The Reverend Mr. David Craft
MILITARY HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY.
ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT
One company recruited in Bradford County was assigned to the 137th Regt. of nine months’ men, the same being commanded by Capt. Thomas McFarland, and known in the regimental organization as Co. I. Co. A was recruited chiefly in Wayne county, B in Crawford county, C, E, and H in Clinton county, D, F, and G in Butler county, and K in Schuylkill county. The companies rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, and effected a regimental organization Aug. 25, 1862, by electing the following-named field-officers: Henry M. Bossert, of Clinton county, colonel; Joseph B. Kiddoo, of Allegheny county, lieutenant-colonel; and Charles W. Wingard, of Clinton county, major. A few only of its officers and men had any military experience.
The regiment proceeded to Washington soon after its organization, and reported to Gen. Casey. It encamped near the city, and during its stay there was drilled by officers from the forts. It was assigned to Gen. Hancock’s Brigade, Smith’s Division, 6th Corps, on Aug. 31, as that corps was marching through Washington after the Bull Run defeat, and about to enter on the Maryland campaign. At Crampton’s Gap, in South Mountain, the 137th was first under fire, though it did not assist in carrying the pass.
At the battle of Antietam, Col. Bossert, with Co. I, supported the brigade battery, and, by his coolness under fire, won the thanks of the brigade commander. The main body of the regiment was held in reserve, and after the battle assisted in burying the dead.
At Dam No. 4 of the Potomac it engaged in guard duty and battalion drill. With the brigade, it joined the pursuit after Stuart in his raid into Pennsylvania, commencing its march at midnight and making no halt until it was far into its own State. The pursuit was fruitless, and the command went into camp a few miles from Hagerstown, near the State line. From this point it was moved, near the close of October, into the defenses at Washington, and was encamped to the south of the East Branch of the Potomac, with other new regiments. Here it was thoroughly drilled and disciplined.
When the army reached Fredericksburg, under command of Gen. Burnside, the regiment again took the field, and was posted with four regiments of New Jersey and one of New York troops, all under command of Col. Bossert, at Aquia creek, and charged with guarding the landing and the railroad leading to Fredericksburg. It was ordered to the front from this point, Jan. 20, 1863, to participate in Burnside’s second campaign, but on the abandonment of the same the regiment went into camp at Belle Plain. On March 14 Col. Bossert was honorably discharged, and Lieut.-Col. Kiddoo promoted to the vacancy, Maj. Wingard to be lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Delos Walker to be major.
The 137th participated in the Chancellorsville movement, being under a heavy artillery fire from April 27 to the night of May 1, in temporary earthworks erected by itself on the south bank of the Rappahannock, at Franklin’s crossing. It was on the front on May 2, but no serious fighting transpired before its position, and three days afterwards it returned to camp. It was mustered out of service at Harrisburg, June 1, 1863.
FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS.
(The date following the rank, in each case, is that of muster into service.)
Henry M. Bossert, col., Aug. 25, 1862; resigned March 14, 1863.
Joseph B. Kiddoo, col., Nov. 1, 1861; promoted from 1st sergt., Co. F, 63d P. V., to lieut.-col., Aug. 25, 1862; to col., March 15, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
Chas. W. Wingard, lieut.-col., Aug. 25, 1862; promoted from maj., March 15, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
Delos Walker, maj., Aug. 15, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. B, May 8, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
Wm. T. Crispen, adj., Aug. 16, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Co. C, Aug. 31, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Geo. H. Graham, quar.-mast., Aug. 25, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. G, Aug. 28, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Philip R. Palm, surg., Sept. 16, 1862; promoted from asst. surg., 110th P. V., Dec. 19, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Marsh G. Whitney, asst. surg., Aug. 30, 1862.
Wm. McPherson, asst. surg., Sept. 12, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Alfred H. Taylor, chap., Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Addison J. Brinker, sergt.-maj., Sept. 7, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Co. G, Nov. 18, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Adolphus Baker, sergt.-maj., Aug. 25, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Nov. 27, 1862.
Geo. M. Fleming, quar.-mast. sergt., Aug. 23, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. E, Aug. 30, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
John G. Harrison, com.-sergt., Sept. 1, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
A. A. Wheelock, hos. stew., Aug. 12, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. C, Aug. 26, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Thomas McFarland, capt., Aug. 26, 1862; resigned, Jan. 10, 1863.
Wm. F. Johnson, capt., Aug. 26, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Jan. 11, 1863; mustered out with company.
Joseph G. Isenberg, 1st lieut., Aug. 26, 1862; promoted from 2d lieut., Jan. 11, 1863; mustered out with company.
John L. May, 2d lieut., Aug. 20, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Jan.
11, 1863; mustered out with company.
ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIRST REGIMENT
The 141st was known as the Bradford regiment; its principal officers
were Bradford men, and seven full companies of its roster were recruited
in this county, viz., Co. A, Capt. George W. Jackson; B, Capt. Guy H. Watkins;
C, Capt. Abram J. Swart; D, Capt. Isaac A. Park; E, Capt. Joseph B. Reeve;
I, Capt. Israel P. Spaulding; K, Capt. Jason Wright.
Co. F, Capt. Henry F. Beardsley, was from Susquehanna, as was also Co. G, Capt. James L. Mumford, and Co. H was from Wayne, and commanded by Capt. Tyler.
The regiment was organized Aug. 29, 1862, with the following field-officers: Henry J. Madill, colonel; Guy H. Watkins, lieutenant-colonel; Israel P. Spaulding, major.
On its arrival at Washington, Aug. 30, the booming of the guns in the fight then going on at Bull Run was distinctly heard at the capital. For two days the regiment marched and countermarched among the defenses of Washington, ready to repel an attack of the enemy hourly anticipated. For more than a week after its arrival at Washington the command had no tents, and the days were intensely hot and the nights cool. Rations, too, were scarce, and irregularly issued. These privations and exposures soon told upon the health of the men seriously, nearly 300 being carried to the hospital, and 500 reported unfit for duty. About the middle of September the 141st was assigned to the 1st Brigade, Gen. Robinson commanding, in Birney’s (formerly Kearney’s) division of the 3d Corps; but the regiment remained in the defenses of Washington until after the conclusion of the Maryland campaign, and made rapid progress in drill and discipline in the mean time.
The regiment endeavored to intercept the rebel Stuart on his raid to Chambersburg, but arrived at White’s ford just in time to see his rear-guard disappearing over the opposite hills, Oct. 10. The regiment then encamped near Poolesville, and remained engaged in picket-duty until the movement of the army to Warrenton, in which it joined.
