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History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania

History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania, (W. W. Munsell & Co., New York : 1883) 
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OSCEOLA TOWNSHIP. (Part Two)  (Go to Part One)

By Charles Tubbs.

CELEBRATIONS AND PUBLIC MEETINGS.

"Sound the fife and beat the drum,
Independence day has come!
Bring the banjo and the fiddle,
To-day we dance ter diddle diddle.
Jotham, git the great big bottle;
Your teeth can pull the corn-cob stopple."
The spirit of the old rhyme was the one in which our grandfathers hailed the advent of each anniversary of our birthday as a nation. There was much hilarity, and not much sobriety. As Osceola did not assume the proportions of a village until away down into the fifties, our fathers and grandfathers ate, drank, and were jolly at Knoxville, Lawrenceville, or some more distant point.

The first great outpouring of the people of Osceola which arose to the magnitude of a general movement was to attend the execution of Douglass at Bath, N. Y. It took place in 1825. He had murdered Samuel H. Ives the 23d of August 1824. As was the custom in those days the execution was public. It was treated as a holiday occasion. Men, women and children in great multitudes stood about the scaffold in a drenching rain to see the wretched creature swung off. Several persons from Osceola who were present are yet living.

During the Fremont-Buchanan campaign--August l3th 1856--a mass meeting was held at Osceola by the Republicans. It was attended by about 10,000 people, It was the largest meeting that up to that time had ever assembled in Tioga county. Speaking was conducted from two platforms. David Wilmot, L. P. Williston, Newel L. Reynolds, J. C. Smith and others made speeches, and there was plenty of music by brass bands. Enos Slossen was president of the day. The meeting was held in the "sugar works" on the north bank of the river.

While this meeting was in progress upon the river bank, in the village a "ring" was formed in which John Hoaglin and Jesse Doan fought each other in the presence of many hundred people. This was the last of the great "fights," where two men were allowed to batter each other to their hearts' content in this valley without interference from the bystanders.

The Fourth of July 1857 was celebrated at Osceola. The crowd was assembled upon "Tubbs Island," west of the grist-mill, not far from the present residence of James Costley. Newel L. Reynolds delivered the oration, and Lyman Hurlbut and A. M. Loop did some extemporaneous speaking. "The Declaration" was read, and a dinner served.

April 9th 1865 Gen. Lee surrendered his army to Gen. Grant at Appomattox Court-House, Va. The news reached Osceola at noon Tuesday April l0th. A celebration was improvised upon the instant. Men gave themselves up to the most extravagant expressions of the delight they felt at the good news. Guns were fired, bells rung, and the day and night made vocal with shouts of rejoicing.

There were two celebrations of the centennial anniversary of American independence at Osceola. February 22nd 1876 a centennial tea party was given at "Tubbs Hall," where an exhibit was made of all the antiquated furniture, table ware and other articles that were possessed in the community. "Uncle" Reuben Cook, past 90 years of age, and toothless, sang a stave of "Perry's Victory" for the intellectual part of the celebration.

On the Fourth of July 1876 a public meeting was held at the Presbyterian church in the evening, to celebrate the "return of the day." William T. Humphrey presided, and speeches were made by John Cairns, Henry C. Moyer, Robert Casbeer, Gabriel T. Harrower and Charles Tubbs.

The completion of the Keystone Telegraph from Addison, N. Y., to Osceola was celebrated by a public dinner. It was given by G. W. Remsen and Hoyt Tubbs, Wednesday January 16th 1878, at the Bosard House. After the feast Charles Tubbs was called to the chair by the host, and speeches were made by G. W. Merrick, G. H. Hollis, W. T. Humphrey, Robert Casbeer, and others. Miss Ella Strait recited a poem that had been written for the occasion by H.C. Moyer.

MILITIA.

A law was passed by the Legislature of the State of Pennsylvania April gth 1807 directing the organization of the militia, No organization was effected under this law in the Cowanesque Valley until about 1812, and then it took a wide area to furnish men enough to form a company. The battalion trainings were usually held at Knoxville or Willardsburg. For many years company trainings only were held in the territory that now is Osceola.

OSCEOLA IN THE WAR OF 1812.

Company training was held the first Monday and battalion training the second Monday in May of each year.

An incident illustrative of the times occurred at a company training(5) held at Israel Bulkley's in 1814. Frederick Coates and John Falkner met here. An old grudge existed between them. In a previous fight Coates had bitten off Falkner's nose. A ring was formed and the two men stepped in to fight it out. Each man had his partisans, and all had been drinking freely. Amasa Culver had a stone in his hand, which he intended to give Coates. While he was attempting to do so Falkner wrenched it from his grasp and struck Coates with it upon his head. At this the ring was broken. Robert Tubbs struck James Falkner, and William Falkner knocked John Ryon down, and the fight became general. Crazed with whiskey and excitement there was not much discrimination between friend and foe. After the cessation of hostilities it was found that Coates was seriously hurt by the blow upon the head. He went home, was taken sick, lingered for some months and died. A post mortem examination revealed the fact that his skull was fractured. Falkner left the country before Coates's death.

Positions of command in the militia were much sought after. Two citizens of Osceola attained the rank of colonel. Robert Tubbs's term as colonel expired about 1821. It is impossible to determine the exact date Philip Taylor was in commission as colonel of the 129th regiment 2nd brigade 9th division Pennsylvania militia from 1828 to 1835. He had served for many years as captain of the Elkland township company.

May 15th 1830 a battalion training was held on the south side of the river, upon the low flat now owned by Henry Tubbs. The field officers on that occasion were: Philip Taylor, colonel; Hiram Freeborn, lieutenant colonel; and Marinus W. Stull, major. The battalion was reviewed by Inspector Horton, who was present from Bradford county. George T. Frazer was captain of the Deerfield company, and Israel P. Kinney of the Middlebury company. Timothy S. Coates was captain of the Elkland company. Truman Crandall blew the fife, and was drum major of the battalion the next year. The day was very cold and snowy. The men came on foot and horseback. They forded the river or crossed it upon a foot bridge. Nathaniel Seely furnished dinner to such as desired it, and other refreshments. The amusements the men indulged in after drill were running races, jumping, and shooting at a mark. This was the only battalion training ever held in Osceola.

All able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45 years were required to train. We have found but one list of them, and that of comparatively recent date. It is as follows:

"Roll of the Sixth Company, Second Battalion, Third Regiment, Ninth Division, Pa. Militia, Commanded by James Tubbs, June 2, 1848."

Thomas Allen, P. M., Joseph Barker, William Barker jr., Cornelius Beagle, James Beagle, Stephen Beebe, henry Bennet jr., Anson Blackman, Abner blanchard, Malachi D. Bosard, Peter Bosard, Jacob W. Brooks, William Brooks, Samuel A. Buck, Sylvester Bullock, Isaac Bullock, James B. Cady, Miner F. Cady, Robert campbell, William Campbell, Edward Cary, Timothy Coates, David Coates, John Coates, Alfred W. Congdon, Benjamin Congdon, Russel Crandall, John Culp, Charles Frederick Culver, Amasa Culver, Perry Daily, Vincent A. Daily, John Davenport, L. S. Dolson, Daniel K. Finch, Albert Fowler, Henry Gage, Franklin Gage, William Guernsey, John M. Hamond, John A. Hammond, Lewis Hammond, Philip Harwill, Edgar Harns, Justus Hathaway, Samuel Hazlett, John Hazlett jr., E. W. Helms, William Heyshane, Nathan Hill, Horatio Howe, Jesse Howe, David Hoyt, Lintsford Jay, Samuel T. Jenkins, David P. Knapp, David McCann, Ebenezer Mead, William Merritt, Elisha Montgomery, P. Norcross, Charles Ouderkirk, Abram Palmer, John Parkhurst, Joel Parkhurst, Beebe Parkhurst, William Peaslee, William Peck, John Ransom, Henry Rathbun, John Rathbun, John Robbins, Milo W. Rose, James Rowley, George L. Ryon, Beager Saxbury, Stephen Scallin, Henry Seely, Allen Seely, D. B. Shoff, Orlando Stutes, Stephen Shutes, George Simons, Henry Smith, Eleazer Smith, Sylvester Smith, Stephen Stacy, Samuel Staples, Hiram Stephens, David Teachman, Harvey Tinney, Hoyt Tubbs, James R. Tubbs, John Tubbs, George Tubbs, E. A. Tuckey, John F. Turner, Stephen Van Zile, Charles Van Zile, Solomon Van Zile, Isaac Van Zile, Samuel R. Westgate, Joseph M. White, P. M., William Whiting, Chauncy Wright.

