The Reverend Mr. David Craft
MILITARY HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY.
Pages 200 - 205 (More to come)
The part which the early settlers of this county took in the Revolutionary struggle, and the events in that contest of which our territory was the theatre, have been related in a former chapter.
Soon after the establishment of Luzerne county, for convenience in training, the county militia were divided into several battalions or regiments. The one including the people of our county was called the upper battalion, in Luzerne county, and was composed of eight companies, viz., "the Tioga, the Sheshequena, Wyasock, Meshoping, Tunkhannuck, Wylusink, Pittstown, and Exeter companies." In the return of Aug. 25, 1788, John Jenkins was lieutenant-colonel, and John Swift major. In the Tioga company, Solomon Bennett was captain, Lucas Detrick lieutenant, and John Depew ensign. In the Sheshequin company, John Spalding was captain, Samuel Gore lieutenant, and Samuel Southworth ensign. In the "Wyasock" company, Roswell Franklin was captain, Jehiel Franklin lieutenant, and Isaac Strope ensign. In the Wyalusing company, Daniel Shaw was the captain, Joseph Elliott lieutenant, and Stephen Durell ensign. The other companies were composed of men lying outside the county. Col. Franklin was evidently, by common consent, to be the colonel, but at this time was confined in Philadelphia jail on the charge of high treason. The number of men comprised in each of these companies we have no means of knowing.
In 1797 there was a prospect of war with France. On June 2, 1798, Governor Thomas Mifflin issued a circular, addressed to the militia officers of the State, requesting that the militia of the State be enrolled, organized, and equipped, and put in condition for active service, if they should be required. Accordingly, a general meeting of the militia officers of Luzerne was held at the court-house in Wilkes-Barre, July 3, 1798, for the purpose of taking proper action upon the subject mentioned in the circular. At that meeting Gen. Simon Spalding, of Sheshequin, was elected president, and resolutions passed, with great enthusiasm, in which they declare that "no sensations of gratitude, no relics of enthusiasm, remains to distract us from our duty as American citizens to our country, and here proceed to offer their services to the State, whenever the emergency arises in which she needs them." A call was made for volunteers, as matters began to assume a more threatening aspect, and a company consisting of 75 men, under the command of Capt. Samuel Bowman, was attached to the 11th Regt. of the United States, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Aaron Ogden. John Hollenback, who enlisted in this company as second sergeant, and Lieut. Samuel Erwin were appointed recruiting officers for the upper townships of Luzerne. Mr. Hollenback says, "I enlisted fourteen at Wyalusing, by the Kingsley spring." As illustrating the habits of the times, we may repeat the story. He said, "We met to play ball. I sent to Gaylord’s for two gallons of whisky, and when they had drank pretty freely of it, I paid them eight silver dollars a-piece. I enlisted Wareham Kingsley, Thomas Quick, Hugh Summerlin, Jonah Davis, James Lewis, Asa Harris. At Wysox and Tioga Point I enlisted more.*
*In the names of the company given in Appendix G of the Annals of Luzerne, more than half are Bradford County men.
