. To build their dam they cut down trees a foot in diameter.

In the spring of the year a multitude of venomous rattlesnakes emerged from a den on the hillside north of the residence of Charles Bulkley. About this den, with the returning warmth of each season, huge heaps of these hissing reptiles, twisting themselves into contorted knots, could be seen, covered with slime and dirt. For many years this hillside was burned over to rout out and destroy the snakes. As late as 1870 as many as twenty rattlesnakes were killed near this den in one day. They have now almost entirely disappeared.

Israel Bulkley built his sheep pen against the end of his house in 1800, and confined his sheep in it every night. One night the wolves actually broke into this inclosure when Bulkley was absent from home. His negro slave clubbed off the wolves and saved the sheep. Bulkley kept two bull dogs to guard his premises, but packs of wolves often drove them in against the house door.

In October 1813 David Jay, an old Revolutionary soldier, lived upon Holden Brook, near the site of the cheese factory. One day when he was absent from home his wife and children saw a bear lift his hog out of the pen and carry it away. The next day search was made in the woods and the carcass of the hog was found partly devoured. Captain Ebenezer Taylor was notified of the situation, and when the bear returned for another meal he killed him, by the large spring that supplied the cheese factory with water.

In 1815 Samuel Tubbs jr. saw a bear in the woods on the Davenport Island, digging in a rotten log for pismires, and very much intent upon his business. Tubbs was curious to know how near he could approach before the bear would discover him and run away. He proceeded stealthily, the bear not hearing him at all. When he got near as he cared to go he yelled out sharply. Instead of taking to his legs as was anticipated, the bear arose on his hind feet and faced him. They stood face to face for some time, when the bear finally got down on all fours and ran. Tubbs shouted for help. David Hammond came out with an army musket and wounded the bear. Men and dogs joined in the chase. The bear, suffering from loss of blood, was brought to bay in a balsam swamp upon the North Hill. When shot he was endeavoring to climb a tree, while the dogs were gnawing at his hind legs. William Garner procured a yoke of oxen and a sled and hauled him home.

In November 1817 Captain Ebenezer Taylor while hunting near "Tom Lick" shot and wounded a deer. He followed it toward Camp Brook. After a while he noticed a fresh wolf track ahead of him. He sat down and waited for the wolf to overtake the deer. He crept along carefully up the brook, and when near the State line saw the wolf snatch a mouthful of meat from the deer and then step upon a knoll and eat it. This he repeated several times, when Taylor drew a bead on him and killed him. He next night he set a trap by the deer carcass and caught another wolf. Taylor drew a bounty of $60 each upon the wolf scalps at Bath, N. Y.

Samuel Tubbs jr. in the fall of 1820 with his dogs started a large buck out of the swamp near the present residence of George Tubbs, upon Brier Hill. The buck was fat and ran with difficulty. When overtaken by the dogs he stopped and fought them. He then ran a short distance, and again renewed the fight. They thus proceeded along the ridge, alternately fighting and running, until they reached the side of the "Windfall" next the river. Here the dogs got the buck down, when Tubbs stepped astride him to cut his throat. At the first touch of the knife the buck arose with him on his back, and carried him down the side of the hill through the brush toward the river. As Tubbs weighed about 200 pounds the deer sank under his weight while crossing some logs on the river bank, and he thereupon dispatched him.

Nathaniel Seely had his sheep hovel where the residence of Hoyt Tubbs now stands. In it his sheep were gathered every night. As late as 1835 the wolves made a descent upon it and gained an entrance before 9 o'clock in the evening. They were frightened away without doing any material damage.

In March 1837 the wolves killed two sheep for Abel Hoyt upon the flat within ten rods of his residence. Using the carcass of the one of the slaughtered sheep for bait, Hoyt set a trap upon the "Windfall" and caught one of the wolves. Lyman P. and Chester B. Hoyt killed the wolf. A bounty of $25 was paid for its scalp. This was the last wolf killed in the township.

Bears have a great partiality for pork. It may be mentioned as a curious fact that many of the dwelling houses of the new settlers were built with a projecting front porch or "stoop," under which the hogs were not only allowed but encouraged to make their nests, to protect them from the incursions of their devouring enemy. Many of the first houses in the township were so built for the purpose.

INDUSTRIES AND TRADE.

"Here, within thy seaward valley,
Mirth and labor shall hold their truce;
Dance of water and mill of grinding,
Both are beauty and both are use."

Agriculture is the predominant employment of the people of Osceola. They possess rich alluvial flats for tillage, and well watered grassy hillsides and uplands for pasture ranges. The arts of husbandry have undergone great changes during the years covered by this history. Formerly flax was raised upon every farm as much as the grain crops, but now not a single stalk is grown in the township. The various industries growing out of the manufacture of flax and wool in the household have been entirely abandoned, and the men no longer are adepts at the almost forgotten arts of "breaking," "swingling" and "betcheling," nor do the women ply their cards or busy themselves at wheel or loom. In the early years of this century every house was furnished with a big wheel and a little wheel for spinning, and every maid and matron were familiar with the mysteries of "dye-tub," " quill wheel," "warping bars" and loom. These have almost entirely disappeared. In recent years large breadths of our territory have been planted to tobacco, broom corn, hops and amber cane. While there have been seasons of scarcity and short crops, at no time has the earth refused to yield her increase on account of drouths and drenching rains.

Saw-Mills.--In 1810 Ebenezer Taylor built the first saw-mill in the township, upon Holden Brook. It was located just above R. Hammond & Co.'s tannery. It was rigged with a flutter wheel and a single up-and-down saw, and was capable of cutting 1,000 feet of panel pine lumber in twelve hours. It was burned about 1815. "The song of its jarring saw, sent far up and down the wooded glen in olden times, long since has ceased to tell the story of its former usefulness and glory."

In 1825 Andrew Bozzard built a saw-mill upon Holden Brook, about a mile from its mouth. It had an upright saw, and was driven by a flutter wheel. Arthur F., son of Andrew, made many repairs and improvements upon this mill, and owned and managed it for about twenty years. It ceased running in 1852.

In 1837 Robert Tubbs built a saw-mill upon the Cowanesque, which is still in operation. This mill has been the center of most of the lumbering operations of the township. It has undergone many changes in its construction and proprietors. At first it was rigged with a single upright saw and flutter wheel. New and improved machinery has been substituted, and its capacity enlarged by putting in gangs of saws, and later a circular saw. It is now owned by Hoyt Tubbs and L. B. Cadugan.

In 1849 Messrs Culver & Slosson built a saw-mill near the mouth of the Island Stream. It was located on the south end of the lot now owned by Charles Tubbs. It had a center vent wheel, a gang of saws, and other improvements. It was surrounded by boarding houses for the men, one of which was always known as the "Corn-Cracker." This mill was driven by water brought in a race from the Cowanesque. It lay idle for about a year, and was burned down in 1860.