It advanced with Burnside towards Fredericksburg, arriving at Falmouth Nov. 25, where it was ordered to construct permanent winter-quarters. On Dec. 13, Birney’s division, after being held in reserve near the head of Franklin’s pontoon bridge, at the lower crossing of the Rappahannock, all the early part of the day, at two o’clock, crossed and hastened forward to the relief of the Pennsylvania Reserves, whose fierce fighting was then nearly over. The advance of the enemy was checked, and the 141st and other regiments of the brigade were posted in support of Randolph’s battery. The losses of the 141st in this, its first, engagement were 1 killed and 4 wounded. From the evening of the 14th to that of the 15th it occupied, with the 57th Pa., the front, being engaged, under a flag of truce, in burying the dead, and bearing off the wounded from the field, where they had lain exposed to the blasts of winter, with wounds undressed, since the morning of the 13th, suffering intensely. It reoccupied its former camp during the night of the 15th.
Burnside’s second campaign opened Feb. 20, 1863, and the 14th moved with its brigade to the river for laying the pontoons, but the rain beginning to fall and the frost to yield, the roads became impassable by reason of the mud, and the campaign was abandoned and the army returned to its winter-quarters.
In the Chancellorsville campaign, which opened on April 28, the brigade, composed of the 57th, 63d, 68th, 105th, 114th, and 141st Pennsylvania Regiments, was commanded by Gen. Charles K. Graham, the corps being under Gen. Sickles. On May 1 the corps moved to the field, taking position near the Chancellor House. During the afternoon, Graham’s brigade was ordered to the support of the 12th Corps, then receiving the attack of the enemy. The enemy opened with his artillery on the brigade as it approached his position, killing 1 and wounding 3 in the 141st. Maj. Spaulding received a slight wound, and Lieut.-Col. Watkins’ horse was killed just as he was putting his foot in the stirrup to mount him. Early on the morning of May 2, the corps moved to the front, the brigade holding the extreme right of the line and joining the left of the 12th Corps. Birney and Whipple’s divisions advanced in the afternoon and drove back the enemy’s skirmishers and took some prisoners, but just before dark a terrible musketry fire opened to the right and rear of the advancing divisions. Jackson had borne down upon the 11th Corps unexpectedly, and rolled it up like a scroll, crushing it wherever the most feeble resistance was offered. The two divisions of Birney and Whipple were in a critical position, but darkness favoring, they brushed quietly past the enemy undiscovered. The regiment was finally halted in an open field and detailed for picket-duty. Capt. Tyler gives the following account of that night’s experience in a letter: “We picketed on low ground between the two armies, which were within musket range of each other. Suddenly the air was rent with cheers as Ward’s brigade charged down the Gordonsville plank-road, driving the enemy from a portion of his line. The crash of musketry and the screech of flying shot and shells made the night hideous. We were between two fires. Shells with their burning fuses streamed in every direction over our heads. Occasionally one would burst in its fiery course, and the sharp whiz and thud of the pieces as they struck the ground in our midst reminded us of our mortality, and gave us a foretaste of the struggle to begin with the dawn of the morrow.”
The brigade was attacked at daylight of the 3d, when in column of regiments and unprepared for the shock, and retired somewhat confusedly. It was, however, rapidly reformed in the rear of the Chancellor House, and delivered a counter-charge upon the enemy, who was following closely, as he was crossing an open field towards a wood, and a fierce struggle ensued. The regiment’s conduct here was most heroic; it drove the enemy from its front and held him in check until nearly surrounded, when it retired in good order, repeatedly rallying, and pouring destructive volleys into the faces of the sharply-pursuing foe. The entire 3d Corps fought with great persistence and bravery, and suffered severely. The most determined assaults were repelled by it as it slowly retired behind a second line against which the enemy threw his heavy columns in vain, being repulsed with awful slaughter. The line was held until the 6th, when the whole army recrossed the river and the regiment returned to its former camp. Out of 419 officers and men of the regiment who entered the battle, 234 were either killed or wounded, the chief loss being sustained in the desperate charge of the 3d. Capts. Swart and Mumford and Lieut. Logan O. Tyler were among the killed. Lieut.-Col. Watkins was severely wounded and taken prisoner, and Capt. Tyler and Lieuts. Ball, Atkinson, and Hurst were wounded. Gens. Birney and Graham complimented the regiment warmly for its behavior on the 3d.
In Col. Madill’s report of this battle he says, “Twelve officers out of 24 were killed or wounded. The officers of the regiment behaved splendidly throughout the whole time, in fact each one vied with the other to see who could best do his duty; and how well they did it the large list of killed and wounded but too clearly tells. Scarcely an officer in the regiment but has a bullet-mark on his person. It is useless to try to particularize any of them, as all behaved with much spirit and bravery during the five days we were under fire. Of the bearing of the men I need scarcely speak, for I saw no disposition in any man while under fire to shrink or avoid duty.”
The most fearful baptism of fire and blood through which the 141st passed in its whole history, and in which the laurels it gained by brave and persistent endeavor for the cause of the Union can never fade, was at the battle of Gettysburg. The regiment started on that campaign June 11, and, with its corps, was greeted with enthusiasm by the people along its march. It reached Emmettsburg July 1, and was summoned at once to Gettysburg, where the battle had already opened, the 1st Corps being engaged. It arrived on the field soon after dark, but could light no fires for needed refreshment after a long and fatiguing march. Bates says, “At dawn the regiment was aroused and the brigade formed in line of battle, in column of regiments, doubled on the centre. The 63rd was deployed, and moved to the front, where it soon commenced skirmishing. The rest of the brigade maintained its position until afternoon, when it moved out to take position on the Emmettsburg pike, to the right of the peach-orchard. Just as the brigade was deploying the enemy opened with artillery, raking this position of the field with a converging fire. The 141st was temporarily detached from the main line of the brigade, which faced to the west, and was placed in support of batteries occupying the peach-orchard, and facing south. The angled formed in Sickles’ line at this point was the most exposed part of the whole field, and as the enemy was preparing to make his grand assault of the day, to break and crush the Union lines, he concentrated upon it the most terrific artillery fire. Fortunately, the regiment occupied a cut in the road leading out to Round Top, and was in a measure shielded from this fire, or it would have been completely annihilated. For two hours it held this exposed situation, while shot and shell screamed and whistled about it. At length the enemy’s infantry charged in heavy force along his whole line. Already had his lines reached the fence which skirted the orchard on the south, counting on the capture of the Union guns, when the regiment, which had lain concealed from view, leaped the wall and dashed forward upon the foe. Bewildered by its sudden appearance and firm front, his forces gave ground, and the regiment held its advanced position until the guns could be dragged away by hand to a place of safety, the horses having all been killed. By this time the whole division had become engaged, and the guns being out of the way, the regiment moved to the right and front in order to join the brigade line, and soon connected with the 105th. The enemy’s attack was now renewed with overwhelming force, and the Union lines were forced to give way. Though fearfully torn, the regiment preserved a bold front, and again and again rallied and turned upon the enemy, and when met by the 5th Corps, sent to its relief, was still defiant.”