Muster-Roll of a company of infantry under the command of Captain Samuel Bowman, in the Eleventh Regiment of the United States, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Aaron Ogden, from May 1 to June 14, 1800; viz:--Captain, Samuel Bowman; Lieutenant, Samuel Erwin; 2d, John Mervy; 1st Sergeant, Thomas Fisk; 2d, John Hollenback; 3d, David Landon; 4th, Asa Harris; 1st Corporal, Ephraim White; 2d, Benjamin C. Owen; 3d, David Curtis; 4th, Reuben Crozier; Musicians, John Tursdale and Samuel Horton. Privates: Arnosiah Blakseley, Anson Downing, Azos Nash, Benjamin Hazzard, Benoni Hulett, Benjamin Jenings, Charles Bowles, David Ayer, David Haines, David Hathaway, David Jayne, Daniel Sage, Daniel Farman, Elias Thompson, George Gallentine, George Clark, George Deshler, George Trucks, Godfrey Perry, Henry Hunter, Hugh Sumerlin, Ichabod Tompkins, John Lovell, Isaac Ford, James Bailey, James Agerston, Jonathan Conklin, Jonah Davis, John Stark, Joseph Holdren, James McIntire, James Staples, John Voorhees, John Charles, Jonathan Webber, John Ellis, Israel Gale, James Harris, James Lewis, John Shaw, James Walker, Isaac Wickiser, John Dalton, John Evans, Jacob Wheeler, James Lake, Jacob Cownover, Luther Weeks, Moses Thomas, Peter Peters, Philip Hunter, Peter Andre, Phineas Underwood, Peter Williams, Reuben Buck, Samuel Harris, Solomon Maning, Stephen Brown, Stephen Bayley, Samuel Evans, Samuel Wigton, Thomas Hains, Thomas Point, Thomas Hadgins, Thomas Quick, Thomas Walterman, Thomas Wright, William Parker, William Largley, Wm. Allen, William Decker, Wareham Kingsley, Walter Robison, William Tuttle, William Ritchey.
After hunting deserters in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, I went to winter quarters at Bound Brook, New Jersey. We (Erwin and myself) shipped thirteen deserters from Charleston to New York. We were disbanded by General Hamilton in the spring, after Jefferson was elected."
In 1807 the greater part of Bradford County was included in the 57th Regt.; John Spalding was lieutenant-colonel in June of that year. He was afterwards promoted to the colonelcy of the regiment.
"April 6, 1808, the commissioned and staff officers of the 144th Regiment, 2d Brigade, 9th Division, Pa. Militia, are notified to meet at the house of Bartholomew La Porte, in Asylum, on Monday, April 25, completely equipped for exercise as the law directs.
"JOB IRISH, lieut.-col. 144th Regt. Pa. M."
The following officers were detailed for the courts of appeal, to wit: First battalion, Capt. Oliver Williams Dodge, Lieut. David B. Wheeler, Ensign David Stafford, to meet at the house of Humphrey Brown, Wyalusing. Second battalion, Capt. Theron Darling, Lieut. Burr Ridgway, Ensign Samuel Alden, to meet at the house of William Means, Towanda. The same regiment met at the same place for exercise and drill in the following September.
In 1811, Rogers Fowler, of Monroe, lieut.-col. of the 144th Regt., and in 1812, Theron Darling, of Orwell.
BRADFORD IN THE GREAT REBELLION.
The first hostile shot that re-echoed from the walls of Fort Sumter awoke with a rude shock the people of the north to a sense of the depths of ingratitude the southern sons of the republic could descend, as they raised their hands against a government their own fathers had helped to create, and which they themselves had defended and aided to glorify. Spurning the proud historic record, in which, with their brethren of the north, their fathers had written noble deeds with their own blood, the sons sought to destroy the nation, and blot out its glorious history in ruin and blood, unless their unhallowed desires touching their peculiar institution should be wholly gratified.
The first sentiment that flashed through the mind of the north was one of shame and disgrace, that their brothers could do so foul a wrong as to strike at the life of the Union, the join inheritance of all; the next, was hot for vengeance on the wrong-doers, and to wipe out the blot from the proud escutcheon of the nation, and compel by force what beneficence had failed to win,---obedience to the constituted authorities.
The people flew to arms, and when the president called for 75,000 men for ninety days’ service, before the ink on his proclamation was dry the number, quadrupled, was offered by the governors of the loyal states. In this grand outburst of generous patriotism Bradford was in no degree behind her sister counties in the State or Union. Her citizens filled the ranks of three companies, and began their progress to the capital of the commonwealth, and when informed that the quota of Pennsylvania was full,---although scarcely a week had elapsed since the proclamation of the governor was issued,---and that they could only be accepted for a term of three years, the muster-rolls were changed from three months to as many years, and they were sworn into the army of the republic, pledged to defend the honor of the State and uphold the integrity of the Union. And from that time till the last rebel against a just and liberal government laid down his arms, Bradford was not derelict in her duty under the several calls made upon her for men, until an army of nearly 4000 of her citizens from the various walks in life had lifted up their hands to heaven and sworn fealty to the Union, and went forth to battle in its cause.