In 1864 George Sharp Bonham built a steam saw-mill on Holden Brook. It is 32 by 100 feet. It is driven by a thirty horse power engine and rigged with a circular saw. In 1866 a gang of saws was added and a lath-mill. For ten years after it was built about twenty men were employed in running it, and it cut about three million feet of pine lumber annually. It is still doing business, and cuts about one million feet of oak and hemlock per year.

Grist-Mills.--In 1814 Israel Bulkley built a grist-mill upon the Island Stream north of the residence of Charles Bulkley. The water was taken from the Cowanesque near the residence of Burton E. Lewis, and conducted in a race to the Island Stream. David Jay, James Beaty and Jacob Cummings were employed as millers. The mill had but one run of stones. It continued in operation ten or twelve years and then fell into disuse.

In 1850 Robert Tubbs built a grist-mill near his saw-mill, and used the same water power. It was fitted up with four runs of stones. In 1871 steam power was added, to be used in times of low water. This mill descended to H. and J. Tubbs, sons of Robert, and by them has been sold in whole or in part several times. It is now owned by Hoyt Tubbs and L. B. Cadugan.

Distilleries.--At the beginning of this century the use of intoxicating liquor was universal among all classes in society. The preacher in his pulpit and the teacher at his desk alike partook of the bewildering draught. It was indulged in by people of both sexes and all ages and conditions, from the cradle to the grave. Children put to sleep by sucking bread soaked in whiskey gave no trouble to mother or nurse, and the aged drowned their sorrows and their aches in the "flowing bowl." No "husking," "raising," "logging bee" or quilting, nor any public business or social meeting of the inhabitants, took place without the abundant product of the still. It was universally regarded as an article of prime necessity as a medicine and as a beverage. This general demand called for a supply, and in those days of poor roads resulted in the establishment of distilleries in every community.

The business of distilling also furnished a market not otherwise to be found when there was a surplus of grain. In an early day the distilleries in this valley were not able to supply the demand. In 1814 Joseph Colvin brought from Canajoharie, N. Y., three wagon loads of whiskey-six hogsheads of 100 gallons each--and readily sold it out at a dollar and a half per gallon.

In 1815 Israel Bulkley built a log distillery near his grist-mill upon the Island Stream. The prices of corn and rye were much higher at the time than they were after 1820. The usual price for corn was about one dollar per bushel in this valley previous to 1820, and whiskey was consequently high. The years 1816 and 1817 were years of short crops and great scarcity of provisions, and the business of distilling liquor suffered with other interests. Mr. Bulkley discontinued the business about 1818.

In 1816 Andrew Bozzard built a log distillery where a small tenant house is now situated, on the highway in front of the residence of Alvers Bosard. He used the water of the spring on the north side of the road, bringing it into the still-house in pump logs. He in some way overcame the stringency in the grain market sufficiently to keep this distillery in operation about six years. In fact, in those days liquor was considered about as much of a necessity as other articles of food.(3)

In 1818 George Parker established a distillery by a large spring on the north side of the road opposite the residence of Chester B. Hoyt. It was also built of logs. This still-house continued in operation until 1824. A great many "sprees" and drinking "bouts" took place at this distillery.

Nursery.--When Israel Bulkley came from Connecticut in 1800 he brought with him a saddle bag full of apple seeds. He planted these and raised young trees to sell. All the old orchards in the valley originated in this nursery.

Carding Mill.--In 1814 Israel Bulkley built a carding machine, and drove it with the water power used at his grist-mill. In connection with it he also had a fulling-mill for finishing cloths woven in the hand looms then to be found in every house. Henry B. Trowbridge then had charge of the carding and fulling-mills.

Hotels.--Nathaniel Seely opened his house on the bank of the river, near where Hiram Stevens resides, as a hotel in 1812. An inspection of his book of original entries reveals the nature of a landlord's business in those days. A few items are given below:

"Dec. 29 1815.-Samuel Tubbs Dr. to 4 gills gin, 4 shillings. Paul Gleason Dr. to 2 gills gin, 2 shillings.

"Dec. 30.-Robert Tubbs Dr. to Club Bill, 1/6."

"April 13 1816.-Andrew Bozzard Dr. to 1 sling, 1/6"

"May 25.-Ebenezer Taylor Dr. to 3 pints wh'y, 4/6."

"January 27th 1816.-Alpheus Cheney Dr. to 1/2 gill gin, 6d 8 qts. oats, 2s. Supper, 1s. To lodging, 6d. 2 horses to hay, 3s."

"July 15 1826.-Stennett Crandall Dr. to 6 qts. wh'y, 9/."

Mr. Seely entertained the public at his house until 1830. On his sign was inscribed the single word "Inn." No license was required.

In 1824 George Parker fitted up his house and opened it as a hotel. It was located near the site of the residence of Chester B. Hoyt. He main business of the house consisted in the sale of liquors. He was succeeded in the business in 1830 by Anson Buck. The place was closed as a hotel in 1835, when it was purchased by Abel Hoyt, and the swinging sign of this wayside inn was taken down.

In 1815 Allen Seely built the "Osceola House," on the site of the present hotel. This house has had a succession of landlords about as follows: 1815, Allen Seely, 1855, James Atherton; Joseph Weaver; 1859, Charles Frederick Culver; 1861, John S. Seely; 1862, Stewart Dailey; 1864, W. E. Cooper, Benjamin B. Barse; 1867, Charles Graham; 1868, James Martin; 1870, Hoyt Tubbs, O. Martin; 1873, Arthur F. Bosard; 1882, Hoyt Tubbs. This house was consumed by fire in 1870 and rebuilt in 1873. From 1873 to 1882 it was known as the "Bosard House," since which time it has resumed its ancient name. It has seldom had a license to sell liquor.

Wooden Ware.--In 1827 Josiah Holcomb opened a shop for the manufacture of wooden ware on the north side of the main road, west of John Tubbs's. He procured black ash knots from the swamp, and from them he fashioned his sugar bowls, salt dishes, and whiskey kegs by the use of a turning lathe. Some of these articles may yet be found in the houses of the old families.

Potash Works.--In 1839 Robert Tubbs established a potash manufactory. He put up his leaches on the bank near the residence of George Barker. He purchased large quantities of ashes from farmers, mixed them with lime, put them into the leaches and covered with water. He drew off the lye and evaporated it to dryness in huge iron kettles. This process makes potash. In 1841 he added a pearling oven to his works. The potash made as above is calcined in the oven, thereby driving off the sulphur and burning out the carbon in its composition. It is then broken up, mixed with water, and filtered through a wooden cistern having a perforated bottom covered with straw. When evaporated to dryness in large flat-bottomed iron pans it is known as pearlash. Mr. Tubbs hauled his potash and pearlash to Ithaca, N. Y., and Williamsport, Pa., whence they were shipped to New York city and Philadelphia for sale. He discontinued this business in 1843.