After the British burned Buffalo in 1814 it was believed by our military authorities that they intended to march southward and invade the country. A call was accordingly made for men to meet the invaders. In response to this call a company of men gathered in February from the tioga and Cowanesque valleys at Lawrenceville, and elected Harry Baldwin as their captain. They proceeded in sleighs to Dansville, N. Y., and were put in a camp of instruction. As the British had promptly retired after committing their depredations the alarm subsided, and the men were sent home. Those who went from Osceola in Harry Baldwin's company were Samuel Tubbs, David Taylor, Reuben Cook and Andrew Bosard. For this service all of the above were given land warrants by the United States government, and in 1879 Reuben Cook was awarded a pension of $8 per month.

Osceola was represented in the Mexican war by George H. Gee. He joined General Taylor's army, and was at the battle of Buena Vista and other engagements.

WAR OF THE REBELLION.

When the news came of the fall of Fort Sumter the Osceola high school was in progress. A pole was erected upon the cupola of the school building, and a meeting of citizens and students came together as by a common impulse. When the stars and stripes were run up they were greeted with great cheering, and an eloquent and stirring address was made by Prof. Samuel R. Thayer.

The action of this meeting was not confined to oratory and cheers. Before it had disbanded sixteen had signed an enlistment paper and volunteered their services. Among them were Dr. William T. Humphrey, Samuel Stevens, David Bruce, Edward Bruce, William E. Self, John Finch, Henry odell, William Parsons, H. O. Cole, Hugh J. Magee and others whose names appear in the appended list. It was the expectation of these men to be at once mustered into the service of the United States under the call for 75,000 men for three months. On arriving at Harrisburg it was found that this requisition was already filled, and a long and vexatious delay followed. The men arrived in Harrisburg April 23d, and it was not until June 11th that they were mustered into the service of the United States.

Below is a list of those who served in the federal army as soldiers, and, so far as is known, their record. It is indeed a "roll of honor," and shows the loyalty and devotion of our people to the union of the States and to the cause of republican liberty. Where not otherwise mentioned the men named were private soldiers and enlisted for three years. The date of muster in follows the name:

William T. Humphrey, surgeon, May 21, '61, 42nd Pa.; promoted from assistant surgeon to surgeon Sept. 5 '62.

Charles Ryon Taylor, captain, Oct. 8 '61, Co. L and Pa. cav.; promoted from first lieutenant Nov. 1 '62; was wounded at Ream's Station while in command of his regiment; at Gettysburg he was put in command of the field after the battle, and buried the dead; mustered out at expiration of term.

Daniel Bacon, second lieutenant, oct. 19 '61, Co. I. 2nd Pa. cav.; promoted from hospital steward to second lieutenant Nov. 1 '62; mustered out Oct. 11 '64, at expiration of term.

Orville Breese, musician, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 29 '63.

Charles Wesley Barnhart, Feb. 26 '64, and Pa. cav.; honorably dishcarged.

Uriah Brimmer, June 11 '61, Col. A 42nd Pa.; discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 9 '61; re-enlisted Feb. 9, '62 Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; killed in action at Todd's Tavern, Va., May 8 '64.

Edwin T. Bruce, Aug. 21 '61, co. A 42nd Pa.; killed at Spottsylvania Court-House May 12 '64.

Jacob Bullin, Feb. 26 '64. Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; discharged by general order June 16 '65.

Andrew K. Bullin, Sept. 5 '64, Co. H 207th Pa.; wounded at Petersburg, Va., Apr. 2 '64; discharged by general order June 20 '65.

Alonzo G. Bullin, Sept. 5 '64, Co. H 207th Pa.; honorably discharged.

Jackson Butler, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to veteran reserve corps in '64 and honorably discharged.

Jerome Bates, Dec. 17 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; captured Nov. '62, paroled and exchanged; wounded at St. Mary's Church, Va., June 24 ' 64; discharged at expiration of term.

Hiram Cameron, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company, May 29 '63.

Horato Chisom, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 29 '63.

Horace Quincy Cilley, Feb. 27 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to 1st pro. cav. June 17 '65, and honorably discharged.

William Eugene Cilley, '62, Co. E 86th N. Y.; killed in the Wilderness.

H. O. Cole, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; captured No. 29 '63; died at Andersonville.

James Conner, Feb. 26 '64. Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; honorably discharged.

Egbert Cook, Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to Co. L 1st pro. cav. June 17 '65, and honorably discharged.

John Finch, Dec. 17 '~~, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to Co. L 1st pro. cav. June 17 '65, and honorably discharged.

Aaron Finch, Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to Co. L 1st pro. cav. June 17 '65, and honorably discharged.

Alexander Finch, substitute for George Barker.

Arthur Flanders, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 29, '63.

George H. Gee, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; killed at Charles City Cross Roads June 30 '62.

Almon Gifford, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; died in camp at Harrisburg Feb. '62.

Curtis Gleason, Aug. 16 '62, Co. A 149th Pa.; killed at Gettysburg July 1 '63.

Andrew Godfrey, sergeant, June 11 '61, Co. A 149th Pa.; transferred to 190th regiment May 31 '64; captured in spring of '65, and died at Salisbury, N. C.

John Hawe, sergeant, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 18 '62; re-enlisted July 1 '62, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; captured Nov '62, paroled and exchanged; discharged by general order May 31 '65.

George Hessham, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; captured Nov. '62, paroled and exchanged; discharged on surgeon's certificate for injury.

Thomas Jenkins, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13 '62; prisoner from Dec. 13 '62 to May 18 '63; mustered out with company May 29 '63; re-enlisted Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; honorably discharged at close of war.

Thomas Johnson, corporal, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; through all campaigns; discharged at close of war.

Leonard Leverne Kimball, July '61, Co. E 34th N. Y., 2 years; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. '62.

Orville Samuel Kimball, orderly sergeant, Feb. '62, Co. I 103d N. Y.; re-enlisted, and honorably discharged Dec. '65.

Harlan Page Kimball, Feb. '62, Co. I 103d N. Y.; discharged on surgeon's certificate July '63.

Lewis C. Lewis, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; killed at Bull Run Aug. 29 '62.

Robert Long, Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; died in hospital Apr. 9 '64.

Hugh J. Magee, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; transferred to 190th regiment P. V. May 31 '64; wounded June 24 '64; mustered out with company June 28 '65.

Simeon McCarlin, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 29 '63.

Eli Mead, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.

George W. Mead, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.

George W. Newman, Dec. 17 '63, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to Co. L 1st pro. cav. June 16 '65; honorably discharged.

John Newman, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; honorably discharged.

George W. Newman jr., Feb. '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; honorably discharged.

Johial Norton, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 13 '63.

Thomas O'Connor, Feb. 27 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to Co. L 1st pro. cav. June 17 '65; honorably discharged.

Richard Odell, Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; honorably discharged at close of war.

Henry Odell, Aug. 21 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; wounded in action while temporarily serving with Co. L 2nd Pa. cav. At St. Mary's Ch., Va., and died at Philadelphia Oct. 31, '64.

William E. Pierson, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to 1st pro. cav. June 17 '65; through all campaigns, honorably discharged.

A. B. Porter, hospital steward, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; through all campaigns; honorably discharged.

George Reeves, Oct. 19 '61, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; lost his voice; discharged Oct. '62.

Luke Winfield Scott, Dec. 17 '63, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; through all campaigns; honorably discharged.

William Edward Self, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; through all campaigns; transferred to 190th regiment May 31 '64; mustered out June 28 '65.

Asa Spencer, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 19 '63.

Samuel Stevens, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company may 29 '63.

Samuel Stevens, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; discharged on surgeon's certificate; came home and died.

James Riley Stone, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13 '62 and died of wounds.

Norman Strait, corporal, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 29 '63.

Theodore Stewart, Feb. 27 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to 1st pro. cav. and honorably discharged.

A. A. Van Orsdale, sergeant, June 11 '61, Co. A 42nd Pa.; discharged on surgeon's certificate May 1 '62.

Thomas Van Sire, Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; honorably discharged.

Solomon Van Zile, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company May 29 '63; re-enlisted Feb. 26 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; transferred to 1st pro. cav. and mustered out with company.

Frank Vastbinder, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; mustered out with company may 29 '63.

William R. Wells, Mar. 7 '64, Co. L 2nd Pa. cav.; discharged by general order June 23 '65.