Col. Madill in his report says, “I took 200 men and 9 officers into the fight, and lost 145 men and 6 commissioned officers killed and wounded; the largest proportionate loss in the corps in the fight, and, I think, in the army, in this or any other battle. The officers and men are entitled to great credit for their conduct, not one of them failing me under the most trying circumstances. To my officers I am under great obligations for their coolness and efficiency.” Capt. Horton says, “It was at the peach-orchard, while fearlessly exposing himself, that we lost the brave Maj. Spaulding, beloved by the whole regiment.” “Capts. Tyler, Clark, and Mercur, and Lieut. Brown were all wounded,” says Col. Madill. “They behaved with great gallantry, exposing themselves wherever duty called. Capt. Horton, though severely stunned by the concussion of a shell, remained on the field, and I am greatly indebted to him, as he was the only captain left with the regiment.” It was held in reserve during the 3d, but suffered some loss during the terrific artillery fire which preceded the last grand charge of the enemy.
The regiment was engaged at Kelly’s Ford, Locust Grove, and Mine Run in the fall campaign, and lost a number of men in the latter fight, Lieut. James Van Auken being killed. Its winter quarters were near Brandy Station, and during the winter a large number of the sick and wounded returned to duty. Capt. Caspar W. Tyler was promoted to major. Lieut.-Col. Watkins was still disabled by wounds received at Chancellorsville, and was appointed by the president a paymaster in the army and his appointment promptly confirmed by the senate, but he preferred to remain with his regiment, and therefore declined the honorable appointment, and afterwards died, amid the roar and tumult of battle, at the head of his command.
The ranks of the regiment were also strengthened during the winter by the transfer thereto of men from the 105th, 99th, and 110th Pennsylvania Regiments.
The regiment entered the spring campaign of 1864 against Richmond, on May 3, as part of the 4th Division of the 2d Corps, the 3d Corps having been broken up and its men assigned to other corps. It crossed the Rapidan at six o’clock on May 4, and bivouacked for the night on its old battle-ground at Chancellorsville. It skirmished slightly with the enemy’s cavalry at Todd’s Tavern, the next morning, and at four o’clock P.M. of the same day counter-marched hastily along the Brock road to its intersection with the plank road, where it immediately formed line of battle and engaged the enemy, who was striving to get possession of these roads. The battle raged till dark, but the advance of the enemy was checked. At daylight the brigade advanced, and, with the regiment, in turn charged, and carried a line of the enemy’s breastworks which he had thrown up during the previous nights. The regiment took in this charge about 50 prisoners and the colors of the 13th North Carolina Regt. The Union line was, however, finally forced back to the Brock road, where it repulsed, with great slaughter, a desperate assault of the enemy.
A more desperate struggle was renewed at Po river with the enemy, and on the 12th the 2d Corps carried a part of the enemy’s works reaching out to the Ny river, making large captures of men and material. The desperate efforts of the enemy to regain his lost ground were most bloodily repulsed. In front of the position occupied by the 141st the large tree stood which was entirely cut off by bullets, which is preserved, as a memorial of the war, at Washington. The enemy were slain by hundreds around this tree. The regiment lost from the 5th to the 18th 9 killed, 98 wounded, and 29 missing.
On May 23, in the afternoon, at the North Anna, the regiment deployed as skirmishers before a redan on the north bank of the river, and charged close up to the works, and just before dark the entire brigade charged and carried the rifle-pits on either flank of the redan, and the colors of the 141st were the first to be planted on the hostile works. The fighting was renewed at Cold Harbor, and at close quarters, a short interval only separating the hostile lines. Grant again moved to the left, leaving the direct road to Richmond, and the regiment crossed the James on the 14th of June, and with the corps moved up towards Petersburg. It participated in the general movement on the rebel works June 18, and in the heat of the charge Lieut.-Col. Watkins, while leading his men, sank to the earth killed by the bullets of the enemy. Lieut. Jones, serving on the brigade staff, was wounded in the breast, his life being fortunately and somewhat singularly preserved by a small memorandum-book which he carried in his breast-pocket. A Minie-ball was found completely buried in the book. Besides these officers, there were also nine men wounded.
Maj. Tyler took command of the regiment, and was soon after promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and Capt. Horton as major. The regiment, on July 1, numbered but 170, and but 7 officers were left of the original 39. One of its officers wrote, about this time, “The old division is now principally in heaven and in hospitals;” and he might have added, truthfully, “the balance is on its way there.”
At Deep Bottom the regiment was engaged on July 26, but returned to be present at the springing of the mine. From this time up to the middle of December the 141st was actively engaged in the various movements about the lines of Petersburg and the railroads leading therefrom, and shared fully in the hardships and severe fighting entailed thereby. During the winter it was posted at the front, near Fort Hell, and was engaged in fatigue and picket duty.
After the engagement at Yellow House, Lieut.-Col. Tyler, in a letter to the Towanda Reporter, gave a history of the regiment, in which he summarized the engagements and losses of the same up to that time. There had been sixteen engagements, counting the three days at Chancellorsville and the continued battles at Spottsylvania and before Petersburg one,--whereas they would more justly be counted as a dozen different engagements. There were Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Auburn, Kelly’s Ford, Morris Farm, Mine Run, Battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor, before Petersburg, Deep Bottom, and Yellow House. In these engagements 600 men had been killed, wounded, and found missing; 5 commissioned officers were killed, 21 wounded, and 1, missing, was then a prisoner in Richmond; 79 enlisted men were killed, 448 wounded, and 46 were reported missing. Beside the killed, 50 men had died of wounds received in action. At the date of the letter, the regiment had present, fit for duty, 14 commissioned officers and 184 enlisted men; its total strength, present and absent, being 413.