Brick Yards.--In 1827 Robert Tubbs began to manufacture brick for sale. He continued the business at intervals.

The first brick house erected in Tioga county was built at Osceola, by Robert Tubbs, in 1829. Stephen Potter, from Rhode Island, was the master-mason and had charge of its construction. It is still standing.

In 1848 Andrew K. Bosard made brick at his yard in the swamp. He continued the business about twenty-five years, making and selling to the public. He sold his yard and works to Henry Seely, who burned a few kilns and then allowed the concern to fall into disuse about 1880.

Lime Kiln..--In 1848 Philip Taylor burned a kiln of limestone upon Holden Brook, just above the site of R. Hammond & Co.'s tannery. The lime was poor in quality, and with this kiln the enterprise was abandoned.

Tar Kilns.--In 1838 Isaac Van Zile burned two kilns of tar by the roadside in front of the residence of O. S. Kimball. He hauled his knots and pitch-pine wood from Norway Ridge. He continued the business two or three years, making and selling to the public.

In 1839 Jacob Rowley burned a few kilns of tar upon a large rock on Brier Hill, on the farm now owned by Charles Tubbs.

Charcoal.--Charcoal was burned by Israel Bulkley on the flat near the river as early as 1810. As all the blacksmithing was done by its use until after 1830 the pits were generally put up and burned by the blacksmiths. It was usually managed in this way: The blacksmith would procure a few gallons of whiskey and make a "bee." Timber cost nothing. Every farmer was anxious to have a pit burned on his premises. Men owning oxen came to the "bee," hauled the wood into huge piles, and covered it with dirt. The blacksmith himself would then take charge of it and burn the pit. In this way Henry Mott, Bartholomew Thing, Godfrey Bowman, Bela Graves and Lowell Carr supplied their forges with coal. Several pits were burned near the Tubbs grist-mill.

Lumbering.--Since 1830 the energies of the people have in a large degree been devoted to cutting down, sawing and marketing the magnificent trees with which this township was covered. For the first twenty years of this era white and Norway pine and oak only were dealt in, but latterly hemlock, ash and hard wood timber are subjects of traffic. Robert Tubbs, and his sons Hoyt and John after him, were the principal lumbermen for many years. They have been succeeded by Slosson & Culver, Walker & Lathrop, George S. Bonham, Vine Crandall and others. In the height of the lumbering era (1840 to 1850) all the athletic young men in the county were employed in cutting, hewing, hauling and sawing the lumber. Then it was rafted down the river to market. The experiences of the lumber camps and rafting trips furnished themes of unending talk before the great war came to eclipse them with its tale of gore. In those ante-bellum days in every chimney corner could be heard stories about running "out of the creek," to "Tiog' P'int," "to Marietta," and "down to tide." The imagination of young boys was greatly inflamed by stories of hair-breadth escapes said to have taken place at Mahantongo bars, Gentie's Notch, Shamokin Dam or Conewago Falls. The river pilot was a great man as he ran off his tongue a list of eddies and riffles, with wayside remarks about Harrisburg Bridge, Highspire and the White House tavern. The losses of lumber by rafting were so great that gradually it fell into disuse as other means of transportation came to hand. The last rafts left Osceola in 1875. They belonged to Hoyt Tubbs and H. Seely.

Blacksmiths.--In 1810 Henry Mott built a shop near the present residence of Charles L. Hoyt, and began the business of blacksmithing. This was a trade of great importance in a new settlement. All the nails used in building in those days were forged. Shoeing oxen and making and mending tools furnished the smith's chief employment.

In 1815 Godfrey Bowman(4) built a small log shop near the residence of Mrs. Marilla Carr, and in it carried on the trade about three years.

In 1818 Bowman was succeeded by Bela Graves, who went on with the business in a shop located on the bank of the river near Hiram Stevens's residence. The making of cutting tools and trap springs was a specialty with Graves.

In 1822 a new shop was built of logs where Russel Crandall's store is located, and it was first occupied by Bartholomew Thing. He was succeeded by Lewis Lowell Carr, who occupied the shop and carried on the trade from 1824 to 1830.

In 1822 George Bulkley went to East Bloomfield, Ontario county, N. Y., and learned the trade of blacksmithing. He established his shop on the farm he long owned--now a part of Charles Bulkley's farm--and carried on the trade until 1855.

In 1828 William Barker built a shop, and he carried on the business until 1860, when he was succeeded by his son George. The shop has recently been demolished.

In 1850 Oliver Rice Gifford established himself at Osceola as a blacksmith, and he still carried on the trade.

The other members of the craft at the present time are Sylvester Tierney and L. R. Heath.

Merchants.--In 1836 Benson Tubbs purchased a stock of goods and opened the first general store in Osceola. The commercial crisis of 1837 and the hard times which followed made it impossible to do business except by giving long credit. This state of things was not favorable to mercantile pursuits, and in 1840 the business was discontinued. This store was located near George Barker's residence.

In 1841 Clark Kimball opened a store for the sale of dry goods and notions. He had previously kept a small stock of drugs in his harness shop, beginning in 1835. He was in the mercantile business continuously with a few short interruptions until 1880.

In 1841 Russel Crandall began his career as a merchant is Osceola. He is still actively and energetically engaged in the business. During these forty-one years he has had as partners Clark Kimball, Morgan Seely, David Coates and Francis M. Crandall. His son Albert Stennett Crandall is at present associated with him.

In 1848 Slosson & Culver began trade, and they continued in the business until 1854.

Truman Crandall and his sons, Philetus, Charles and Silas, were variously associated in trade under different firm names from 1857 to 1875. Augustus Smith at one time was a partner with them, as was also Vine Crandall. Truman M. Crandall, who began business in 1875, is the successor to these various firms.

In 1852 H. C. Bosworth began a trade in dry goods and drugs, which he continued during his life (till 1870).

In 1854 Samuel Ellison succeeded Messrs. Slosson & Culver, and continued the business about three years.

In 1856 V. C. Phelps began the mercantile business. He carried in on four or five years.

From 1848 to 1862 Hiram Mapes manufactured and sold tin ware. In 1862 he associated Almon P. Martin with him in business, and they added stoves to their stock. This firm soon dissolved, and Martin and George A. Kinney brought in a full assortment of hardware goods. In 1870 Kinney was succeeded by Edward Elmore Bosworth, who in turn sold out the whole business T. V. Moore in 1878. Henry Aldrich became a partner of Moore, and that firm in 1880 was succeeded by the present dealers, Seely & Duley.

Charles R. Taylor from 1871 to 1876 was engaged in trade for first few years as a partner of Morgan Seely.