From Bull Run, all along the weary, bloody way to Appomattox, Bradford’s sons carried her honor as a shield upon their breasts, bearing aloft the colors of the State and the flag of the Union, floating oft in victory, but trailing seldom in defeat, and never disgraced in either. Scarcely a noted battle-field exists in the whole theatre of the war where the blood of some son of Bradford has not softened the sod or spattered the rocky steeps thereof. They fought with McClellan on the Peninsula and at Antietam; with Burnside at Fredericksburg; with Hooker and Pope in Virginia and about Washington; with Meade at Gettysburg; with Foster and Gillmore in the deadly assault on Wagner and before Charleston; in the Valley of the Shenandoah, with Sheridan; at Nashville, with Thomas; with Rosecrans at Knoxville and Stone River; with Grant before Vicksburg, and in his last grand assault on Richmond, as he hammered his way to the rebel capital; with Hooker at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge; and with Sherman "marched down to the sea."
They died in the carnage of the assault, in the wild tumult of the charge, in the quiet of the picket-line, in the deadly trench and the noisome hospital. They starved in Belle Isle, Libby, Columbia, Salisbury, and amid the horrors of Andersonville, as in the ecstasy of their delirium they dreamed of plenty, peace, and home; they fell on the dead-line, from the bullets of the prison guards under the orders of a worse than fiendish keeper. Under the fire of Union batteries, chained together like the slaves of the past, they were placed as hostages for the safety of the hot-bed of treason.
Her Watkins, Spaulding, Culp, Sturrock, Ingham, Guyer, Swart, Kellogg, Hemans, Tears, and Case paid the penalty of gallant officers, who led where brave men dare to follow, and fell in the assault a sacrifice to the perpetuity of the nation.
Her sons have reflected honor upon her name, and she has not forgotten them.
THE PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE VOLUNTEER CORPS.
This famous organization of the Pennsylvania troops in the Rebellion was created by legislative warrant, upon the suggestion of his excellency Governor Curtin, to provide a disciplined force to repel invasion of the soil of the State, or to respond promptly to the requisition of the national government for men to suppress armed treason against its authority.
The act of the legislature, passed May 15, 1861, authorized and required the governor as commander-in-chief to organize a military corps to be called the "Reserve Volunteer Corps of the Commonwealth," to be composed of "thirteen regiments of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, and one of light artillery, to be armed, equipped, and officered like similar troops in the service of the United States; and to be enlisted in the service of the State for three years or during the war, unless sooner discharged;" and to be liable to be called into the service of the State at such time as the commander-in-chief should deem their services necessary for the suppression of insurrection or to repel invasion; and further, to be liable to be mustered into the service of the United States whenever the president should call for them.
In compliance with the provisions of this act, Governor Curtin issued his call for men to compose this corps, and apportioned the number among the several counties of the State according to population. The ranks were soon filled, the enthusiasm being very great to enlist therein. Four camps of instruction were established,---at Easton, at West Chester, at Pittsburgh, and at Harrisburg, the latter under the command of Col. G. A. C. Seiler. George A. McCall, a graduate of West Point military academy, of the class of 1822, subsequently an officer in the regular army and a distinguished soldier in the war with Mexico, was appointed major-general of the corps, who immediately organized his staff, appointing Henry J. Biddle assistant adjutant general, Henry Sheets and Eldridge McConkey aids-de-camp, and Professor Henry Coppee inspector-general. Gen. McCall applied himself zealously to the task of organizing the corps and fitting it for duty in the field.
On June 22 two regiments, the 5th under Col. Simmons, and the Kane Rifles, the 13th of the corps, commanded by Col. Biddle, were ordered to a point on the State line opposite Cumberland, Md., for the protection of the border, then threatened by an organized force of rebels. These regiments subsequently moved through Cumberland into West Virginia to the support of Gen. Lewis Wallace.