John C. Whittaker jr., Mar. '65, substitute for John W. Teachman; honorably discharged.

Clark V. Worden, Aug. 16 '62, Co. B 136th Pa., 9 months; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 13 '63.

When Pennsylvania was invaded by General Lee in 1863, at the time of the battle of Gettysburg, a company of militia went from the Cowanesque Valley to the defense of the State. In this company from Osceola there were Enos Slosson Culver, Thomas Jenkins, Andrew K. Bullin, Jacob Bullin, Horace Quincy Cilley, Francis Marion Crandall, Leonard Leverne Kimball, Enoch M. Steere, and Charles H. Stubbs. These men were mustered out in Harrisburg July 2nd 1863 and discharged August 7th 1863.

The following men were drafted from Osceola February 25th 1865: Geo. Barker (furnished substitute), H. B. Cameron, Oliver chase, Eleazer Clark, Rev. C. Dillenbeck, Mancier Gleason, M. Ham, Geo. A. Kinney, L. L. Kimball, John O'Conner, Hiram Taylor, J. W. Teachman (furnished substitute), Isaac Packson Van Zile, J. Wagner. These men were ordered to report at Williamsport in March 1865, but a great flood in the rivers prevented their getting there on the day designated in the order. Another day was named, but before it arrived Lee had surrendered to Grant and the war was virtually at an end.

The regiment designated in the above list as the 42nd regiment Pa. volunteers was also known as the First Rifles, the Kane Rifle regiment, 13th regiment Pa. Reserve Corps, and as the Bucktail regiment. It was probably best known by the latter designation. The 2nd Pa. cavalry was also the 59th regiment in the line.

In June 1863 Nelson G. Ray enrolled all persons liable to a draft in Osceola. He was the officer having charge of the business for this sub-district. He made a list of all men not manifestly cripples who would be between the ages of 20 and 45 on the first day of July 1863. Osceola had been liberal in volunteering at the outbreak of the war. She received some credit for this, and her quota was declared full for all the calls for men until 1864. For the call which had to be filled by March 1st 1864 her quota was 14, and two these a town bounty of $100 each was paid. Three hundred dollars were raised by subscription and the balance was raised by tax, of which the following minute is found in the township records:

"Supervisors met April 25th 1864 at Crandall & Seely's store, and voted to levy ten hundred and sixty dollars to pay local township bounty for fourteen volunteers for the late calls from the president."

"Men and boys are plenty to go for the pay" was a statement of the situation made by a citizen of the township under date of March 1st 1864.

The quota required of the township in September 1864 was filled by paying liberal bounties. The county of Tioga paid a bounty of $300. The Legislature was in session, and it passed an act August 25th 1864, the material section of which was as follows:

"SEC. 1.-Be it enacted that it shall be lawful for the supervisors of the several townships in the county of Tioga to offer and pay bounties to volunteers to fill the quota of said townships under the calls of the president of the United States not exceeding three hundred dollars each; and they are hereby authorized to borrow money and issue bonds therefor."

Liberal use was made of the provisions of this law, which applied especially to this county. These provisions when applied to the utmost did not readily entice men to volunteer in the spring of 1865, and as has been heretofore seen a draft was made before the quota was full. But happily the war closed and the men did not have to go. When it closed strenuous exertions were being made to obtain volunteers, with prospects of success. From first to last no drafted men served in the ranks from Osceola. Andrew K. Bosard and John Tubbs were agents for the township at Harrisburg, Williamsport and Carlisle. They attended to mustering in the men and seeing that they were properly accredited.

All these things were done "that the government of the people, by the people, and for the people should not perish from the earth."

PUBLIC OFFICIALS.

The new township of Osceola, having been erected out of one of the pieces of Elkland, had some difficulty in getting itself into running order. There was no statute or order of court directing the manner in which officers should be elected in the new town. Elkland had been destroyed; there was no enabling act to build up anything in its stead. In this dilemma the voters assembled January 30th 1852 at the hotel of James Atherton, informally chose a board of election from those present, elected township officers, and petitioned the court of common pleas to confirm and validify the proceeding. The court dismissed the petition, on the ground that it had no jurisdiction in the matter. The Legislature was next appealed to. It furnished the desired relief by passing the following law, April 14th 1852:

"SEC. 1.-Be it enacted, etc., That the last township election held in the township of Osceola, in the county of Tioga, be and it is hereby declared a good and valid election, and all the official acts of the officers then elected are and they are hereby declared legal and valid."

The following lists show the names of the men into whose hands the interests of the township have been committed:

Supervisors.-1857, George Beecher, Lyman Pierce Hoyt; 1858, Mancier Gleason, William Barker; 1859, Morgan Seely, Clark Kimball; 1860, John Tubbs, Clark Kimball; 1861, George Beecher, Clark Kimball; 1862, George Beecher, John Tubbs; 1863, William Barker, George Tubbs; 1864, Alvin Bosard, George Tubbs; 1865, Julius Scott, George Beecher; 1866, 1867, George Tubbs, Oliver Rice Gifford; 1868, Robert Hammond, James Atherton; 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, Robert Hammond, Morgan Seely; 1873, James Tubbs, Morgan Seely; 1874-78, James Tubbs, Robert Hammond; 1879, Allen Seely, Myron Lee Bonham; 1880, 1881, Myron Lee Bonham, James Egbert Taylor; 1882, John Tubbs, James Egbert Taylor.

Town Clerks.--1857, Enos Slosson; 1858, 1859, Volent C. Phelps; 1860, 1861, David Coates; 1862, M. H. Abbey; 1863, Joseph Barker; 1864-66, A. K. Bosard; 1867, Chester D. Kinney; 1868-72, Adelbert J. Heggie; 1873-81, Charles Tubbs; 1882, Wilmot Grow Humphrey.

Auditors.-1857, Truman Crandall, V. C. Phelps, Samuel Ellison; 1858, Joseph Weaver; 1859, Russel Crandall; 1860, Benson Tubbs; 1861, Truman Crandall; 1862, Clark Kimball; 1863, E. M. Steere; 1864, Allen Seely; 1865, Morgan Seely; 1866, Clark Kimball; 1867, Russel Crandall; 1868, Henry Seely; 1869, A. K. Bosard; 1870, Smith Cornell; 1871, Isaac Packson Van Zile; 1872, A. K. Bosard; 1873, Gaylord Griswold Colvin: 1874, Edward Elmore Bosworth; 1875, Hoyt Tubbs; 1876, Gaylord Griswold Colvin; 1877, Henry Seely; 1878, Edward Elmore Bosworth; 1879, Gaylord Griswold Colvin; 1880, Charles Henry Bosworth; 1881, John Wells Hammond; 1882, G. G. Colvin.

Contables.-1857, Justus Hathaway; 1858, William Weeks; 1859, James M. Mapes; 1860, 1861, Joseph Culver; 1862, Augustus Smith; 1865-67, Shelden Ocorr; 1868, A. 0. Preston; 1869-71, John O'Conner; 1872-74, Edward Weaver; 1875, Charles Henry Bosworth; 1876-82, Charles Ryon Taylor.

Justices of the Peace.-1857, Isaac B. Taft; 1858, Lyman Pierce Hoyt; 1860, 1865, 1875, Andrew Keller Bosard; 1861, 1866, 1871, Norman Strait; 1870, Edward Elmore Bosworth; 1872, Charles L. Hoyt; 1876, 1882, Morgan Seely; 1877, Merville F. Hammond; 1878, John Wells Hammond; 1880, Orville Samuel Kimball.

A poor-house was erected for the county of Tioga under the act of March 12th 1866. Previous to that time the poor were a township charge, and the supervisors were ex officio overseers of the poor. A vigilant overseer would not permit an indigent person or family to gain a legal settlement in the township, thereby making the township liable for their support. We therefore find it a matter of record that previous to 1866 many persons were notified to move on. We extract the following:

June 6th 1858.--Notice called for by the supervisors to notify Seth J. Brewer and family to leave this township. S'd notice issued & meeting adjourned sine die.

(Signed) V. C. Phelps, Town Clerk.
December 10th 1858.--Notice called for by s'd supervisors to notify William Bryant to leave this town, as they fear he will become a town charge.
(Signed) V. C. Phelps, Town Clerk.
A post-office was established at Osceola February 16th 1852. The postmasters, with dates of commission, have been as follows: Enos Slosson, April 3d 1852; James M. Mapes, September 20th 1856; Joseph Barker, Match 28th 1859; Henry Carter Bosworth, August 7th 1861; Edward Elmore Bosworth, January 6th 1871; Charles Henry Bosworth, April 21st 1879.