Isaac G. Hoyt entered upon a mercantile career in 1876, and is still engaged in the business; as is also Augustus Cadugan, who opened his store in 1879. Charles H. Bosworth in 1873 began trade in drugs and groceries, and soon enlarged his stock by adding dry goods to the list. He is still in business.

In 1869 Norman Strait opened a general store. His daughter Ella has succeeded to the business and confines it to drugs.

Banking House.--In 1870 Morgan Seely opened a banking office in a small building on the corner of Main and Mechanic streets. In 1880 he removed his business to the large and commodious building with vault which he occupies at present, on the corner of Main and Tuscarora streets.

Oil Wells.--In 1865 a company composed mainly of land owners along the valley furnished the money and employed Joseph Barker to bore a well in search of oil. The well was sunk to a depth of about 800 feet near the Island Stream, upon lands of Charles Bulkley. No oil was found.

In 1879 a stock company was formed for the purpose of discovering oil in a certain tract of land which had been leased for that purpose. The officers of this company were: Hoyt Tubbs, president; Charles Tubbs, secretary; Morgan Seely, treasurer. Hoyt Tubbs contracted to bore a test well. He erected a derrick near Holden Brook, upon lands of Allen Seely, and 1879 and 1880 sunk the well to a depth of 1,300 feet. Charles Boise did the drilling. No oil was found and the well was abandoned.

Tanneries.--In 1852 Messrs. Tubbs and Crandall built a tannery on the bank of the Cowanesque River, opposite the mill pond. In 1857 Crandall disposed of his interest to Lyman P. Hoyt, who conducted the business until 1860. From this time until 1864 it lay idle. In September 1864 Robert Hammond leased the property, and carried on tanning operations until March 1866, when the building was destroyed by fire; it was never rebuilt.

In 1866 R. Hammond & Co. built an extensive tannery upon Holden Brook, one-fourth of a mile from its mouth. It employs about thirty-five men daily, and year by year is enlarging its capacity. At present it turns out 70,000 sides of sole leather annually.

Cheese Factory.--In 1872 William Bosard and James F. James built a cheese factory upon Holden Brook and furnished it with improved machinery. In 1875 it was purchased by Hoyt Tubbs and A. F. Rose, by whom the business was conducted two years. Since 1877 it has not been in operation.

Stone Quarry.--In 1873 George N. Bulkley opened a quarry of flagging stone upon the "North Hill." Atherton Brothers have leased and worked this quarry for the past three years.

Sash Factory.--In 1854 Enoch M. Steen and Eleazer Clark built a factory, and manufactured sash, blinds and doors until 1863, when they sold out to Hoyt Tubbs and V. C. Phelps. Subsequently this factory was owned in whole or in part by A. K. Bosard, Robert Hammond, I. M. Edgecomb, Timothy S. Coates, William T. Fitzgerald and Levi Skinner. William Wilkins and Henry W. Howland were superintendents. It shut down in 1872 and has not been in operation since.

Sugar-Mill.--In 1882 Charles L. Hoyt erected a mill for the purpose of manufacturing syrup and sugar from amber cane. It is now in successful operation, and is largely patronized by the public.

Stock-raising.--In 1877 Henry Tubbs purchased and brought into the township the imported Percheron-Norman stallion "Valiant." Since that time the breeding and raising of heavy draught horses has been made a specialty among the farmers.

SCHOOLS.

The first teacher in Osceola was Mary Ann Landon. She taught a school in 1812 in an old log house upon the Island Stream, near the residence of the late Abel Hoyt. Some of her scholars were Ira Bulkley, Hiram Bulkley, Horace Hill, Elisha Hill, Benjamin Hill, Edwin Hill, Ann Tubbs, Julia Gleason and Nelson Gleason, The arrangements and furniture of this house were of the most primitive character. Webster's spelling book and the New Testament comprised the list of text books. Little children on their way to school crossed Holden Brook upon a tree that had been felled across it, as there were no bridges. Until 1834 there was no school system in this State. Schools and school-houses previous to that time were entirely voluntary affairs. One old house after another was fitted up by the neighborhood and used for school purposes. An old log shop that was located in front of the residence of Vine Crandall was used as a school-house from 1814 to 1822. A few years later another disused log house, situated west of the residence of John Tubbs, was metamorphosed into a school-house; and still another, located where the Methodist church now stands. Another school was "kept" in the "front room" of the dwelling house of Robert Tubbs, and at another time in the house of William Barker. "The Bulkley school-house," erected in 1822, was the first house built for school purposes within the present limits of the township. It was used for twenty years.

The teachers who taught in the various log cabins enumerated above, and in dwelling houses about the neighborhood and at the Bulkley school-house, were as follows, as near as can be ascertained: 1812, Mary Ann Landon; 1813, John Hammond; 1814, Jonathan Bonney, 1815, Chester Giddings; 1816, Mahala Seelye; 1817, Caroline Gardner; 1818, 1819, Nathaniel Seely; 1820, Martin Stevens; 1821, William T. Gardner; 1822, Amsa Smith; 1823, Elihu Hill; 1824, John Smith; 1825, Polly Howland; 1826, Harriet Byers; 1827, Ira Simpson; 1827, 1828, Chester Giddings; 1828, Lewis B. Cole and John Cilley; 1829, George Dorrance; 1830-34, Joshua R. Goldsmith; 1836, Lyman C.Wheat; 1837, J. C.Whittaker; 1838, Maria Bacon; 1839, Sylvina Bacon; 1840, Ard Hoyt Bacon.

The school taught by Jonathan Bonney in 1814 was gathered in an old log cooper shop located near the residence of Mrs. William Barker. The only book used was Webster's speller. The seats were benches made of puncheons with legs in them. The fireplace had a stick chimney and no jambs. Some of the scholars were Henry Starrett, Jonathan Bullin, Matilda Hammond and Simon Snyder Chamberlain.

At the school taught in 1821 by William T. Gardner the following scholars attended: Daniel Riple, Matilda Hammond, Samuel Ryon, Sally Ryon, Lintsford Coates 2nd, Ebenezer Taylor and, Philip Taylor, S. S. Chamberlain.

An eminent physician who received the rudiments of his education in these schools writes as follows:

"It is astonishing what notions the old settlers had in regard to education. They would not have a schoolmaster that taught grammar. Ten dollars a month and 'board round' was the common price. Near the Bulkley school-house was a beech tree that was pruned on the shortening-in method. I have a vivid recollection of the fragrance of beech--especially when it was thrust in the fire to reduce its frangibility. It was not considered any disgrace to walk up and take a thrashing, but woe to the boy that whimpered--a worse punishment awaited him from his fellows. Joshua R. Goldsmith was retained a long time as teacher on account of his chief merit-military discipline. Now I think these were good schools for boys. It made them sharp, pugnacious and brave, and if they did not become good spellers it was because they were inherently stupid."