On February 29, 1865, Lieut.-Col. Tyler was honorably discharged, and Major Horton succeeded to the command, Captain Charles Mercur being promoted to major. The spring campaigns opened on March 27, the regiment going into action with the division, and driving the enemy’s skirmishers into his main works. It was again at the fore April 6, winning new laurels at the hotly-contested battle of Sailor’s Creek. When the rebel army surrendered on the 9th, the 141st lay across its line of retreat, ready to strike again, if need be. It retired to Clover Hill at night, rested there till the 11th, and then commenced its march for Washington, where it went into camp. On the 28th of May, the recruits whose term of service had not expired were transferred to the 57th Regiment, and the remainder of the 141st were mustered out of service, “covered with glory as with a garment.”
FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS.
(The date following the rank, in each case, is that of muster into service.)
Henry J. Madill, col., Sept. 5, 1862; brev. brig.-gen., Dec. 2, 1864; brev. Maj.-gen., March 13, 1865; discharged, June 11, 1869, to date May 28, 1865.
Guy H. Watkins, lieut.-col., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. B, Sept. 1, 1862; wounded and captured at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; killed at Petersburg, June 18, 1864.
Casper W. Tyler, lieut.-col., Aug. 27, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. H, to maj., June 22, 1864; to lieut.-col., July 4, 1864; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, March 1, 1865.
Joseph H. Horton, lieut.-col., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. A, March 18, 1865; mustered out with regiment.
Israel P. Spaulding, maj., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. I, Dec. 10, 1862; died, July 28, of wounds received at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863.
Charles Mercur, maj., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. K, Feb. 28, 1865; not mustered.
Daniel W. Searle, adjt., Aug. 27, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Co. H, Aug. 29, 1862; discharged, June 2, 1864, for wounds received at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863.
Elisha Brainard, adjt., Aug. 27, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Co. F, July 1, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Robert N. Torrey, quar.-mast., Sept. 1, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Oct. 24, 1864.
Charles D. Cash, quar.-mast., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from sergt.-maj., June 24, 1865; mustered out with regiment.
Wm. Church, surg., Dec. 4, 1861; promoted from asst. surg., 110th P.V., Sept. 10, 1862; discharged by special order, Sept. 22, 1864.
Fred C. Dennison, surg., March 4, 1863; promoted from asst. surg., Dec. 13, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Ezra P. Allen, asst. surg., Sept. 4, 1862; promoted to surg., 83d P.V., Dec. 13, 1862.
Jno. W. Thompson, asst. surg., Sept. 12, 1862; died, July 4, 1864.
Wellington G. Beyerle, asst. surg., Dec. 27, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
David Craft, chap., Aug. 24, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Feb. 11, 1863.
Andrew Barr, chap., Feb. 1, 1864; died at Coatesville, Pa., April 11, 1864.
Lilbum J. Robbins, sergt.-maj., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. B, Jan. 25, 1865; mustered out with regiment.
Henry U. Jones, sergt.-maj., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from sergt., Co. B, Aug. 31, 1863; to 1st lieut., Co. B, Dec 5, 1863.
Joseph G. Fell, sergt.-maj., Aug. 19, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. C, Aug. 29, 1862; died, July 17, of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863; buried in National cemetery, sec. B, grave 46.
Martin O. Codding, quar.-mast. sergt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Co. B, to sergt.-maj., Dec. 17, 1863; to quar.-mast. sergt., Jan. 25, 1865; com. 2d lieut., Co. C, April 19, 1865; not mustered out with regiment.
C. J. Eastabrook, com.-sergt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from sergt., Co. D, Dec. 31, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Chas. M. Morey, com.-sergt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. D, Oct. 1, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Dec. 28, 1862.
Isaac S. Clark, hos. stwd., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. D, Aug. 29, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Michael G. Hill, prin. mus., Aug. 26, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. H, Dec. 31, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Gilbert B. Stewart, prin. mus., Aug. 25, 1862; promoted from mus., Co. G, Dec. 31, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
George W. Jackson, capt., Aug. 21, 1862; resigned, Oct. 31, 1862.
Joseph H. Horton, capt., Aug. 21, 1862; wounded at Spottsylvania Court-House, May 12, 1864; promoted from 1st lieut., Dec. 18, 1862; to lieut.-col., March 18, 1865.
Joseph H. Hurst, capt., Aug. 18, 1862; promoted from sergt. to 1st lieut., Feb. 16, 1863; to capt., April 1, 1865; wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; at Spottsylvania Court-House, May 12, 1864; absent on detached service at muster-out.
James W. Anderson, 1st lieut., Aug. 10, 1862; promoted from corpl. to sergt., Feb. 20, 1863; to 1st sergt., Nov. 1, 1863; to 1st lieut., April 22, 1865; mustered out with company.
Wm. T. Horton, 2d lieut., Aug. 21, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Dec. 22, 1862.
James Van Auken, 2d lieut., Aug. 18, 1862; promoted from sergt., Feb. 16, 1862; killed at Morris Farm, Va., Nov. 27, 1863.
Guy H. Watkins, capt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted to lieut.-col., Sept. 1, 1862.
Wm. T. Davies, capt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Sept. 1, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, May 23, 1863.
Benjamin M. Peck, capt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt. to 2d lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; to capt., Dec. 5, 1863; wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; mustered out with company.
Henry Keeler, 1st lieut., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 2d lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Feb. 9, 1863.
Henry U. Jones, 1st lieut., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from sergt.-major, Dec. 5, 1863; mustered out with company.
Abram J. Swart, capt., Aug. 25, 1862; killed at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863.
Wm. J. Cole, capt., Aug. 25, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; promoted from 1st lieut., Dec. 5, 1863; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, June 27, 1864.
George W. Kilmer, capt., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted from sergt. to 1st sergt., Aug. 23, 1862; to 1st lieut., Dec. 5, 1863; to capt., Aug. 8, 1864; wounded at Morris Farm, Va., Oct. 27, 1864; prisoner from Oct. 27, 1864, to April 14, 1865; mustered out with company.
Harry G. Goff, 2d lieut., Aug. 25, 1862; discharged, Nov. 16, 1862.
Isaac A. Park, capt., Aug. 23, 1862; discharged by special order, April 22, 1863.
Thomas Ryon, capt., Aug. 23, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Dec. 26, 1863; discharged by special order, Aug. 6, 1864.