The battle of Bull Run, which resulted disastrously to the arms of the government, fought July 21, spread terror and alarm throughout the north. The national authorities found themselves with a defeated army, with the term of service of a large portion of its troops rapidly expiring. They immediately issued urgent calls upon all the States for men. Pennsylvania was ready with an organized and disciplined force, enlisted for the long term, to march to their relief.
Moving rapidly to the points designated by the commander of the national army, the several regiments of the Reserve Corps remained on duty until all danger from a sudden incursion of the rebel army was passed, when the corps was assembled at Tennallytown, Md., where it was organized into three brigades, and thoroughly drilled and disciplined. On Sept. 10 the regiments of the corps were each presented with a regimental flag,---the gift of the "Cincinnati" of Pennsylvania,---by Governor Curtin, in the presence of President Lincoln, Hon. Simon Cameron, secretary of war, Gen. McClellan, Adj.-Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, Gens. Butler and Mansfield, and a vast concourse of citizens and soldiers.
THE FIFTH RESERVE----THIRTY-FOURTH REGIMENT.
The companies comprising the 5th Regt. of the Reserve Corps were recruited in the counties of Centre, Lancaster, Huntingdon, Lycoming, Northumberland, Clearfield, Union, and Bradford. Co. F, Capt. A. J. Trout, was recruited in Towanda, and mustered into service June 21, 1861.
On April 18 a large and enthusiastic war-meeting was held in Towanda in response to the call of the president for 75,000 men for ninety days. Judge Mercur was president, Col. G. F. Mason, John F. Means, and W. C. Bogart vice-presidents. P. D. Morrow, W. T. Davies, D. A. Overton, and H. B. McKean were secretaries. Speeches, breathing love for the country, and hot with vengeance for treason to the national authority, were made by several prominent citizens, enlistments encouraged, and a grand mass-meeting called for the 23d.
At this second meeting Bradford turned out en masse. Ringing resolutions were prepared and adopted, patriotic speeches were made, and the ladies of the borough presented to the volunteers already enrolled a beautiful flag, the work of their own fair hands, Capt. J. W. Mason* responding for his men.
*Capt. Mason was subsequently transferred to the regular army, where he became distinguished for his gallantry, and is now the lieutenant-colonel of the 5th U. S. Cavalry, and has seen much severe service in the Indian campaigns of the last few years.
On April 30 two companies were organized in Towanda, Capt. Mason’s and Capt. Gore’s, and one in Athens, Capt. Bradbury’s, and on the same day and the day following left the county for Harrisburg. They proceeded as far as Troy, when orders were received to return, as the quota of the State under the call was full. This was not relished by the men and officers of these companies and five companies from Tioga county, who also had arrived at Troy on their way to Harrisburg, and the eight companies accordingly went into camp. After some delay the companies proceeded to Harrisburg, and were mustered into the Reserve Corps, Capt. Trout’s company being Co. F of the 5th, and Capt. Bradbury’s Co. F and Capt. Gore’s Co. I of the 6th Regt.
On June 20 the 5th Regt. was organized at Camp Curtin, by the choice of the following field officers: Capt. John I. Gregg, of Co. E, colonel; Capt. Joseph W. Fisher, of Co. K, lieutenant-colonel; Capt. George Dare, of Co. I, major. On the following day Col. Gregg was appointed a captain in the 6th U. S. Cavalry, and Capt. Seneca G. Simmons, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, a soldier of long experience and great merit, was chosen to succeed him.
On the same day the regiment, with the Bucktail Rifle Regt. and Capt. Easton’s battery of the 1st Artillery, was dispatched under command of Col. Biddle to the relief of Col. Lew Wallace, commanding the 11th Indiana, at Cumberland, Md. It reached Cumberland July 8, having been halted some days at Bedford Springs. On July 13 the 5th moved to Ridgeville, in the direction of Romney, to the support of Lieut.-Col. Kane, in command of a detachment of the Bucktails, marching the whole distance on the double-quick.