In 1836 a new school-house was built on the road leading toward Camp Brook, near the residence of Mrs. Elizabeth Crandall. It was burned in 1845. It was occupied by the following teachers: Andrew Keller Bosard, Robert H. Tubbs, Lovina Leonard, Elizabeth Tubbs, Mary Stull, Harriet Beebe, Edwin R. Hill, Sally Tubbs.

From 1845 to 1849 the schools at Osceola went shopping around again in old houses. Adelia Lee and Charlotte A. Inscho each taught a term in a house on the bank of Holden Brook, above the tannery. A shop located on the site of the residence of Seely D. Green was then used as a school-house. The teachers at this place were Andrew Keller Bosard, George Rex Barker, ----- Horton, Jane Elwood and Allen Seely.

In 1849 a new school-house was built by subscription upon the Holden Brook road, in which Edward Eldridge at present resides. November 5th 1859 the subscribers who built this house deeded it to the Osceola school district. It was used as a school-house until 1869, and occupied by the following teachers: 1849, Omar H. Wright; 1850, Ambrose Close; 1851, 1852, Hiram C. Johns; 1853, S. B. Dickinson; 1854, Ezra Williams; 1855, Henry N. Williams; 1856, Asa Spencer; 1857, Abby R. Colburn; 1858, Henry N. Williams; 1859, Asa Spencer; 1860, Charles Tubbs; 1861, Philip Taylor Van Zile; 1862, Permelia Gertrude Taylor; 1863, Inman John Bennet Wright; 1864, Asa Spencer; 1865, Eva M. Benedict; 1866, Esther Cloos; 1867, G. W. Newman; 1868, Gertrude Gleason; 1869, Maria Doan..

In 1870 C. C. Ward taught at the high school chapel.

In 1871 the school-house at present in use was built, at an expense of $2,000, upon a lot that cost $200. The principal teachers employed to teach in this building have been: 1871, 1872, Henry Lines Baldwin; 1873-75, Ada Hathaway; 1876, B. B. Slade; 1877, Ira Sayles, Charles Tubbs; 1878-80, H. F. Ludlow; 1881, 1882, P. W. Haring.

In 1845 a school-house was built by H. B. Cilley, in the Brier Hill district. Among the teachers here from 1845 to 1866 were the following: Orpha Gibson, Charlotte Taylor, Harriet Peasley, Esther Cloos, Sarah Jane Peters, Martha Tharp, Mary Weeks, Hannah E. Clark, Alba Robbins, Ann Casbeer, C. O. Toles, Lucy Rice and Henrietta P. Seely. This house was destroyed by fire and a new one built, in which the following persons have taught: Sarah S. Casson, Adell Gleason, Lottie L. Gleason, Eva Smith and Effie Rhinehart.

The following is a list of school directors since the organization of the township:

1857, James Tubbs for three years, Newel L. Reynolds; 1857, Nathan Hill for two years, Philip Vastbinder; 1857, Allen Seely for one year, Hiram Taylor; 1858, Horace B. Cilley, Lyman Pierce Hoyt; 1859, Philip Taylor, Norman Strait; 1860, James Tubbs, John Beecher; 1861, Philip Vastbinder, William Wilkins; 1862, George Tubbs, Hoyt Tubbs; 1863, James 'I'ubbs, Russel Crandall; 1864, John Beecher, Norman Strait; 1865, George Beecher, Russel Crandall; 1866, James Tubbs, Norman Strait; 1867, Mancier Gleason, John Beecher; 1868, Robert Hammond, George Beecher; 1869, James Tubbs, Russel Crandall; 1870, William T. Humphrey, George Beecher; 1871, Orville S. Kimball, John Tubbs; 1872, John W. Hammond, Russel Crandall; 1873, A. J. Heggie, Smith Cornell; 1874, George Tubbs, John W. Hammond; 1875, George Tubbs, John Tubbs; 1876, James Tubbs, Morgan Seely; 1877, Russel Crandall, Henry Seely; 1878, William T. Humphrey, John W. Hammond; 1879, James Tubbs, Morgan Seely; 1880, Augustus Cadugan, Allen Seely; 1881, Charles Bulkley, A. J. Heggie; 1882, George Tubbs, George Barker.

Extract from the school records: " June 7th 1873.-Resolved, That the teachers for the coming year be hired and board themselves, and not board around as has been the custom heretofore in this district."

The Osceola High School was designed to afford the facilities of procuring an academic education. In the fall of 1860 the leading citizens of Osceola subscribed money and finished the second and third stories of the H. and J. Tubbs block, to be used for the purposes of this school. The second floor was fitted up for chapel and recitation rooms, and the third with apartments for non-resident students. In December 1860 the school began operations, with about 100 students. The faculty was composed of Anderson Robert Wightman, A. B., principal; Samuel R. Tthayer, A. B., assistant principal; Jane A. Stanton Wightman, preceptress; Mary Abigail Stanton, assistant preceptress; Prof. Isaac Gunn Hoyt, instructor in music. In 1861 a large boarding house, containing 24 rooms, was built, and $200 worth of philosophical apparatus purchased, and J. D. Van Dusen took the place of Prof. Thayer in the faculty. The boarding house has been familiarly known as "The Castle on the Hill." In 1865 an entire change of faculty took place. Charles A. Stone, A. B., and his sister Miss Emma Stone took the place of Mr. and Mrs. Wightman.

Many young men and women from the surrounding country found here opportunities of pursuing higher branches of learning than were taught in the common schools. The curriculum embraced Greek, Latin, the modern languages, the higher mathematics and a full scientific course. Two literary socieries were organized and were valuable aids.

The "Osceola High School" formally closed in 1866, but was succeeded by a select school taught in 1867-8 by James Huntington Bosard, and in 1869-70 by Charles C. Ward.

The Osceola School of Musical Instruction was opened in 1872, by Prof. Isaac Gunn Hoyt, and continued in operation four years. Both vocal and instrumental music were taught to large classes. At the close of each year a concert was given. To those who completed the full course of instruction a diploma was issued. The following named persons were the graduates: 1873, W. C. Stone, Fanny Elliott; 1874, Minnie Bonney, Del Watterson; 1875, Eppa Straight, Minnie Hammond, Myra Bulkley; 1876, Sarah Elsie Phelps, Augusta Phelps, Clara Granger, Chattie McPhee.

The following statement exhibits the present condition of the schools of Osceola. Number of schools, 4; average number of months taught, 6; number of male teachers, 2; female, 2; average salary of male teachers per month, $33; of female teachers, $18.50; number of male pupils, 86; female, 107; tax levied for school purposes, 5½ mills; total tax, $857.35.

ECCLESIASTICAL.