The following named citizens of Osceola have been elected to serve as county officers: Robert Tubbs, county treasurer, 1820; sheriff, 1827, Elihu Hill, county treasurer, 1829. Charles Frederick Culver, county commissioner, 1856. Newel L. Reynolds, county superintendent of common schools, 1857, William Thomas Humphrey, representative, 1865, 1874. Andrew Keller Bosard, county auditor, 1875. Vine Crandall, county auditor, 1878. Charles Tubbs, representative, 1880, 1882.

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION.

The first road up the Cowanesque Valley followed the river closely and crossed it many times. The State took notice of it. To correct its erratic course the Legislature passed an act March 28th 1820 appointing Arnold Hunter and others commissioners "to lay out a road beginning where the road from Newtown in New York crosses the State line on Seely's Creek, in Bradford county; to deposit a draft of it; to receive a compensation and money for expense," etc. This commission performed its duty by locating the "river road" along the valley substantially where it runs to-day.

"The Old State road," which crosses the territory Of Osceola, was built in pursuance of the following statute:

"Whereas many respectable inhabitants of the county of Lycoming have presented their petition to the Legislature, stating that the present road from the town of Newberry, near the mouth of Lycoming Creek, to the Genesee country is extremely bad, so as to, be passed with great difficulty, and praying that a road might be opened by a new course, and it is reasonable that the prayer to their petition should be granted upon the terms hereinafter mentioned; therefore

"SEC. 1.--Be it enacted, &c., that the governor be and he is hereby authorized to receive proposals for laying out and opening a road, not less than twenty feet wide, from the town of Newburg in the county of Lycoming to Morris's mills; from thence by the best and most direct route to the northeast corner of Strawbridge's Marsh, or as near to that as may be; and from thence by the nearest and best route to the one hundred and ninth mile stone on the line dividing this State from the State of New York, or as near as may be; which road, when surveyed, laid out and opened as aforesaid is hereby declared to be a public highway.

"SEC. 2.-That the expense of said road shall in the first instance be paid by such of the citizens of Lycoming county as may think proper to subscribe for that purpose.

"SEC. 3.--That after the said road shall have been opened the governor shall appoint a suitable person to view the same and make report to him; and if it shall appear that a road or cartway is actually opened between the town of Newburg and the one hundred and ninth mile stone in the State line, the governor is hereby authorized to draw his warrant on the State treasurer for the sum of three thousand dollars to reimburse the persons who were the subscribers for opening the said road."

This act became a law April 8th 1799, and under its provisions the road was constructed. Calvin Chamberlain and Reuben Cook, residents of this valley at the time, helped chop the timber out upon its course, sleeping in the woods wherever night overtook them.

This road enters the township near the Block House upon the farm of Charles Tubbs, approaches the Windfall Brook, and follows its course to the river. It crossed the river near the mouth of Windfall Brook, upon lands of Henry Tubbs, and pursued its winding way across the flats to the residence of Chester B, Hoyt; thence to the North Hill in the rear of the residence of Charles Bulkley, and thus out of the township. From the town line it pursued its way to Knoxville, and thence up Troup's Creek to Austinburg, which is "as near as may be" to the "one hundred and ninth mile stone" (6)mentioned in the act and on the route to the " Genesee country." Thus the first two roads in Osceola, and the principal ones to this day, were built by the State. The general direction of one is east and west; of the other north and South. The old State road was built before Tioga county was set off from Lycoming, and its existence had much to do with the early development of this county and the location of the county seat. All the other roads of the township are tributary to these two.

"The Cowanisque Creek in the county of Tioga " was declared a public highway for the passage of boats, rafts and other vessels March 26th 1813, by an act of the Legislature.

The navigation of the Cowanesque has been the subject of considerable legislation, March 4th 1854 it was enacted that it should not be lawful for any person "to float upon its waters any loose logs, as great damage has been done to the owners of property located on said creek, as well as to arks, boats, timber and board rafts navigating the same." April 13th the same year this was repealed so far as to allow owners of logs to float them four miles to a saw-mill.

The Cowanesque River was forded at Osceola until 1849, teams from the south entering the water at the south end of the bridge and emerging therefrom where Hiram Stevens now resides, as the street from the north end of the bridge to Russel Crandall's store had not been opened at that time. Foot passengers crossed upon a foot bridge--of which there were several--or were ferried over in a "dugout " which Squire Seely for many years maintained near the ford. Sixpence was the usual price for "setting" a passenger across the river.

In 1849 the county built a bridge 200 feet long across the river, on the site of the present structure. Messrs, Culver & Slosson were the builders. This bridge fell down in 1865, and in 1866 the county built a new one 266 feet long to replace it. John Howland was the contractor and builder. Robert Casbeer has recently repaired it for the county.

Abel Hoyt built a bridge across the Cowanesque upon his farm. It was swept away in the flood of 1861, and has never been rebuilt.

In 1850 the Cowanesque Plank Road Company was incorporated, and graded several places upon the route of the main road from Lawrenceville to Osceola. This was done preparatory to laying down the plank. A crew of men employed by this company cut down the hills at George Barker's and near the Fair View cemetery. The men quit work at the latter place, and the project was abandoned because the company failed to pay the contractor.

"The Osceola Plank Road Company" was incorporated by act of the Legislature March 25th 1852. Enos Slosson, Morgan Seely, Benson Tubbs and others were authorized in the charter to build a plank road from Osceola to Potter's Hotel in Middlebury. This company did not build the road, and its charter expired according to its terms in three years from its date.

The Cowanesque Valley Railroad Company was incorporated in 1869 by act of the Legislature, with power "to construct a railroad from Lawrenceville, Pa., by way of the Cowanesque Valley, to a connection in the counties of Potter or McKean with the Buffalo and Washington Railroad." Under the authority of this act ten miles of the road were built and put in operation in 1873, terminating at Elkland. For operating purposes it was consolidated with the Corning, Cowanesque and Antrim Railway, of which it is a branch, In 1882 this road was extended to Osceola, an excursion train leaving that place with passengers September 2nd, and regular trains running on and after October 23d. It is in process of construction to Westfield. (November 1882).

"The Addison and Northern Pennsylvania Railroad Company" procured a charter of incorporation from the office of the secretary of the commonwealth under the provisions of the corporation act in July 1882, authorizing it to build a railroad from Addison, N. Y., to Gaines, Tioga county, Pa.

This road has been built from Addison to Westfield, and is in process of construction throughout its whole extent. It passes through Osceola to the north of, and on a line nearly parallel to, the route of the Corning, Cowanesque and Antrim Railway. Upon this road regular trains are not yet running.

In January 1868 the Keystone Telegraph Company erected its line of wires and established its offices from Addison, N. Y., to Osceola, and from thence to Westfield. G. W. Remsen and Hoyt Tubbs were the main promoters of this enterprise. In 1881 this company sold its line to the " Tioga County Telephone Company," which is now in operation, having two offices in Osceola.

The Postal Telegraph, a main line from New York to Chicago, is now in process of construction through this township. The poles are set ready for the reception of the wires.

Until about the year 1822 no mail route passed through Osceola. Previous to 1814 letters intended for residents of this valley were directed to "Delmar, to be left at the post-office village of Wellsborough, State of Pennsylvania."(7) About 1822 the first mail route through the valley was established, having Bath, N. Y., as its initial point. Colonel Whiting of that place was the contractor, and he employed Simon Snyder Chamberlain to carry the mail the first year. The route was from Bath to Cameron, N. Y., 11 miles; from Cameron to Mayberry's, and from thence to Addison, N. Y.; from Addison to the Log Tavern at the mouth of the Canisteo River; from the Log Tavern to Lawrenceville, 9 miles; from Lawrenceville to Elkland, 10 miles; from Elkland to Knoxville, 8 miles; from Knoxville up Troup's Creek to Jasper; from Jasper to Cameron, and from Cameron to Bath, the place of beginning. The service required was to pass over this route once a week, which was done upon horseback and took three days' time. The carrier forded all the rivers, as there were no bridges. He passed through Osceola every Tuesday. Besides carrying mail the post boy delivered in boxes erected upon the highway letters and papers for people living along the route, for a compensation. Upon approaching a post-office or one of these boxes where he left mail matter he was required to blow a horn. The postmasters upon this route were: James Brownell, at Cameron; Thomas Mayberry, at Mayberry's; Bassett Jones, at Addison; Hiram Beebe, at Lawrenceville; John Ryon, at Elkland; Aaron Alba, at Knoxville, and William T. Gardner, at Jasper.