Soon after the Bull Run disaster the 5th was ordered to Harper’s Ferry, via Harrisburg, and while bivouacking near Camp Curtin was hurriedly recruited and equipped, and on Aug. 8 took up the march for Washington, 984 strong. From Washington the regiment proceeded to the camp of the Reserves, at Tenallytown, Md. Here the drill, which had been constantly practiced since its organization, was resumed, and every effort made to bring it to the highest state of efficiency by the accomplished soldier who commanded it.
In the organization of the Reserves which ensued, the 5th was assigned to the 1st brigade, commanded by Brig.-Gen. John F. Reynolds. The brigade also comprised the 1st (30th) Regt. Pennsylvania Vols., Col. R. Biddle Roberts; 2d (31st) Regt. Pennsylvania Vols., Col. William B. Mann; and 8th (37th) Regt. Pennsylvania Vols., Col. Geo. S. Hays.
On Oct. 10 the whole division was ordered across the Potomac, and encamped near Langley. The drill was still enforced, schools for instruction of commissioned officers being held two days in each week at the regimental headquarters, and company officers held similar schools for non-commissioned officers.
From Oct. 19 to June 26, 1862, the history of the 5th was devoid of important incident. On June 9 it moved by transport to White House, on the Pamunkey, to the support of Gen. McClellan, in his Peninsular campaign, and a few days later moved to Mechanicsville, bivouacking in sight of the enemy’s lines.
"On the morning of June 26 the regiment was ordered to cross Beaver Dam creek, and to picket the line along the left bank of the Chickahominy. At one o’clock P.M. the enemy crossed the river in large numbers, when the pickets retired across the creek and took up a position which had been selected for the battle along its left bank. The 1st brigade was posted on the right of the line, the 5th holding the left centre. Four companies under command of Lieut.-Col. Fisher were thrown forward as skirmishers. Scarcely had the regiment gained its position when the enemy opened with his artillery, which was vigorously replied to by our batteries; soon after, his infantry came on in force, and the battle opened in earnest. The skirmishers fell back on the line of battle in excellent order, when a terrible fire was opened on the approaching foe, which never ceased nor slackened until he withdrew from the conflict, leaving the field strewn with his dead and wounded. The 5th lost in this engagement 50 killed and wounded.
"Early on the following morning the regiment was ordered to fall back and take position on Gaines’ Hill, the position at Beaver Dam creek being outflanked by the enemy. This movement was executed with eminent skill and success. It was the intention of the commanding general to have held this division in reserve in the ensuing battle, on account of the severe fighting in which it was engaged during the previous day; but at two o’clock P.M. on the 27th our line was so hard pressed he was obliged to order in all his available force, and the 5th, advancing to the front, was soon hotly engaged, maintaining its position under a most withering fire until sundown, and until its ammunition was completely exhausted and the pieces of the men had become unserviceable. Gens. McCall and Reynolds both made ineffectual efforts to get troops to relieve them, but the men nobly held their ground until ordered back to prevent capture. Gen. Reynolds was captured towards the close of the day, and the command of the brigade devolved upon Col. Simmons, and that of the regiment on Lieut.-Col. Fisher. Retiring a short distance, the men slept on their arms for a few hours, when they were aroused, and crossed the Chickahominy. Here the regiment lay under arms until the evening of the 28th of June, when it marched via Savage Station, and crossing the White Oak Swamp, arrived on the evening of the 29th at Charles City Cross-Roads. The 5th and a battalion of the Bucktails were thrown forward close up to the enemy’s line. Lest in the darkness friend should be mistaken for foe, the men were directed to bare the right arm to the shoulder. The password was ‘Bucktail,’ and the answer ‘Five.’