The Methodist Episcopal Church was the pioneer church of Osceola. Captain Ebenezer Taylor was a local preacher of this denomination in the first years of the century, His colaborers in the wilderness were David Jay, Elihu Hill and many pious women. Meetings were held wherever people could be got together in the cabins of the new settlers, in barns, in the improvised school-houses and in the open air. The early Methodists were partial to this kind of worship, and gathered the scattered population from far and near into huge camp meetings, where they spent days and nights in preaching and prayer, intermingled with shout and song. Three were held in Osceola.

The first one convened on the river bank upon the farm of George Newton Bulkley, in September 1828. A lock-up was built under the pulpit, in which disorderly persons were impounded. About the camp at night a watch was set to see that peace and quiet were maintained. To summon the meeting a dinner horn was sounded, which echoed far and wide through the forests. The meeting was had in charge by Presiding Elder Parker Buell, who did most of the preaching. Rev. Joseph Pearsall, famed for his vocal powers, led in the singing. Rev. Samuel Conant, Peter Sliter and others were present and assisted in the services. Many conversions attested the extraordinary success of this effort.

In September 1829 another camp meeting was held, upon the farm now owned by Henry Tubbs. The camp was located by a large spring on the flat east of his barns. The meeting began on Wednesday and was continued until Monday of the next week. The guard and guardhouse beneath the sacred desk were instituted as a terror to evil-doers. Immense crowds were in attendance. Presiding Elder Abel was in command of the camp, ably assisted by Revs. Asa Orcutt, Amos Cary and John Copeland. They preached with such force and effect that the listening multitude were wrought into an ecstacy of religious excitement. Joseph Bennet and Miss Lamphear while "testifying" fell insensible or were struck down by what is mysteriously called "the power." When sympathetic bystanders would have applied restoratives the presiding elder sternly forbade them--it was a visitation of God. The crowds were very demonstrative, and the fervent "amen" or responsive shout attested their appreciation of every good point scored by the ministering clergymen.

The third camp meeting was held by a large spring on lands of Charles L. Hoyt, north of the Holden Brook road, which are yet covered with timber. It assembled in 1835, and was conducted by Rev, Nathan Fellows, assisted by Rev. Darius Williams and others. Although the attendance was large the interest manifested was not so intense as on the previous occasions. Some however were hopefully converted.

These meetings did not pass without infractions of good order. At the camp on the south side of the river a skunk was thrown into the prayer ground, and the meeting had to be adjourned for the night. On the North Hill a disorderly person felled a small tree upon the worshipers as they were bowed in prayer.

The early Methodists at Osceola were somewhat given to asceticism. At a quarterly meeting held at the school-house "in the Norways" about 1838 Rev. Theodore McElhany stood guard at the door while the presiding elder was conducting love feast within, and refused admission to all who wore the "gaudy attire" of artificial flowers or bows of ribbon upon their bonnets.

Just at what time Methodist ministers began to ride the "circuit " including Osceola is not certain. It was about 1820. The first regular appointments were once in four weeks, and the circuit was seventy miles around. The following is a list of the itinerant preachers--as nearly perfect as it has been possible to make it:

From 1820 to 1830-Revs. Asa Orcutt, Amos Cary, John Copeland, Caleb Kendall and I. J. B. McKinney; 1830-40--Revs. Bell, Dewey, Nathan Fellows, David Fellows, Theodore McElhany and Brooks; 1840-50, Revs. Francis Conable, Milo Scott, Samuel Nichols, John Abbott, J. L. S. Grandin and Turk; 1850-60-Revs. A. D. Edgar, Davison, Duncan, Samuel Nichols, R. L. Stilwell, S. P. Guernsey and Elisha Sweet; 1860-70-Revs. C. Dillenbeck. C. L. F. Howe, W. E. Pindar, Isaac Everett, O. B. Weaver and Isaac Everett; 1870-82-Revs. John H. Blades, George Chapman Jones, Henry C. Moyer, F. M. Smith and William De Witt Taylor.

The membership has fluctuated very much in numbers. In 1864 the class contained but four male and eleven female members; George S. Bonham was leader. At present there are 120 members. From 1851 to 1868 the society worshiped at the Presbyterian church.

In 1867 the society was organized anew, and a charter of incorporation applied for under the name of "The First Methodist Church of Osceola." A church edifice was erected at a cost of $3,000, and dedicated February 25th 1868. The trustees at this time were George S. Bonham, Robert Hammond, Henry Seely, J. Beecher and G. Beecher. In 1881 a parsonage was built, at a cost of $1,500. The Osceola circuit is in the Bath district of the Genesee conference.

The Presbyterian Church.-About 1830 Rev. Seth J. Porter began his labors as a Presbyterian minister at Osceola. He occasionally preached at the Bulkley school-house. Elihu Hill and some others who had formerly acted with the Methodists joined with him and formed a church in 1834. Their numbers were increased in 1835 by the arrival of Abel Hoyt and family. The society was incorporated December 26th 1844 by the name of "The Presbyterian Church and Congregation of Elkland." Elkland township at that time covering in whole or in part the territory of the present townships of Osceola and Nelson, and Elkland borough. The charter of this corporation was amended in November 1874, when the name was changed to "The First Presbyterian Church of Elkland and Osceola." This society held its preaching services in school-houses, and prayer meetings at private houses until 1851. In that year at a meeting of citizens A. H. Bacon, Russel Crandall, Enos Slosson, John Tubbs and Chester b. Hoyt were appointed a committee to build a church, and money was subscribed for that purpose. The committee entered into a contract with A. K. Bosard and Charles Toles "for the purpose of building a Presbyterian meetinghouse at Pindarville, on the east side of Tuscarora street." The consideration to be paid for the church, including land and bell, was $1,225. The church was built in 1851 and occupied, but was not dedicated until 1855. Rev. James Nichols, of Geneseo, N. Y., made the dedicatory address. The church has been at times repaired, remodeled and enlarged.

This society has employed the following ministers: 1830-42, Seth J. Porter, Fitch, Johnson; 1842, Lewis R. Lockwood; 1845, E. Bronson; 1848, D. Harrower, John Saylor; 1849, B. F. Pratt; 1851, H. E. Woodcock; 1852, Lewis R. Lockwood; 1855, David M. Smith; 1856, Joel Campbell; 1837, Joshua Lane, Thomas S. Dewing; 1858, Edward Kennedy; 1866, Elisha Bly Benedict; 1870, John Cairns; 1879, Solomon H. Moon. Of these Edward Kennedy and Solomon H. Moon have been installed as permanent pastors.