From 1828 to 1833 Joel Crandall carried the mail twice a week from Lawrenceville to Whitesville, N. Y., the route having been changed and the service doubled in the interval. He also carried it upon horseback. In the last year of his service he occasionally drove a wagon.

In 1848 the advantages of a daily mail were first obtained by the establishment of a new route to Addison. Over this route Edward Wescott carried the mail from 1848 to 1874, and with him came in the era of the stage coach. During these years Wescott's weather-beaten face was a familiar sight along the valley. He had a peculir physiognomy and a cynical way of expressing himself. As his stage coach rumbled up to the post-office he answered the inquiries of the loungers in terms more brief and humorous than polite. He could be trusted, was honest and attentive to business. His son J. E. Wescott succeeded him, and carried the mail from 1874 to 1881.

FIRES, FLOODS AND TORNADOES.

The village of Osceola, though compactly built, of wood, has never been visited by a sweeping conflagration, destroying at one time any considerable portion of the village. There have however been a number of fires destroying single structures and entailing individual or corporate loss. Some of these have been as follows:

School-house in the Norways, February 1845; caught fire from stove. Dwelling, Andrew K. Bosard, July 4th 1854; struck- by lightning; unoccupied. Dwelling, Horace B. Cilley, March 7th 1857; caught fire from chimney. Saw-mill, Charles Frederick Culver, August 1860; of incendiary origin. Brier Hill school-house, May 1866; of incendiary origin. Tannery, H. & J. Tubbs owners, R. Hammond & Co. lessees, March 1866; believed to have been accidental. Dwelling house, A. 0. Preston, January 20th 1867; accidental in its origin. Tannery, R. Hammond & Co., August 1868; accidental. Hotel, Eugene 0. Martin, May 1870. Dwelling house, George W. Newman, March 1871. Barn, Henry Seely, September 1871; set on fire by an incendiary. Lumber in mill yard, George S. Bonham, September 23d 1871; incendiary. Barn, Morgan Seely, January 17th 1873; incendiary. M. E. church, February 1673; damaged, not destroyed; incendiary fire. Barns and sheds, Clark Kimball, October 10th 1876; incendiary. Cooper shop, George Beecher, July 17th 1878; incendiary. Dwelling house, Grant Gleason, January 10th 1878; accidental. Dwelling house, Ira French, January 10th 1882; accidental.

The fire in Bonham's mill yard destroyed about two and a half million feet of lumber in September 1872. In the month of December following R. Hammond & Co. purchased a second hand fire engine. The citizens Of Osceola raised $600 and purchased hose and formed a fire company of 54 members, of which R. Hammond was chief engineer, Charles L. Hoyt foreman, E. E. Bosworth secretary, and Charles Tubbs treasurer. The company realized for its funds $200 from a public supper, and from a dramatic entertainment entitled "The Serious Family." It attended two or three fires, and in 1873 the organization was allowed to die out for lack of interest in its object.

Two floods have visited the Cowanesque Valley that have been specially destructive of property-that of May 1833, and that of September 23d 1861. The "May flood" undermined and swept away a log house standing on the east bank of Holden Brook, which had been but recently occupied by L. L. Carr. As many bridges as there were across the Cowanesque were taken off, and much property was destroyed.

Of the destruction wrought by the great flood of September 23d 1861 we present two contemporaneous accounts:

"Osceola was damaged most from Holden Brook. It took Cameron's house and lot off, and undermined William Week's house. It took off Freeborn's tannery and Timothy Pringle's cooper shop and all his tools, and also the shop and tools of M. H. Abbey and John Beecher. H. and J. Tubbs have lost heavily. The docking and dams about their mills, their logs and sawed lumber, and three houses with all the furniture in them have been swept away. The families got into the grist-mill. The main part of the Cowanesque bridge is left standing, but both ends are washed away. The Windfall Brook washed Ed. Burch's garden and house off, and then burst its banks and ran down the road to the river. It dug holes four to six feet deep in the road, and in other places filled it full of stones and gravel. All the corn and buckwheat that were cut went off--such as was not cut was washed down and covered with sand. The farms are stripped of their fences. The losses in land, houses, lumber, cattle, sheep and hogs are shared by each in proportion to his property. It is a hard looking valley."

Chester B. Hoyt's house was taken off and transported bodily about half a mile from its original standing place. The voyage is thus described by one who was on the inside:

"The water began coming in at the door. We put books, hats, satchels, &c., on lounges and beds, thinking that 18 inches from the floor would clear anything but a Noah's flood. We then bolted the doors and fled to the stairs. We watched the progress of the water until it oozed through the key holes. We then retreated to the head of the stairs, when bump, bump, went something, like the starting of cars from a depot, 'We are going.' says I, 'and had better get away from near the chimney.' We went into the parlor chamber. There we stood watching each others' anxious faces and waiting for the hand of Providence to decide our fate. We rode on smoothly, the house sinking nearly to the top of the doors. We had floated probably a minute when bump, again it went, followed by a crash. The ship plunged and tottered backward and forward. The woodshed had broken loose from the main part and had been shivered to atoms. I said, ' I think our time may be very short for this world.' ' I think so too,' said Mr. Gray. After a few plunges she righted and proceeded on her voyage, with no rudder or sails--to what port we knew not. Soon, to the joy of our little crew, we came to a stand in the midst of driftwood, whole trees and stumps. The night was so dark we could see nothing but the raging waters., When the moon came up we saw an apple tree, and by a little calculation I told them we were in Bosard's corn field; not to steal his corn, but by right of squatter sovereignty. We watched anxiously for the morning light. Daylight finally came, and with it the salutation from Mrs. Bosard: 'Good morning! I am glad we have such near neighbors. Why don't you call and see us?' I replied, ' It is not fashionable for new comers to make the first call.' Men came up from Osceola and helped us clean out the house. I shall never forget their kindness."

In 1837 a furious storm of wind accompanied with rain proceeded out of Troup's Creek and down the Cowanesque Valley, unroofing buildings and demolishing forests in its track. The flat east of Henry Tubbs's dwelling house was at that time covered with heavy hemlock and maple timber. This tornado demolished the forest, uprooting in its course, among others, trees four feet in diameter, At this one point it swept down twelve acres of trees.

November 6th 188~ another tornado crossed the valley of the Cowanesque in Osceola. Its direction was from southwest to northeast. Its track was about eighty rods wide. It completely demolished Charles L. Hoyt's tobacco shed, containing eight tons of leaf tobacco upon the poles. It wrought a similar destruction upon the sheds of Hoyt Tubbs, having six tons of leaf tobacco upon the poles, It unroofed C. H. Bosworth's barn and Henry Tubbs's barn, wrenched up apple trees by the roots, and threw down nearly every chimney in the village. Fences and outbuildings innumerable were overthrown. It occurred at 11 o'clock at night.

CEMETERIES.

The burying ground of the pioneers was located on the west bank of Holden Brook, near its mouth, and on the site of Augustus Cadugan's garden, It was triangular in shape, having one side resting, on the bank of the brook and the sharp end of the wedge pointing westward. Here, among the tall pines that covered the landscape, the pioneers buried their dead. They all belonged to that class of early settlers, already mentioned, that have left no descendants in the valley, On that account very little can be told about them.

The burials were all made between 1795 and 1815. The only monuments erected were rude stones from the hillsides, with no inscription upon them, and many graves were altogether unmarked. Such stones as were set up were swept down while the ground was occupied as Culver & Slosson's mill yard (1848-60). Some of the graves have been undermined by the brook, thereby exposing the remains (1845-55). So much of the ground as remains is now under the plow.

Among those buried here were: Cooper Cady's wife; ----- Smith (who settled near where John Tubbs resides); Caleb Griggs and wife; Baker Parce (who died in 1815), first settler on the Ryon farm, Elkland; three children of Daniel Philips. In all there were about twenty interments at this place. It is a matter of regret that they were not left undisturbed, "under the sod and the dew, waiting the judgment day."

The Osceola Cemetery Association has its grounds on an eminence west of the village and north of the Cowanesque road. They are kept free from briers and weeds, and are enclosed by a neat and tasteful picket fence. Over the ornamental gateway at the entrance is inscribed the legend "Man goeth to his long home." The association was incorporated by an order of the court of common pleas of Tioga county April 21st 1876. Its officers are: Robert Hammond, president; Charles Tubbs. secretary; Russet Crandall, treasurer. The association owns 220 perches of land, one-third of which is occupied by the indiscriminate and unregulated burials of the past seventy years, and the remainder is divided into symmetrical family burial lots. In the old part of the ground are many unmarked graves, some of which deserve a passing notice.