"On the following morning the brigade was withdrawn, and dispositions were made for repelling an attack from the direction of Richmond, and to protect the junction of the New Market and the Quaker or Turkey Ridge road. By half-past three in the afternoon the battle had fairly begun, the rebels attacking with great fury. Soon after the contest opened the enemy moved a heavy column to the right, and came down with great impetuosity upon Seymour’s brigade. Col. Simmons was immediately ordered to move with the 5th and 8th Regts. to its support, the 5th gallantly led by Lieut.-Col. Fisher. This order was promptly obeyed, the men moving forward at a double-quick and charge bayonet, but not a moment too soon, for a furious attack with infantry and artillery was met just in time to stay and repel it. In this charge the 7th and 17th Va. Regts. were nearly annihilated, the greater portion being either killed, wounded, or taken prisoners. Shortly afterwards the enemy issued from the woods in front in great force, and for nearly two hours the battled raged fiercely, the enemy making desperate efforts to break our lines and gain the road on which were passing the immense supply-trains of our army, but without success. In the heat of the struggle, Col. Simmons, leading his men with determined bravery and unequaled skill, fell mortally wounded, and died in the hands of the enemy. A soldier by profession and a man of the strictest honor, a patriot from principle and brave to a fault, the reserve Corps lost no more trusted leader nor loved companion in arms. Here too fell Capt. Taggart, of Co. B, an excellent soldier, whose loss was severely felt."
In the three battles, at Mechanicsville on the 26th, Gaines’ Mill on the 27th, and Charles City Cross-Roads on the 30th of June, the regiment lost 18 killed, 115 wounded, and 103 prisoners. Among the killed on the 27th was Capt. Robert W. Sturrock,* of Co. F, instantly killed at the head of his company by a musket-ball striking him in the forehead. On the 30th, Lieut. Riddle, of Co. F, was wounded and taken prisoner. Adjt. Mason also was wounded, but kept his place on the field notwithstanding during the entire engagement.
*Capt. Sturrock was formerly, at the time of his enlistment, publisher and editor of the Bradford Reporter. He enlisted in April, 1861, as a private in Co. F, 5th Regt. P. R. C., served a time as orderly sergeant, was elected first lieutenant, but owing to the omission of the proper authorities was never commissioned. On the resignation of Capt. Trout, in 1862, Mr. Sturrock was elected captain, and had been in command of the company for some months at the time of his death. E. O. Goodrich, his associate and afterwards successor on the Reporter, said of him, "He was universally esteemed. Of quiet and unassuming manners, his sterling qualities and social, manly disposition won the respect of all with whom he was associated. He has laid his life on the altar of his country, and no holier or purer sacrifice has been offered than when Robert W. Sturrock fell dead upon the battle-field cheering on his men in the defense of the Union and of freedom."
Resting upon the field until 2 A.M. of the 1st of July, the regiment proceeded to Malvern Hill, where was fought the last grand battle before Richmond in the Peninsular campaign. The 5th was under fire, but not actively engaged, and on the morning of July 2 moved with the army to Harrison’s Landing, where it went into camp. Lieut.-Col. Fisher was promoted to the vacant colonelcy, Maj. Dare was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Frank Zentmeyer major.
The 5th, with the other regiments of the Reserves, participated in the campaign of Gen. Pope and the Army of Northern Virginia, culminating with the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862. During this campaign the 5th was commanded by Maj. Zentmeyer, Col. Fisher being disabled by the fall of his horse.
The 5th participated in Gen. McClellan’s Maryland campaign, having its climax at Antietam, Sept. 16. At South Mountain, under the commander of Col. Fisher, the 5th distinguished itself anew by gallant daring. The enemy was strongly posted in the passes of the mountain, and confident of successful resistance. Mr. Sypher, in his history of the Pennsylvania Reserves, says,---
"The Bucktail Regt., commanded by Col. McNeil, was deployed as skirmishers in front of the division, and was closely followed by the whole line of battle; the enemy’s outposts were rapidly driven in, forced from the hills, and routed from the ravines, until suddenly the regiments of the 1st Brigade arrived at a corn-field, ‘full of rebels,’ protected by a stone wall at the foot of the abrupt mountainside; the Bucktails received a terrific volley of musketry, which brought them to a halt. Gen. Seymour, who was on the ground with his men, seeing that this was the critical moment, called out to Col. Roberts, commanding the 1st Regt., to charge up the mountain, and at the same instant turning to Col. Fisher, of the 5th, whose men were coming up in well-dressed lines, he exclaimed, ‘Colonel, put your regiment into that corn-field and hurt somebody.’ ‘I will, general; and I’ll catch one alive for you,’ was the cool reply of Col. Fisher. The 2d Regt., commanded by Capt. Byrnes, and the 6th, Col. Sinclair, were ordered forward at the same time. The men of the 5th leaped the stone wall, immediately captured eleven prisoners, and sent them back to the general."