The office-bearers of the church have been as follows: Ruling elders--1834, Elihu Hill, William Barker; 1835, Abel Hoyt; 1846, A. H. Bacon; 1852, H. C. Bosworth, 1860, Philip Taylor; 1863, Benson Tubbs; 1869, Joel Parkhurst, 1871, Chester B. Hoyt, John Tubbs, A. J. Heggie; 1880, C. H. Bosworth, C. T. Barker. Of these Chester B. Hoyt and A. J. Heggie have resigned their office. Deacons--Henry C. Bosworth, Edwin R. Hill, elected in 1852; Hoyt Tubbs, Julius Scott, elected in 1871. Clerks of the session-1844, William Barker; 1853, Henry C. Bosworth; 1870, Edward Elmore Bosworth; 1879, Charles Henry Bosworth.

The following extracts are taken from the minutes of the proceedings of the session: March 6 1852, "Resolved, That as a church we will resume the custom of standing in time of prayer." January 8 1853, "Resolved, That in the opinion of this session the plan adopted in the Ref. Dutch Ch. Of having a consistory composed of elders and deacons--elders to superintend the spiritual and deacons the temporal affairs of the church--and all forming one ecclesiastical body, is scriptural and purely Presbyterian, and eminently adapted to the circumstances of this church."

Infant baptism is practiced in this church, and such baptisms are properly recorded.

The great revival season of 1859 added 60 new names to the membership of this church, and March 12th 1870 25 were added. The society owns a parsonage. There are at present 86 members.

Other Religious Efforts.--From 1856 to 1861 Rev. Newel L. Reynolds, a Baptist clergyman, preached weekly at the Presbyterian church. His meetings wre largely attended, but he formed no church organization.

In 1878 the Seventh-day Adventists erected a large tent on the green in front of the M. E. church, and held meetings in it for about two months. From the center pole they flung a streamer to the breeze inscribed with the legend, "What is truth?" As the result of these meetings a small church was gathered. Rev. Mr. Raymond was the chief preacher. They held their services for a time in the upper story of Clark Kimball's concrete store. The meetings were discontinued in about a year.

PROFESSIONAL PROFILE.

Physicians.-New settlements are often entirely destitute of medical aid, and in the rough work of clearing off forests they are often in sorest need of it. Then again stirring up the mold of a new country is productive of malarial diseases, which assume new forms according to the circumstances and receive new names. We thus hear of the "cold plague," which attacked the pioneer, at Osceola before the advent of physicians among them. It had the symptoms of an influenza, and its attacks were often fatal. The remedies used by the people were hemlock sweats, hemlock tea and whiskey--mainly the latter. Among those who died of the "cold plague" a Mr. Short and wife, Abel Cady and Baker Parce are mentioned.

Reuben Cook was the first settler upon the Cowanesque, and lived at one time or another in every one of the present townships. His wife was known far and wide as "Granny Cook," and for many years she was the sole accoucheuse in the valley. As late as 1825 her obstetrical practice surpassed that of any physician in this part of Pennsylvania. For attending a case of accouchment, no matter how distant the journey nor how long the detention, her price was invariably one pound of tea.

Adolphus Allen was the first physician who located at Osceola. He lived with Israel Bulkley, and practiced medicine in the surrounding country from about 1813 to 1816. He is reputed to have been an excellent physician. Aside from that nothing can be learned about him at this time.

Robert H. Tubbs is a son of Robert and Clara (Hoyt) Tubbs. He was born at Osceola, March 25th 1819. He was educated at such schools as were accessible at home in his youth, and in 1837 and 1838 he attended the Wellsboro Academy, of which his father was a trustee. In the spring of 1841 he entered the office of Dr. D. C. Slye as a student of medicine. In 1843 he entered the Vermont Medical College, at Woodstock, from which he graduated in 1844. He has since successfully practiced his profession at Kingston, Luzerne county, Pa.

William W. Day was born at Triangle, Broome county, N. Y., in 1820. In 1843 he was graduated from the homeopathic medical college at Cleveland, O. He practiced his profession at Triangle until the spring of 1855, when he located at Osceola. In the autumn of 1857 he went to Eau Claire, Wis., and subsequently to Walla Walla, Wyoming Territory, where he is at present.

Henry Carter Bosworth was born at Vernon, Oneida county, N. Y., March 28th 1811. He was educated in the common schools and at an academy at Le Raysville, Bradford county, Pa. He entered the office of Dr. Barnes of Le Raysville as a student in medicine, and afterward pursued his studies at the Geneva Medical College, from which he graduated March 4th 1835. He began the practice of medicine at Le Raysville in 1837, and in 1838 removed to East Smithfield, Bradford county, where he entered very successfully into his professional labors. In 1850 he removed to Deerfield, Pa., and from thence in 1852 to Osceola, where he resided until his death, December 5th 1870. May 30th 1843 he was united in marriage to Maria Bosard; they had three sons--Edward Elmore, Urbane Andrew and Charles Henry.

Charles Henry Bosworth, a son of Dr. H. C. Bosworth, was born in Deerfield, November 22nd 1851. Besides the common schools he attended the Osceola high school and an academy at Woodhull, N. Y., where he obtained a regents' certificate which entitled him to admittance to any university in the State of New York. He then engaged in business for some years, but always had a taste for medical studies. In 1880 he entered a medical college, and was graduated March 1st 1882. He practices his profession at Osceola.

Adelbert John Heggie was born at Speedsville, Tompkins county, N. Y., December 19th 1838, He was educated in the common schools and at the Coudersport and Ulysses academies, Potter county, Pa. In 1860-61 he was engaged in teaching school. August 2nd 1862 he enlisted as a private in Company K 149th regiment Pa. volunteers, and served to the end of the war. During most of the time he held the position of hospital steward. In 1862-3 he attended a course of medical lectures at Georgetown, D. C., and in 1865-6 a course at Michigan University, Ann Arbor. In April 1866 he entered upon the practice of his profession at Osceola.

Wilmot Grow Humphrey is a son of William Thomas and Mary P. (Kelsey) Humphrey. He was born at Elkland, December 21st 1856, and removed with his parents to Osceola in 1857. He attended the common schools, and the State normal school at Mansfield, where he graduated in 1877. In 1878 he taught school at Osceola, and in 1879 entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore, Md., from which he graduated in March 1880. He is in practice at Osceola.

Civil Engineer.--Charles L. Hoyt was born at Kingston, Pa., February 3d 1835, and with his parents removed the same year to Osceola. He was educated at the Troupsburg and Geneseo academies. he entered Union College, at Schenectady, N. Y., and graduated in the civil engineering course in the class of 1856. He has practiced his profession at Chicago, Ill., at Wellsboro, and at Osceola, where he is located at present. In 1862 he enlisted in Company K 149th regiment Pa. volunteers, and served one year as second and first lieutenant. He is at present engaged in farming at Osceola, paying special attention to growing hops, tobacco and sorghum.