The first person buried here was Abner Gleason, whose unchiseled tombstone stands to the left of the main entrance. He was buried about 1812. He owned the ground at the time he died, and requested to be buried upon this spot. His choice determined the site of this cemetery. Other graves gathered about his, and from time to time additions were made to the grounds. He came, in his old age, from Dudley, Mass., with his son Paul Gleason. In another unmarked grave lies buried Nathaniel P. Moody, a soldier of the Revolutionary war and a graduate of Yale College. Also another Revolutionary soldier, about whom some facts are known, as follows:

Reuben Cook,(8) born at Old Hartford, West Division, August 25th 1747, died at Osceola, Pa., June 25th 1829. Sarah Cole, wife of Reuben Cook, born at Flat Brook, N. J., June 1757, died at Osceola, Pa., March 25th 1833. Reuben Cook, born at Harper's Patent, on the Susquehanna below Owego, July 10th 1782, died in Brookfield, Tioga county, Pa., October 5th 1881, Philind, wife of Reuben Cook, died March 22nd 1864, aged 76 years and two months.

Permelia, Philip and Mitchell Taylor are buried here. Permelia Taylor was the mother of Philip and Mitchell. All of them died before 1810 and were buried in a pioneer cemetery upon Barney Hill, in Elkland borough. When the A. & N. P. Railroad Company in 1882 built its grade across Barney Hill, the line entered this oldtime burial ground and disturbed the resting place of its occupants. On being apprized of this fact Capt. C. B. Taylor and Charles Tubbs--descendants in the fourth generation of Permelia Taylor--gathered up the remains of their ancestor and re-interred them in this place. Philip and Mitchell were brothers of Captain Ebenezer Taylor.

The following are the inscriptions upon some of the monuments:

Paul Gleason died June 28th 1842, aged 63 years, 5 months and 16 days.

Judy, wife of Paul Gleason, died Aug. 19 1839, in the 57th year of her age.

Nathaniel Seely died Oct. 15 1866, aged 77 years and 11 months.

Ebenezer Taylor died Nov. 14 1850, aged 82 years, 11 months and 29 days.

Samuel Tubbs, born Dec. 15 1794, died May 15 1870.

Permelia, wife of Samuel Tubbs, born Nov. 12 1798, died July 21 1850.

Stennett Crandall died Nov. 13 1853, aged 86 years and 13 days.

Truman Crandall died March 23 1882, in his 86th year.

Andrew Bozzard died Aug. 20 1858, aged 76 years, 7 months, 6 days.

Nancy, wife of Andrew Bozzard, died Nov. 24 1839, aged 55 years, 7 months and 20 days.

"Thus fade our sweetest comforts here,
Our dearest friends they disappear
When the loud call of God is given:
They sleep in death to wake in heaven."

Emma, daughter of Andrew and Nancy Bozzard, died Jan. 6 1831, Æ 18 years, 1 month and 14 days.

My glass is out,
My race is run,
My work on earth
Completely done.

George G. Seely died April 9 1874, in his 60th year.

Julia A. wife of George G, Seely died in her 27th year.

Our father and mother are gone,
They lay beneath the sod.
Dear parents, tho' we miss you much
We know you rest with God.

Alonzo B. Bullin died September 22nd 1865, aged 29 years.

In early life my country called,
And I its voice obeyed;
By disease my body was enthralled,
And now in dust is laid.

Sarepta, wife of Philip Tubbs, died July 6th 1851, aged 29 years, 1 months and 24 days.

Clarissa H., wife of Clark Kimball, died May 20th 1838, aged 27 years, 11 months and 9 days.

Adieu, dear companion, for yield three I must,
Thy spirit to God, thy flesh to the dust;
But when a few seasons with me shall be o'er
I trust I shall meet thee where parting's no more.

Elijah Smith died January 29th 1858, aged 50 years, 5 months, 2 days.

Return, alas, he shall return no more
To bless his own sweet home.

Thomas J., son of O. R. and Mary Gifford, died November 17th 1863, aged 20 years, 9 months, 13 days.

James Blackman died March 4th 1855, aged 89 years, 6 months, 10 days.

Elizabeth, his wife, died December 14th 1855, aged 85 years.

David Taylor died May 29th 1861, aged 71 years.

My children dear, assembled here
A father's grave to see,
Not long ago I dwelt with you,
But soon you'll dwell with me.

Robert Tubbs died August 9th 1865, Æ 85 years, 4 months and 15 days.

Clara, wife of Robert Tubbs, died September 1st 1860, Æ 78 years, 8 months and 15 days.

Benson Tubbs died May 8th 1864, in the 54th year of his age. "Mark the perfect man and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace."

Charles Tubbs died April 25th 1842, aged 28 years, 5 months, 2 days.

Elizabeth Tubbs died December 21st 1867, aged 55 years, 8 months, 6 days. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."

Maria, wife of Hoyt Tubbs, died September 22nd 1877, aged 57 years, 4 months, 24 days. She was a kind and affectionate wife, a fond mother and a friend to all.

Rebecca, wife of John Tubbs, died June 3d 1872, aged 37 years.

A. H. Bacon died September 8th 1864, aged 51 years, 5 months and 21 days.

Benjamin Tubbs died August 19th 1873, aged 87 years, 8 months.

Ann, wife of James Tubbs, born December 19th 1819, died April 29th 1879.

Holden Brook Cemetery.-In 1855 Silas Overfield Taylor died, at the age of 74 years, and was buried on the farm now owned by his son Philip S. Taylor. About an acre of ground was enclosed about this grave, and since that time the public have had the privilege of using it as a place of burial free of charge. There are about 20 interments at this place.

Fair View Cemetery.-In the Spring of 1882 Albert Dearman and Morgan Seely fitted up in excellent taste an area of land adjoining the grounds of the Osceola Cemeterv Association, and they have applied to the court of common pleas of Tioga county for a charter of incorporation to be granted unto them, under the name, style and title of The Fair View Cemetery Association.

CASUALTY AND CRIME.

Charles Bulkley, a son of Israel Bulkley, about ten years of age, choked to death while eating bread and milk.

Ralph, another son of Israel, went to Painted Post in June 1815 to purchase his wedding outfit. He was engaged to marry a daughter of Dr. Eddy Howland. The river at the Post was swollen, and when swimming his horse across he was swept down by the current, and drowned.

Elijah Smith was employed as a miller at Davenport's mill. January 29th 1858 his clothes got caught in the gearing of a revolving shaft and he was whipped about it until dead.

November 18th 1863 Jerome Gifford was setting traps for muskrats along the Island Stream not far from its mouth. It was toward evening, and in the dusk Benjamin Casbeer, who was out gunning, saw the motion of his bended body, and thought it a muskrat. He fired at the supposed muskrat, and killed Gifford.

In March 1865 George G. Seely was driving across the Cowanesque River bridge with a span of horses and lumber wagon, and having Miss Nettie Seely with him. While they were passing over the second bent from the south end it fell, and they were precipitated to the gravel bar beneath. Mr. Seely brought suit against the county of Tioga and recovered a judgment of $350 for the injuries he received.

November 12th 1866 Jeremiah De Land was felling a tree upon the lumber job of George S. Bonham, in the "Red House Hollow." The tree fell against a dry chestnut stub, rebounded and struck De Land upon the head and shoulders, killing him instantly.

In July 1879 James Freeland jr. lived in a small tenant house on the farm of George Tubbs. His wife had previously left him, taking their children with her. On her return he charged her with infidelity to the marriage vows. An altercation followed, in which Freeland struck her upon the head with an ax, exposing the brain through a cut four inches in length. He also chopped off several of her fingers. He then struck himself half a dozen times upon the top of the head, making as many slight flesh wounds. Both recovered from their injuries, Freeland was confined a few months in jail. Upon his release he resumed domestic relations with his wife.

FRATERNITIES AND BANDS.

Free and Accepted Masons.-Lodge No. 421 was organized July 22nd 1868, with ten charter members. James Huntington Bosard was W. M., Andrew Keller Bosard secretary, and Henry Seely treasurer, At present the lodge has nineteen members. Charles Ryon Taylor is W. M., Israel Boyer secretary, and Allen Seely treasurer. The masonic hall is on the fourth floor of the Tubbs and Strait block, and the lodge meets Saturday evening before each full moon.