The regiment steadily ascended the rugged side of the mountain, under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry, and after a struggle lasting five hours, stubbornly contested on both sides, the heights were carried by the triumphant division, which planted its standards on the summit. The 5th entered the engagement with 357 men, and lost 1 killed and 19 wounded.
The 5th was engaged at Antietam on Sept. 16 and 17, losing 2 killed and 8 wounded.
During the time intervening between the close of the Antietam campaign and the opening of Gen. Burnside’s campaign, at Fredericksburg, the 5th was transferred from the 1st to the 3d Brigade, which latter then consisted of the 5th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th Regts. of the Reserves. In the movement on Fredericksburg, begun Dec. 11, the Reserves, commanded by Gen. Meade, were attached to the left grand division, commanded by Gen. Franklin, which crossed the Rappahannock some distance below Fredericksburg, and formed in line of battle, facing the enemy’s intrenched camp. In the attack upon the enemy, which became a most desperate struggle, the 5th occupied a position on the left of the 3d Brigade, nearest the enemy’s works. The Reserves, unaided, advanced with determined bravery, sweeping everything before them, completely breaking the enemy’s lines. In the face of a destructive fire from a battery, the 3d Brigade crossed the railroad and ascended the acclivity, but so terrible was the storm of battle both infantry and artillery were compelled to withdraw. Here Gen. Jackson, who commanded the brigade, was killed, and was succeeded by Col. Fisher, of the 5th, Lieut.-Col. Dare assuming the command of the regiment. The loss of the 5th in this engagement was 20 killed, 88 wounded, and 61 taken prisoners. Maj. Zentmeyer and his brother, acting adjutant, were among the killed, and Lieut.-Col. Dare among the wounded.
The 5th participated and achieved new and unfading laurels in the Gettysburg campaign, under Meade, in which it was commanded by Col. Dare. At the struggle for the possession of Little Round Top, between Hood’s division, of Longstreet’s corps, and the 3d brigade of the 1st division of the 5th Corps, under command of Col. Vincent, of the 83d Pennsylvania volunteers, Col. Fisher with the 5th, under Lieut.-Col. Dare, and the 12th, Col. Harding, dashed up the hill with vehemence and inspiriting cheers, and reinforced the wellnigh crushed brigade, and secured the summit, the key to the position of the Union troops.
The loss of the 5th in this engagement was 2 wounded. The campaigns of the summer and fall of 1863 were participated in also by the 5th, but with no particularly important engagements.
During the winter and spring of 1864 the regiment was recruited and reorganized in preparation for an active campaign, and on May 4 crossed the Rapidan, and was at once, on the 5th, engaged in the Wilderness fight, the opening battle of Gen. Grant’s great campaign on Richmond. On the 6th, Lieut.-Col. Dare was mortally wounded, and died on the field. Maj. Smith, formerly captain of Co. C, succeeded to the command, and was soon after commissioned lieutenant-colonel for gallantry on the field.
From May 6 to 31, when the sound of battle along the lines was almost constant, and the groans of the dying were never stilled for an hour, the 5th participated in the whole series of engagements with its accustomed gallantry.
On the date last named its term of service expired, and in company with other Reserve regiments it was relieved from duty, and bidding adieu to the veterans still facing the foe on the banks of the Tolopotomy, returned to Harrisburg, where, on June 11, it was mustered out of service.
FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS.
(The date immediately following the rank, in each case, is the date of muster into service.)
Seneca G. Simmons, col., June 21, 1861; killed at Charles City Cross-Roads, June 30, 1862.
Joseph W. Fisher, col., May 15, 1861; promoted from lieut.-col., Aug. 1, 1862; mustered out with regiment, June 11, 1864.