Lawyers.-James Huntington Bosard was born at Osceola, April 21st 1845. He was educated in the common schools, at Union Academy, the Osceola high school and the State normal school at Mansfield, from which he graduated with the class of 1866. He then engaged in teaching at Osceola, and in the fall of 1866 was elected principal of Addison Academy, at Addison, N. Y., where he remained two years. In 1868 he entered the law office of Hon. M. F. Elliott, at Wellsboro, and in August 1870 was admitted to the bar upon motion of Hon. B. B. Strang, He soon after became associated in the practice of his profession with the Hon. M. F. Elliott, in company with whom he remained five years, He then opened an office on his own account, and continued in the practice of the law at Wellsboro until 1879, when he removed to Grand Forks, Dakota Territory, where he is at present. George B. Clifford is associated with him.

Ministers of the Gospel.-William De Witt Taylor was born September 24th 1831, in Yates county, N. Y. He was educated at Franklin Academy, Prattsburg, N. Y., and at Union College, where he graduated in the classical course in the class of 1859. He was principal of the State normal school in 1863-4. He entered the itinerant ministry of the M. E. church in 1865, and has been located at Osceola since 1879.

Solomon Horatio Moon was born December 5th 1839, at East Ashford, Cattaraugus county, N. Y. He was graduated in the classical course at Beloit College, Wisconsin, in July 1863, and at the Auburn Theological Seminary, in May 1866. He was pastor of the Presbyterian church at Susquehanna Depot, Pa., 1866-71; of the Presbyterian church at Gilbertsville, N. Y., 1872-8, and has been in charge of the Presbyterian church at Osceola since 1879. His published sermons are "Signs of the Times," delivered July 4th 1869, and "History of the First Presbyterian Church of Gilbertsville, N. Y.," delivered July 9th 1876. He was installed as permanent pastor of the Presbyterian church at Osceola in April 1880.

Professor of Music.-Isaac Gunn Hoyt was born at Kingston, Luzerne county, Pa., July 23d 1830, and has devoted his life to the cultivation of the musical art. He was educated by receiving special and private instructions in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., and Poughkeepsie, N. Y., from such maestros as Charles and Lewis Grübb, Matron and Grovener. In his work of preparation he also attended musical institutes and conventions conducted by Profs. Bradbury and Woodbury. He came to Osceola in 1853 and entered upon his life work as a musical instructor. He taught here one year; in 1854 at Ithaca, N. Y,; 1856-9, at Osccola and at Union Academy; 185961, at Greensboro Synodical Female College, Ga.; 1861-5, at Osceola high school; 1866-71, at the Mansfield State normal school, and in 1872 he opened the Osceola School of Musical Instruction, to which he devoted all his time and energy for four years. Since 1876 he has resided at Osceola and given private lessons.

1. He was administrator cum testamento annexo. By the terms of the will he was authorized to sell land.

2. As West Jersey (from whence the Taylor family came) was under the proprietary government of the Penns for many years, it was natural they should sympathize with the Pennsylvania party in the struggle to hold the lands in the Wyoming Valley. They were Pennamites. Ebenezer Taylor was one of the party on Locust Hill when they were attacked by the Connecticut people. A bullet passed through the lobe of his right ear. Helmes Van Gordon and another man were killed at his side. This took place in August 1784. He was indicted for dispossessing Yankees in May 1784. Permelia Taylor, his mother, made an affidavit at Wyoming in 1784 "concerning the attack on the garrison." --Penn. Archives.

"The few Pennsylvania improvers (among whom were the Taylors) had a sufficiently hard time of it. They were subjected to great hardships, and, if you please, outrages. I do not forget the unfortunate encounter in Plymouth in July, the lamentable affair at Locust Hill with Major Moore's command in August, nor the final attack upon the 'garrison,' in which Henderson and Reed were shot."--Brief of Title, by Gov. H. M. Hoyt, page 64.

3. In 1783 the Pennsylvania troops stationed at Wyoming were supplied with "2½ Gill of Liquor" to one pound of bread.--Pennsylvania Archives.

4. Godfrey Bowman was born in Connecticut, in 1792. In 1802 he emigrated to Kingston, Pa., and in March 1813 enlisted in the Kingston volunteers under Captain Thomas. He was assigned to duty in the shipyard at Erie, and worked upon the ships for Perry's fleet. He was ordered aboard the "Somers" in August 1813, commanded by Captain Amy, and took part in the celebrated naval battle on Lake Erie September 10th 1813, known in history as "Perry's victory." He was wounded in the battle, but after his wound was dressed returned to his post. In testimony of his bravery on this occasion the State of Pennsylvania presented him with a medal, which is now in the possession of his son, the Hon. Charles O. Bowman, of Corry, Erie county, Pa.

5. There is some disagreement among the authorities as to the occasion upon which this fight took place. Ebenezer Taylor, who as a boy was present and saw the fight, is still alive and gives it as his recollection that the occasion was a training. Charles Bulkley relates the same as the tradition in the Bulkley family. David Coates of Elmira, N. Y., says it is the tradition in his family that the encounter took place at the time the Bulkley grist-mill was raised.

6. Austinburg.-The road from Austinburg, Pennsylvania, to South Troupsburg, N. Y. is 3,162 feet west of mile stone 109.-Report for the year 1880 of the Pennsylvania Board of Commissioners on the Northern Boundary, p. 77.

7. The writer has in his possession three letters thus directed to Paul Gleason; after 1814 other letters, that were directed "Elkland, to be left at the post-office village of Wellsborough," etc. Paul Gleason at that time lived near the mouth of the Island Stream and in Delmar township.

8. Reuben Cook drew a pension from the State of Pennsylvania by virtue of the following law, approved by Joseph Heister, governor, June 16th 1823:

"SEC. 3.-Be it enacted, etc., That the State treasurer be and he is hereby authorized and required to pay to Reuben Cook of Tioga county,a Revolutionary soldier, on order, Forty Dollars immediately, and an annuity of Forty Dollars during life; to be paid half yearly; to commence on the first day of January 1823."

Reuben Cook was without doubt the first white settler in the Cowanesque Valley west of Lawrenceville. In May 1792 or 1793 he moved into Nelson township, locating on a little flat north of the present residence of Harris Ryon. He lived in a bark cabin all summer, and planted an Indian girdling to corn and turnips. In the fall of that year he built a log house, and lived in it three years. An Indian erected his wigwam near by, and they hunted and fished in company in the greatest friendship. The river was full of trout, and it was no trouble to kill a deer. He never lived long in a place. At different times he owned valuable farms in Deerfield, Westfield, Osceola, and Elkland borough. In 1814 he went to Marietta, Ohio, but returned to this valley in 1820, living at Osceola until he died. He possessed the true pioneer spirit-was always willing to sell out and move west. He was the father of Polly, wife of Ebenezer Taylor.

(Go to Part Two)

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