Marcus E. Warner, capt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt. to 1st lieut., Dec. 5, 1863; to capt., Dec. 20, 1864; mustered out with company.
Henry J. Hudson, 1st lieut., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from sergt. to 1st sergt., Dec. 5, 1863; to 1st lieut., Feb. 14, 1865; mustered out with company.
Morgan Lewis, 2d lieut., Aug. 23, 1862; discharged by special order, Feb. 10, 1863.
Joseph B. Reeve, capt., Aug. 26, 1862; resigned Dec. 10, 1862.
John F. Clark, capt., Aug. 26, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Jan. 1, 1863; resigned, June 16, 1864.
Mason Long, capt., Aug. 25, 1862; promoted from sergt. to 2d lieut., Feb. 16, 1863; to 1st lieut., Dec. 5, 1863; to capt., Dec. 20, 1864; mustered out with company.
Stephen Evans, 1st lieut., Aug. 25, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Feb. 16, 1863; resigned, Nov. 3, 1863.
John M. Jackson, 1st lieut., Aug. 25, 1862; promoted to sergt., Feb. 19, 1863; to 1st sergt., June 1, 1863; 1st lieut., Jan. 24, 1865; wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; mustered out with company.
George C. Page, 2d lieut., Aug. 25, 1862; resigned, Dec. 29, 1862.
Israel P. Spaulding, capt., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted to maj., Dec. 10, 1862.
Edwin A. Spaulding, capt., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted to 1st lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, and at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; discharged, Dec. 16, 1864.
John G. Brown, capt., Aug. 21, 1862; promoted from sergt. to 2d lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; 1st lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; 1st lieut., Dec. 5, 1863; capt., Jan. 24, 1865; wounded at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863; mustered out with company.
Charles Mercur, 1st lieut., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 2d lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; transferred to Co. K, Jan. 5, 1863.
John S. Frink, 1st lieut., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from sergt. to 2d lieut., Dec. 26, 1864; 1st lieut., Jan. 24, 1865; mustered out with company.
Jason K. Wright, capt., Aug. 20, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Dec. 2, 1862.
Charles Mercur, capt., Aug. 22, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., March 2, 1863; commissioned major, Feb. 28, 1865,---not mustered; brevet major, April 9, 1865; mustered out with company.
Henry R. Dunham, 1st lieut., Aug. 20, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, Dec. 9, 1862.
Beebe Gerould, 1st lieut., Aug. 26, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Dec. 5, 1863; mustered out with company.
John S. Diefenbach, 2d lieut., Aug. 20, 1862; died, Oct. 11, 1862.
LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GUY H. WATKINS
In an obituary notice of Col. Watkins, written by the chaplain of the 141st Regiment, it is said:
“He was among the most honorable of men in civil life, and of the most patriotic in the service of his country. Always a zealous advocate of liberty to all men, to the cause of which he brought the support of no ordinary talent, bold and fearless in the defense of his principles, apparently entirely without personal political ambition, he had so endeared himself to the people of his county that his own reticence could not have stayed his preferment. In the practice of the law (a partner of Hon. David Wilmot), no man of his age was ever more admired and respected by the bar and bench of Bradford County, none ever more completely held the entire confidence of the people. While thus ascending rapidly the ladder of professional fame, in the full enjoyment of a very lucrative practice, his term of office as district attorney unexpired, he yielded to his high sense of a man’s duty to his country, and engaged in raising troops to fill his regiment. At one of his meetings for recruiting he said, ‘I never had the conscience to ask any man to go to the war until I was prepared to go myself. Boys, I am going! A man has to die but once, and I had as like die on the battle-field for my country, in a just cause, as to die at home in my bed.’ . . . During the fight at Fredericksburg he languished in his bed with fever, from which he had barely recovered in time to share in the perils of Chancellorsville, where he received a ball through the right lung (in most cases fatal). He rejoined his command long before his full recovery from that wound, and so fully convinced were the officers and men of the regiment that he would never again be able to endure the exposures and privations of active field duty, they joined in urging him to accept the commission of paymaster tendered him by the president. He declined to do so, alleging he would soon be able to serve his country better in the field. His health so far improved that the opening campaign of 1864 found him in command of his regiment, and from May 5, the opening battle of the Wilderness, until his death, he fought and marched with it day and night. . . . Although he lived two hours after receiving the fatal shot, he expired in the line of battle, under the very guns of his country’s foes, surrounded by his command, veterans of many a hard-fought field, so accustomed to the ravages of death as to become indifferent to its scenes, but who now wept bitterly as they beheld the expiring struggle of their noble leader, who refused to be taken to the rear, preferring to die among his comrades. . . . Time can never efface the memory of Lieut.-Col. Guy H. Watkins from the hearts of those who knew him. The pen of the historian will inscribe his name high on the roll of honor, the halo of glory which emblazoned his rude dying pillow will be effulgent forever. The tenement of clay, the marble spire which marks his last resting-place, will perish and pass away, but the memory and fame of the noble dead are imperishable—immortal.”
THE SEVENTEENTH CAVALRY---ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SECOND REGIMENT
Pennsylvania was required to furnish three regiments of cavalry by the call of the president of July 2, 1862. The 17th was one of these regiments, and was recruited as follows: Co. A, in Beaver county; B, in Susquehanna county; C, in Lancaster county; D, in Bradford and Susquehanna counties; E, in Lebanon county; F, in Cumberland county; G, in Franklin county; H, in Schuylkill county; I, in Perry county and the city of Philadelphia; K, in Luzerne county; L, in Montgomery and Chester counties; and M, in Wayne county. The regiment was organized Oct. 18, at Camp Simmons, near Harrisburg, and the following officers were elected: Josiah H. Kellogg, colonel; John B. McAllister, lieutenant-colonel; David B. Hartranft, Coe Durland, and Reuben R. Reinhold, majors. Col. Kellogg was a captain in the 1st United States Cavalry, and a few of the officers and men had served in the Mexican war, but the greater portion of the regiment were inexperienced in military duty, being mostly farmers, lumbermen, and mechanics, but a great number were excellent horsemen. A few days subsequent to its organization the regiment moved to Camp McClellan, a little way north of Harrisburg, where sabers and pistols were issued, and, a few days later, horses and equipments, and Col. Kellogg at once put forth the most strenuous efforts to perfect the drill and discipline of his command.