Grand Army of the Republic.-Alfred J. Sofield post, No. 49 Department of Pennsylvania, was organized January 18th 1876, with thirteen comrades. Norman Strait as commander and Orville Samuel Kimball adjutant. In 1882 the post had a membership of twenty-two comrades, and Luke Winfield Scott was commander and Orville Samuel Kimball adjutant. The post meets on the second and fourth Tuesday of each month in Masonic Hall.

Knights of Honor.-Lodge No. 843 was organized January 8th 1877, with twelve charter members and the following officers: Charles Ryon Taylor, dictator; Edward Elmore Bosworth, reporter; Charles R, Bosworth, treasurer. In 1882 the lodge had thirty-one members. Charles Ryon Taylor was dictator, Albert Stennett Crandall reporter, and Andrew J. Doan treasurer. The lodge meets every alternate Monday night in its own hall.

Knights and Ladies of Honor.-Vidette Lodge, No. 115, was organized December 20th 1878, with twenty-six charter members. Leroy Phineas Davis was dictator, Mary E. Hurlbut secretary, and Merville F. Hammond treasurer. In 1882 the membership was thirty. Albert Stennett Crandall was protector, Leroy Phineas Davis secretary, and Surrenda M. Davis treasurer. This lodge meets every alternate Monday night, in Knights of Honor Hall.

Equitable Aid Union No. 219 was organized January 18th 1881, with twelve charter members, and the following officers: John Randolph Hurlbut, president; Augustus Smith, secretary; L. C. Tinney, treasurer. In 1882 the membership was fifteen. L. S. Heath was president, Albert C. Duley secretary, and Henry Seely treasurer. The lodge meets every alternate Wednesday evening.

Temperance Societies.-In 1874 the woman's temperance crusade struck Osceola. Two societies--male and female--were organized for temperance work. Mrs. Hoyt Tubbs presided over the female society, John Tubbs over the male. No licenses have been granted to sell liquor in Osceola since their organization.

Musical Societies.-In 1844 a Jaw-Bone Band was organized and performed at political meetings. The instruments used were jaw-bones and deer antlers, with bells, cymbals, violin, tambourine, drum and bones. The members of the band were Peter Bosard, D. M. Van Zile, Allen Seely, M. D. Bosard, George Tubbs, Alonzo G. Cilley, Mancier Gleason and Philip Tubbs. They attended mass meetings at Westfield and Addison.

In 1855 "the Osceola Brass Band " was organized, instructed and led by Prof. L G. Hoyt. The members of the band were Norman Strait, H. B. Cillev, Timothy Pringle, Harvey Tiffany, Isaac B. Taft, W. W. Day, William Whiting, William Guernsey, George Beecher and John Beecher.

In 1874 "the Osceola Cornet Band" was organized, and it is still in existence. Its members have been and are Merville F. Hammond, O. S. Kimball, A. S. Crandall, L. P. Davis, John W. Hammond, E.M. Seely, W. H. Lewis, V. Dailey, A. S. Babcock, E. A. Mack, Frank Tubbs, A. I. Miller, A. M. Van Zile, J. Cook, W. D. Stoddard, Andrew Baker, E. Stevens and C. A. Stoddard.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

WILLIAM THOMAS HUMPHREY,

of Osceola, was born in Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York, December 22nd 1824. In his youth he attended the common schools in the neighborhood of his home and made commendable progress in his studies, While not in school his time was employed in the chores and labors incident to farm life.

Considering his opportunities too limited at home he struck out for himself at 18 years of age. The first season after leaving home he labored by the month on a farm to obtain means with which to procure an education. In the winter of 1842-3 he taught school near Hornellsville, N. Y. He then attended the Franklin Academy at Prattsburg, N. Y., under Profs. Gaylord and Porter. He was here during the summer and fall terms of 1843. At the close of his academic studies he returned to the district where he had previously been employed and taught a second term. At the expiration of this term of school he returned home.

At this time be determined to study medicine and make the practice of the healing art the business of his life. He accordingly was entered as a student in the office of Messrs. "Sill & Corbin, physicians and surgeons, Bainbridge, N. Y.", in April 1844. He continued his reading in the office of these gentlemen until he was qualified to enter the Albany Medical College, in which institution he completed the course in the spring of 1848. During those years the Albany Medical College had the services of such distinguished men as Professors March, Amsby, Hunn, Beck and others. To somewhat replenish his purse during these four years of study he taught a term of school at Dimmock's Corners, Susquehanna County, Pa.

May 11th 1848 he was married to Mary P. Kelsey, daughter of Heman Kelsey, of Bainbridge, N. Y.

In June 1848 he located at Addison, N. Y., and in January 1849 removed to Elkland, Pa., where by assiduous attention to the duties of his profession he overcame the obstacles with which a young physician has to contend, and built up a large and prosperous practice in the Cowanesque Valley and the adjoining towns. In April 1857 he removed to Osceola, where he has since resided.

At the opening of the war for the Union he was among the first to respond to the call for troops. The United States could not accept the services, under the first call, of all who offered. Governor Andrew G. Curtin was equal to the emergency. He saw that every patriot was needed for the defense of the country. He recommended the immediate organization of at least fifteen regiments, exclusive of those already called into the service of the United States. His recommendation was acted upon and the fifteen regiments known as the "Pennsylvania reserve corps" were put into the field. Dr. Humphrey was mustered into the 13th regiment of the reserves as assistant surgeon, May 21st 1861. This regiment was variously designated and popularly known as "the Kane Rifles," "the Bucktails," "First Rifles," and the 42nd regiment Pennsylvania volunteers. Dr. Humphrey shared the fortunes of this regiment during the winter of 1861-2 and the following summer, and by his attention to his duties very much endeared himself to the men under his care. We reproduce a contemporaneous estimate from the " COL. CROCKETT" letters to the Agitator, written by Orderly Sergeant Orrin M. Stebbins, of Company A. It is as follows:

"CAMP PIERREPONT, VA., Nov. 17, 1861.
"Dr. Humphrey, from Osceola, is now sick in hospital with typhoid fever. His illness is very regretted by this regiment, for he is kind to all and has nobly done his duty. His position is one of importance, and no one in the regiment will be more missed."

In due time he recovered his health, and continued with the "Bucktails" until September 12th 1862, when he was promoted to the rank of surgeon and assigned to the 149th regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, which was largely made up of men recruited in Tioga county. This regiment was designated the "New Bucktails." At the battle of Chancellorsville, in May 1863, Dr. Humphrey was assigned as brigade surgeon of 2nd brigade 3d division 1st army corps. He served in that capacity about two months. He was then assigned as surgeon in chief of the 3d division, which position placed him on the staff of Major General Abner Doubleday. After the death of General Reynolds at Gettysburg General Doubleday succeeded to the command of the first corps. During the time that he held this command Dr. Humphrey was acting medical director of that corps. During the battle of Gettysburg Dr. Humphrey had his hospital in the Catholic church, and when the town was captured by the rebels, on the first day of the battle, he with his sick and wounded was taken prisoner of war. The rebels despoiled him of his horse and saddle, his operating case of instruments and medical stores. While the wounded soldiers under his charge did not occupy his time he watched the varying fortunes of the battle from the belfry of his church-hospital. As he was a prisoner the continued slaughter gave him no additional labor. On the afternoon of the third day of the battle, in company with a rebel major, from his tower of observation he beheld the terrible cannonade and the charge of Pickett's division--the last blow from the concentrated might of the rebel army. He saw the rebels hurled back in confusion from the Union lines. It was hard for him to conceal his exultation. The rebel major did not attempt to conceal his chagrin, but poured out volleys of oaths and maledictions upon the heads of the despised Yankee conquerors. The doctor was recaptured the next day, when the town was reoccupied by our troops.

His regiment was actively engaged in all subsequent campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. He was with it, caring for the sick and wounded, in the battles of the Wilderness, at Spottsylvania Court-House, upon the North Anna Creek, at Bethesda Church and Mechanicsville Road. Later it took part in the siege of Petersburg, the battle of Hatcher's Run and the raid along the Weldon Railroad, January 17th 1865 he resigned his commission on account of ill health, having served in the army three years and seven months. He at once returned home, and entered upon the practice of his profession as soon as his health would permit.

In 1865 he was elected to the House of Representatives at Harrisburg, and re-elected in 1866. During the last session he served on the committees on Railroads, Municipal Corporations, Counties and Townships, and was chairman of the committee on Election Districts. In 1874 he was again elected a representative of the people, and served during the sessions of 1875 and 1876. During these two years he was a member of the committees on Appropriations, Education and Counties and Townships.