George Dare, lieut.-col., June 21, 1861; promoted from maj., Aug. 1, 1862; killed at Wilderness, May 6, 1864.
Alfred M. Smith, lieut.-col., May 15, 1861; promoted from capt., Co. C, to maj., Feb. 22, 1864; to lieut.-col., May 7, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 1, 1864.
Frank Zentmeyer, maj., June 21, 1861; promoted from capt., Co. I, to maj., Aug. 1, 1862; killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; burial record: died at Richmond, Va., Dec. 31, 1862.
J. Harvey Larimer, maj., May 15, 1861; promoted from capt., Co. E, to maj., May 1, 1863; killed at Bristoe Station, Feb. 14, 1864.
Jas. A. McPherran, maj., June 17, 1861; promoted from capt., Col. F, to maj., May 7, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
A. G. Mason, adjt., June 21, 1861; discharged, March 27, 1863, to accept appointment on Gen. Meade’s staff; brev.-maj., Aug. 1, 1864.
John L. Wright, adjt., May 15, 1861; mustered out with regiment, June 11, 1864.
Samuel Evans, quar.-mast., June 21, 1861; commissioned capt., May 7, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Jno. T. Carpenter, surg., June 21, 1861; promoted and transferred to Western army as brig.-surg.
Samuel G. Lane, surg., Sept. 16, 1861; promoted surg. Of enrollment board of 16th Dist. Pa., March 10, 1864.
Henry A. Grim, surg., April 16, 1862; promoted from asst. surg. 12th Regt. to asst. surg. Gen. of P. V. R. C.; mustered out with regiment.
N. F. Marsh, asst. surg., June 21, 1861; promoted to surg. 4th Pa. Cav., 64th Regt. P. V.
E. Donnelly, asst. surg., June 21, 1861; promoted surg. 31st P. V., April 28, 1862.
W. H. Davis, asst. surg., June 27, 1862; promoted surg. 33d P. V., Dec. 20, 1862.
J. M. Groff, asst. surg., Aug. 2, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, July 21, 1863.
O. C. Johnson, asst. surg., March 9, 1863; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Sept. 28, 1863.
H. T. Whitman, asst. surg., Sept. 16, 1863; wounded at Bethesda Church, May 30, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
S. L. M. Consor, chap., mustered out by special order War Department, Nov. 1, 1862.
E. N. Reber, sergt.-maj., June 21, 1861; transferred to 191st Regt. P. V. Vet.
R. M. Smith, sergt.-maj., June 21, 1861; promoted to 2d lieut., Aug. 8, 1862; transferred to Co. G.
G. P. Swoope, sergt.-maj., June 21, 1861; promoted to 1st lieut., March 4, 1863; transferred to Co. I.
Henry Mullen, quar.-mast sergt., June 21, 1861; transferred to 191st P. V. Vet.
J. W. Harris, com. Sergt., June 21, 1861; transferred to 191st P. V. Vet.
Jno. H. Johnson, hosp. stew., July 21, 1861; transferred to 191st P. V. Vet.
E. L. Scott, prin. mus., June 21, 1861; mustered out with regiment.
W. L. Smeadley, prin. mus., June 21, 1861; transferred to 191st P. V. Vet.
A. J. Trout, capt. June 21, 1861; resigned, January, 1862.
R. W. Sturrock, capt., June 21, 1861; promoted to capt., Feb. 16, 1862; killed at Gaines’ Mills, June 27, 1862.
J. A. McPherran, capt., June 17, 1861; promoted to capt., July 1, 1862; to maj., May 7, 1864.
A. G. Mason, 1st lieut., June 21, 1861; promoted to adjt.
A. Percival Shaw, 1st lieut., June 21, 1861; promoted to 1st lieut., July 1, 1862; discharged, April 30, 1864.
J. W. Means, 2d lieut., June 21, 1861; promoted to lieut. U. S. Army, February, 1862.
Wm. Riddle, 2d lieut., Oct. 23, 1861; resigned, May 17, 1863, to
accept promotion as maj. and aid-de-camp on staff of Gen. Reynolds.
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