The regiment moved to Washington, Nov. 25, and for several days was encamped on East Capitol Hill, and then was ordered to the front. It was first under fire at Occoquan, Va., where, on Dec. 22, it encountered Hampton’s Cavalry Legion, and, after a sharp skirmish, was driven and pursued some distance across the Occoquan creek. Here three companies, C, D, and I, under Maj. Reinhold, were detailed to picket the creek from Occoquan to Wolf Run shoals. Roving parties of rangers harassed them, and the right of the line was attacked by a superior force on the 25th and 26th, but which was repulsed, and some prisoners taken.
On the 27th the enemy attempted to cross the creek, at the telegraph road to Occoquan, with cavalry and artillery, but Maj. Reinhold, with his three companies, successfully frustrated their attempts.
Having been reinforced by a detachment of the 2d Pennsylvania Cavalry, Maj. Reinhold crossed the next morning to reconnoiter, and fell in with Stuart’s revel cavalry, which at once attacked, and, being overpowered, the command was forced to retire and recross the creek. The detachment rejoined the regiment Jan. 5, 1863, near Stafford Court-House. Here the 17th was assigned to the 2d Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division, where it was associated with the 6th New York, 6th United States, and 8th Pennsylvania, commanded by Col. Thomas C. Devin, in which it served throughout its term of three years. Cos. C and I, under Capt. Spera, performed escort duty for Gen. Meade, of the 5th Corps, from Feb. 18 till after the battle of Chancellorsville, and during that engagement were kept busy in the transmission of orders.
The 17th was one of the only three cavalry regiments accompanying Hooker on the Chancellorsville campaign, Stoneman and Averill having the major part of that arm of the service with them on their raid in the rear of the enemy.
Under Gen. Pleasonton the 17th aided materially in checking the rout of the 11th Corps on the evening of May 2, when outflanked and crushed by Jackson, and turning back the victorious enemy from his advantage and attempt to sever the Union army and gain its only line of retreat. But few troops were in position to stay Jackson’s course, when Pleasonton, who had been supporting Sickles in his demonstration on the flank and rear of Jackson, was returning with the 8th and 17th towards the centre. He reached the breastworks just as the hordes of Jackson were approaching that part of the field. Pleasonton, divining the condition of affairs by the disorder in the Union lines, ordered Maj. Keenan, of the 8th, to charge with all his force, and with impetuosity, full upon the head of the advancing rebel column, though he knew the execution of the order would involve the sacrifice of that gallant regiment. But it would check for the moment the rebel onslaught, thereby giving him time to bring up his artillery and thus interpose a more effectual barrier. Gen. Pleasonton says of this movement, “I immediately ran up this battery of mine at a gallop, put it into position, ordered it unlimbered, and double-shotted with canister, and directed the men to aim at the ground-line of the parapet that the 11th Corps had thrown up, about two hundred yards off. Our artillery, as a general-rule, over-shoot, and I ordered them to fire low, because the shot would ricochet. I then set to work with two squadrons of the remaining regiment (the 17th Pennsylvania) to clear this field of fugitives, and to stop what cannon and ammunition we could and put them in position, and I managed to get twenty-two guns loaded, double-shotted, and aiming on the space in front of us for about a quarter or half a mile, where the whole woods appeared to be alive with large bodies of men. This was just at dusk. I had ordered those pieces not to fire unless I gave the word, because I wanted the effect of an immense shock. There was an immense body of men, and I wanted the whole weight of metal to check them. I was about to give the word ‘fire’ when one of the soldiers at a piece said, ‘General, that is our flag.’ I said to one of my aids, ‘Mr. Thompson, ride forward there at once, and let me know what flag that is.’ He then went to within about one hundred yards, and those people cried out, ‘Come on! We are friends.’ He started to move on, when the whole line of woods blazed with musketry, and they commenced leaping over the parapet and charged on the guns; and about the same time I saw from eight to ten rebel battle-flags run up along the whole line. I immediately gave the order to fire, and the fire actually swept the men away; it seemed to blow those men in front clear over the parapet. We had this fight between musketry and artillery there for nearly an hour. At one time they got within fifty yards of the guns. The two squadrons of the 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry were left, and were all raw men, new troops, and all I could do with them was to make a show. I formed them in a single line, with sabers drawn, with orders to charge in case the enemy came to the guns. They sat in the rear of the guns, and I have no doubt the rebels took them for the head of a heavy column, as the country sloped back behind them, and they could not see what was back of them.” And so artillery, supported by a single line of raw cavalry, checked and held the onset of Stonewall Jackson’s trained troops, inspired by success. It was a severe ordeal for the 17th, but the steady front it presented saved the day, and Hooker was enabled to reform his torn columns and present once more an unbroken front. Sickles’ troops came up early in the evening and took a position in support of the guns, and relieved the regiment. Gen. Pleasonton, in a general order, complimented the 17th for its coolness, and said it had “excited the highest admiration.”
The cavalry under Buford and Gregg, on June 9, crossed the Rappahannock at Beverly and Kelley’s fords, and attacked the enemy’s cavalry, supported by his infantry, the 17th participating in the engagement, which lasted the greater part of the day. The rebels moved up a heavy force, and the Union cavalry retired, the 17th being the rear-guard and under a heavy artillery fire. The regiment picketed the line of the river from Beverly Ford to Sulphur Springs, while the main body of the army marched northward, rejoining its division on the 15th. It met the enemy again half a mile west of Middleburg early on the morning of the 21st, repelled his attack, and drove him in the direction of Upperville, and near that town charged his left flank under a heavy artillery fire, and finally drove him in confusion.
At Gettysburg Buford met the enemy on the morning of July 1, and opened that terrible series of bloody battles. Gen. Pleasonton says, “Buford, with his 4000 cavalry, attacked Hill, and for four hours splendidly resisted his advance, until Reynolds and Howard were able to hurry to the front and give their assistance. To the intrepidity, courage, and fidelity of Gen. Buford and his brave division the country and the army owe the field of Gettysburg.”
The cavalry, during the remainder of the battles of the 2d and 3d, was active in preventing flanking movements of the enemy and protecting the lines of communication with the base of supply. On the 6th the enemy was encountered west of Boonsboro, and driven from his position, after a sharp fight, and on the following day he renewed the attack, but was again driven, the 17th Pennsylvania and 9th New York having a severe fight on the skirmish-line with him.