Since the expiration of his official term he has resumed the practice of his profession, with the same zeal and vigor that he exhibited in his earlier years. At the present writing (1882) he has a family of three children--a son and two daughters.

CHARLES TUBBS

is a son of James and Ann (Gleason) Tubbs. He was born in Elkland township (now Osceola), Tioga county, Pennsylvania, July 11th 1843.

His paternal ancestor, Samuel Tubbs, who arrived at New London, Connecticut, in 1663 and, died in 1696, was the founder of the family in America. His great-grandfather Samuel Tubbs emigrated from Connecticut in 1762 to the Wyoming Valley, Penn.; was a Revolutionary soldier under Captain Robert Durkee; was engaged in the battles of Germantown and Brandywine; participated in Sullivan's expedition against the Indians, and continued in the service until the end of the war. His grandfather Samuel Tubbs settled upon the Cowanesque in 1811. His father was a successful farmer. His maternal grandfather, Paul Gleason, immigrated to the Cowanesque Valley from Dudley, Worcester county, Massachusetts, in 1809.

Descended thus from New England ancestors he early developed a taste for learning, which in his youth was gratified at the common schools of the neighborhood where he was born. When 13 years of age he was sent to Union Academy; S. B. Price principal. He subsequently studied two years at that institution under Prof. A. R. Wightman. In 1860 he taught school at Osceola; at Union Academy as assistant; at Mill Creek, in Tioga township, and for a few weeks in 1861 at Wellsboro Academy, after the resignation of Prof. M. N. Allen. He then entered Alfred University, which at that time was presided over by Prof. William C. Kenyon. In 1863 he was admitted to Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., from which he was graduated in the classical course in July 1864. He was awarded by the faculty the college honor of a place upon the Commencement programme. In 1865 he entered the law department of Michigan University, at Ann Arbor, from which he was graduated in March 1867. At school he was always a member of some literary society: at Union Academy, the Amphictyon ; at Alfred, the Orophilian; at Union College, the Philomathean, and at Ann Arbor was one of the founders of the Omega Club. He took an active part in the debates and literary exercises.

His health failed while at Michigan University. He returned home and abstained from his studies. In the summer of 1867 he visited Washington and traveled in the south with a view of improving his declining strength. He gained slowly but perceptibly, and was advised by medical authorities not to enter upon the practice of the profession he had chosen. A more active and out-of-door life than the routine of a lawyer's office was deemed essential to his health. He then engaged in agricultural and other business pursuits, at home, upon his father's farm.

In 1869 he served as transcribing clerk of the House of Representatives at Harrisburg.

From the time he attained his majority he has taken an active interest in public and political affairs--always attending elections and the caucuses and conventions of the Republican party, of which he is a member, In 1876 and in 1878 he was the presiding officer of the Republican county convention. In 1878 and in 1880 he advocated the principles of the party of his choice from the stump, making a tour of the county.

In 1880 he was nominated without opposition for one of the representatives of Tioga county in the Legislature. He was elected, and during the session of 1881 served upon the judiciary (local) Elections, Federal Relations and judicial Apportionment Committees. During the session he was appointed by Governor Hoyt a member of the commission upon prisons. In the protracted senatorial contest of that session he was one of the fifty-six Republican members who refused to join the caucus that nominated Henry W. Oliver for U.S. senator and to vote for him in the joint convention of the two Houses. He carried out the instructions of his constituents to vote for G. A. Grow as long as he was a candidate. Upon the retirement of Mr. Grow from the contest he voted for Thomas M. Bayne, and then heartily joined in the movement to unite the warring factions which resulted in the election of Hon. John I. Mitchell to the United States Senate.

His votes as a legislator are uniformly recorded against the schemes of the oil, telegraph and railroad monopolies which burden the industrial and material resources of the State. On the other hand they are recorded in favor of the rights of labor and the interests of education. In 1882 he was renominated without opposition and re-elected as a representative.

He was married October 22nd 1879, to Sylvina, daughter of Ard Hoyt and Lucinda Bacon. They have one son, Warren, born June 29th 1882.

Notes.-In the history of Deerfield George Strawbridge, brother of James, was erroneously mentioned as the latter's nephew, and Jane, sister of George was spoken of as his daughter. John S. laid no land warrants in Deerfield. The account of the Strawbridge family in the foregoing history of Osceola is the correct one.

1. He was administrator cum testamento annexo. By the terms of the will he was authorized to sell land.

2. As West Jersey (from whence the Taylor family came) was under the proprietary government of the Penns for many years, it was natural they should sympathize with the Pennsylvania party in the struggle to hold the lands in the Wyoming Valley. They were Pennamites. Ebenezer Taylor was one of the party on Locust Hill when they were attacked by the Connecticut people. A bullet passed through the lobe of his right ear. Helmes Van Gordon and another man were killed at his side. This took place in August 1784. He was indicted for dispossessing Yankees in May 1784. Permelia Taylor, his mother, made an affidavit at Wyoming in 1784 "concerning the attack on the garrison." --Penn. Archives.

"The few Pennsylvania improvers (among whom were the Taylors) had a sufficiently hard time of it. They were subjected to great hardships, and, if you please, outrages. I do not forget the unfortunate encounter in Plymouth in July, the lamentable affair at Locust Hill with Major Moore's command in August, nor the final attack upon the 'garrison,' in which Henderson and Reed were shot."--Brief of Title, by Gov. H. M. Hoyt, page 64.

3. In 1783 the Pennsylvania troops stationed at Wyoming were supplied with "2½ Gill of Liquor" to one pound of bread.--Pennsylvania Archives.

4. Godfrey Bowman was born in Connecticut, in 1792. In 1802 he emigrated to Kingston, Pa., and in March 1813 enlisted in the Kingston volunteers under Captain Thomas. He was assigned to duty in the shipyard at Erie, and worked upon the ships for Perry's fleet. He was ordered aboard the "Somers" in August 1813, commanded by Captain Amy, and took part in the celebrated naval battle on Lake Erie September 10th 1813, known in history as "Perry's victory." He was wounded in the battle, but after his wound was dressed returned to his post. In testimony of his bravery on this occasion the State of Pennsylvania presented him with a medal, which is now in the possession of his son, the Hon. Charles O. Bowman, of Corry, Erie county, Pa.

5. There is some disagreement among the authorities as to the occasion upon which this fight took place. Ebenezer Taylor, who as a boy was present and saw the fight, is still alive and gives it as his recollection that the occasion was a training. Charles Bulkley relates the same as the tradition in the Bulkley family. David Coates of Elmira, N. Y., says it is the tradition in his family that the encounter took place at the time the Bulkley grist-mill was raised.

6. Austinburg.-The road from Austinburg, Pennsylvania, to South Troupsburg, N. Y. is 3,162 feet west of mile stone 109.-Report for the year 1880 of the Pennsylvania Board of Commissioners on the Northern Boundary, p. 77.

7. The writer has in his possession three letters thus directed to Paul Gleason; after 1814 other letters, that were directed "Elkland, to be left at the post-office village of Wellsborough," etc. Paul Gleason at that time lived near the mouth of the Island Stream and in Delmar township.

8. Reuben Cook drew a pension from the State of Pennsylvania by virtue of the following law, approved by Joseph Heister, governor, June 16th 1823:

"SEC. 3.-Be it enacted, etc., That the State treasurer be and he is hereby authorized and required to pay to Reuben Cook of Tioga county,a Revolutionary soldier, on order, Forty Dollars immediately, and an annuity of Forty Dollars during life; to be paid half yearly; to commence on the first day of January 1823."

Reuben Cook was without doubt the first white settler in the Cowanesque Valley west of Lawrenceville. In May 1792 or 1793 he moved into Nelson township, locating on a little flat north of the present residence of Harris Ryon. He lived in a bark cabin all summer, and planted an Indian girdling to corn and turnips. In the fall of that year he built a log house, and lived in it three years. An Indian erected his wigwam near by, and they hunted and fished in company in the greatest friendship. The river was full of trout, and it was no trouble to kill a deer. He never lived long in a place. At different times he owned valuable farms in Deerfield, Westfield, Osceola, and Elkland borough. In 1814 he went to Marietta, Ohio, but returned to this valley in 1820, living at Osceola until he died. He possessed the true pioneer spirit-was always willing to sell out and move west. He was the father of Polly, wife of Ebenezer Taylor.
 
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