The cavalry was exceedingly active in the fall campaign. Capt. Theodore W. Bean, in his manual of the 17th, thus summarizes the action of the regiment therein: “At Raccoon Ford you left your horses under shelter, and rushed to the support of your brothers in arms (4th New York), who were gallantly struggling against fearful odds, and, under a murderous fire of grape and canister from the enemy, saved them from capture, re-established the line, and held it until relieved by the 12th Army Corps; for which you received the special commendation of the division commander. In the subsequent movements of the same year, when the wily rebel chief proposed to flank the Army of the Potomac, and thus gain possession of the capital, history will accord to the regiment an honorable association with the commands that beat back his advance at Morton’s Ford, Stevensburg, Brandy Station, and Oak Hill, where, holding the extreme left of the line, you skillfully changed front as a distinctive organization, by direction of your immediate commander, anticipating a well-intended surprise, and repulsing, with heavy loss, a reckless charge of cavalry, for which the enemy at that time were notorious. In the counter-movements of the campaign, closing with the battle of Bealton Station and Rickeysville, the occupation of the line on the Rapidan, and the indecisive engagement at Mine Run, the regiment was present, bearing its share of the toils, and sustained its proportion of the losses, and, with the command, went into winter-quarters on the battle-beaten plains of Culpepper.”
A detachment of 200 of the regiment, under Capt. Spera, participated in the raid of Kilpatrick on and about Richmond in February and March, 1864.
In the campaign of 1864 of General Grant on Richmond, the 17th was actively and honorably engaged. The brigade fought dismounted on May 6, foiling the enemy’s attempts to turn the left flank of the Union army, and being heavily engaged the entire day. On the 8th, the 17th suffered severely while holding the Spottsylvania road against the repeated attacks of the rebels. The 5th Corps relieved the regiment. On the 9th, Sheridan’s grand raid towards Richmond began. At Yellow House the 17th, dismounted, was of the charging column, and drove the enemy, and at night picketed the line, nearly reaching to the rebel fortifications of Richmond. The 1st Division repaired Meadow bridge, which had been destroyed, and the 17th led the column in crossing in the face of the enemy’s infantry and artillery on the opposite side, and then delivered a most determined charge, driving him from his works in haste and confusion. While the battle was raging a furious thunder-storm arose, adding to the terror of the scene. Lieut. Joseph E. Shultz was killed in the charge, being shot through the heart and expiring instantly.
Sheridan rejoined the army near Chesterfield Station on the 25th.
On the 28th two squadrons of the regiment were sent towards Hanover, driving in the enemy’s skirmishers, and on the 30th, while endeavoring to open communication with the left of the army, brought on the battle of Bethesda Church. That same day the regiment was engaged near Old Church Tavern, where Lieut. John Anglun, regimental quartermaster, was killed, and Capt. William Tice wounded. At Cold Harbor the regiment, holding the left of the line, charged dismounted, and in its first advance was repulsed, suffering severe loss, but renewed the charge and routed the enemy, and held the captured position against successive attempts at recapture, punishing the enemy with great loss.
At daylight of June 1 he made a most desperate assault, determined upon victory, but being allowed to come within short range, was swept away by artillery and the fire of the repeating carbines of the cavalry, the ground being covered with his dead. From this point Sheridan moved towards Lynchburg. On June 10 the 17th returned to the Spottsylvania battle-ground, from which it brought away 35 wounded Union soldiers, found in a famishing condition in a field-hospital. On rejoining the column at Trevillian Station, where Sheridan was hotly engaged, the 17th was immediately sent to the front, and during the 11th and 12th endured hard fighting, losing heavily. Finding the enemy in superior numbers, Sheridan returned. The 17th was engaged near White House Landing on the 21st, at Jones’ Bridge on the 23d, and at Charles City Court-House on the 24th, sustaining considerable loss in each engagement.
It was actively engaged in all of Sheridan’s movements in and about the lines before Petersburg, and around Richmond, from this time until the opening of the Shenandoah Valley campaign, in which it also participated.
Sheridan was appointed to the command of the army in that valley early in August, and the 1st and 3d Divisions of cavalry were sent to his aid. Maj. Reinhold resigned and was honorably discharged on the arrival of the 17th in the valley, and Capt. Weidner H. Spera was commissioned to succeed him.
On the evening of Aug. 11, the enemy making a stand in his retreat, the 17th, having the advance in the pursuit, charged, and after an obstinate resistance dislodged him from his position, and he retreated rapidly up the valley. On the 16th the enemy attacked the pickets of the brigade, the 17th holding the centre of the brigade line; but the division was at once moved, and the confident rebels repulsed, losing 2 battle-flags and 300 taken prisoners by the Union force. Gen. Devin, then commanding the division, was wounded.
On the 25th the enemy was met again at Kearneysville, where his infantry was doubled up and thrown into the utmost confusion. The Union forces retired in the direction of Shepherdstown, and when near that place the enemy attacked Custer’s division. In order to divert attention from Custer, the 17th charged upon the enemy’s flank, and dashing down a narrow road in column of fours, it drove a body of his infantry into the woods and created consternation in his ranks. In this charge Lieut. James Potter was killed. For three weeks the skirmishing was almost constant, the 17th being engaged at Smithfield on the 29th; at White Post, Sept. 1; at the Berryville and Buncetown crossing of the Opequan, Sept. 7, in which Capt. Martin R. Reinhold was killed; and at Bunker Hill on the 13th.
At noon of the 18th Sheridan assumed the offensive, the cavalry moving quietly without the sound of the bugle, and encamped for the night a mile east of Summit Point, where it drew 60 rounds of ammunition per man, all regimental baggage and supply trains being sent to Harper’s Ferry. At one o’clock on the morning of the 19th the reveille was sounded, and before daylight the battle had opened. The 1st Division drove the enemy from his position at the ford of the Opequan on the Stevenson Station road, and the fighting was “lovely along the whole line,” Sheridan having attacked with his entire army. Within half a mile of the Valley pike, near the station, the enemy massed his cavalry to dispute Averill’s advance. Gen. Devin charged with his brigade, the 17th in advance, and drove him in confusion towards Winchester, and opened the way for the junction of Torbert’s and Averill’s commands. The enemy’s lines were again charged and driven from their position, the fighting being severe. Gen. Sheridan reported he had attacked Gen. Early’s forces, and, “after a most desperate engagement, which lasted from early in the morning until five o’clock in the evening, completely defeated him, driving him through Winchester and capturing about 2500 prisoners, 5 pieces of artillery, 9 battle-flags, and the most of his wounded.”
The regiment was after the battle posted at Winchester, where it was employed in guarding against the attacks of guerrillas, and in keeping open communication with the base of supplies. A detachment of the 17th was sent to Martinsburg, Oct. 15, under Maj. Spera, and while there was ordered to escort Gen. Sheridan to the front, when the battle opened, “With Sheridan twenty miles away,” and with him performed the noted ride,* rendered famous by T. Buchanan Read, and participated in the battle that crushed Early’s forces, and drove his broken and shattered columns out of the valley. The detachment returned to Winchester on the 20th with dispatches, and on the 27th the regiment was relieved and rejoined the division.
Gen. Torbert led his command on Dec. 19 by Front Royal into the Valley
of Virginia, and meeting the enemy on the 22d, at White’s Ford, drove him,
and again the day following near Gordonsville; but finding his infantry
in force, was obliged to fall back.
* Gen. Sheridan was at Winchester the night of Oct. 18. The escort encamped at Mill Creek, a mile south of the town, with orders to be in readiness to move at five o’clock in the morning following. Rapid artillery firing was heard in the direction of the front very early in the morning, and about eight A.M. the general came riding leisurely along, remarking that the firing was no doubt occasioned by a reconnaissance which had been ordered for that morning. But, shortly after passing Milltown, fugitives from the field put another and more serious interpretation to the heavy cannonade. At once all trains going to and returning from the front were ordered to be parked to the right and left of the road near Milltown. Maj. Spera was ordered by the general to take twenty men, with the best horses of the escort, and follow him, as he was going to “move lively” to the front. At the same time he ordered Cols. Thorn and Alexander to do “what they could in stemming the tide of fugitives.”
On the way up the pike towards Newton, the crowds of men and wagons thickened, until the multitude became almost a jam, so much so it was impossible to keep the pike, and Gen. Sheridan struck to the left of the road, dashing through fields and over fences and ditches. He spoke to few, occasionally crying out, “Face the other way, boys!”
On arriving upon the field, the general struck to the right of the road,
where were Gens. Wright, Getty, and members of his own staff, one of whom
remarked, “General, I suppose Jubal Early intends driving you out of the
valley.” “What!” exclaimed Sheridan, with his peculiarly forcible and pungent
style, “drive me out of the valley---three corps of infantry and all my
cavalry? I’ll lick him before night!” and he did, redeeming the field most
The 17th was of the rear-guard in the retreat, and successfully held the enemy in check in his repeated attacks on the line. Lieut. Alfred F. Lee was killed in repelling one of these attacks. The regiment went into permanent quarters in the vicinity of Winchester, and scouted and performed picket duty during the winter, detachments occasionally going out against roving bands of the enemy.
On Dec. 27, Col. Kellogg was honorably discharged, and Lieut.-Col. Anderson promoted to the vacancy, Maj. Durland being promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and Capts. Luther B. Kurtz and William Thompson as majors.
On Feb. 24, 1865, Sheridan led the cavalry in a grand raid upon the James River canal and other communications of Richmond, wherein great destruction was wrought in the lines of transportation and rebel supplies. Of this raid the general himself says, “There perhaps never was a march performed where nature offered such impediments and showed herself in such gloom as this; incessant rain, deep and almost impassable streams, swamps and mud were encountered and overcome with a cheerfulness on the part of the troops that was truly admirable. To every officer and man of the 1st and 3d Cavalry Divisions I return my sincere thanks for patriotic, unmurmuring, and soldierly conduct.”
Sheridan reached the army on March 26, before Petersburg, just as it was moving on its last campaign, and at once took the van of the triumphant forces. At Stony creek the cavalry became engaged, the 2d Brigade hastening forward to the support of Davies’ Division, which was forced back, the 17th losing a number wounded and missing in the engagement. On April 1, at daylight, the Union lines charged the enemy’s works, the division capturing 600 prisoners and 2 battle-flags. The loss in the 17th was severe, Capt. James Ham being among the killed, and Capts. English, Donehue, Reinhold, and Lieut. Anglun were among the wounded. Rapid marching and hard fighting continued until the 6th, when Gen. Ewell and one wing of the rebel army was captured; from that point to Appomattox Court-House a running fight was kept up with the enemy’s advance till the whole rebel army laid down its arms. The cavalry under Sheridan contributed largely to this joyful result, and the 17th sustained its hard-earned reputation for gallantry to the last shot of the last skirmish.
From Appomattox the regiment returned to Petersburg, and after a week’s rest marched to the vicinity of Washington, where it remained in camp till June 16, when it was mustered out of service. A detachment of the regiment, however, was consolidated with parts of the 1st and 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry, forming the 2d Provisional Cavalry, and remained in service till Aug. 7, when it was mustered out at Louisville, Ky.
Gen. Devin says, in his farewell order to the 17th Cavalry, “In five successive campaigns, and in over three-score engagements, you have nobly sustained your part. Of the many gallant regiments from your State none has a brighter record, none has more freely shed its blood on every battle-field from Gettysburg to Appomattox. Your gallant deeds will be ever fresh in the memory of your comrades of the Iron Brigade and the 1st Division. Soldiers, farewell!”
FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS.
(The date following the rank, in each case, is that of muster into service.)
Josiah H. Kellogg, col., Nov. 19, 1862; resigned, Dec. 2, 1864.
James Q. Anderson, col., Sept. 6, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. A, to maj., June 13, 1863; to lieut.-col., April 30, 1864; to col., Jan. 23, 1865; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
John B. McAllister, lieut.-col., Oct. 7, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. I, Nov. 6, 1862; resigned, May 31, 1863.
Coe Durland, lieut.-col., Oct. 23, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. M, to maj., Nov. 20, 1862; to lieut.-col., Feb. 13, 1865; brev. col., March 13, 1865; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
David B. Hartranft, maj., Oct. 14, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. L, Nov 20, 1862; resigned, Jan. 11, 1863.
Reuben P. Reinhold, maj., Oct. 2, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Co. E, Oct. 22, 1862; resigned, Aug. 9, 1864.
Weidner H. Spera, maj., Oct. 24, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. C, Aug. 10, 1864; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Luther B. Kurtz, maj., Oct. 30, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. G, Feb. 13, 1865; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Wm. Thompson, maj., Nov. 1, 1862; promoted from capt., Co. H, Feb. 13, 1865; brev. lieut.-col., March 13, 1865; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Perry J. Tate, adj., Sept. 23, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Co. E, Nov. 20, 1862; resigned, May 31, 1863.
James A. Clark, adj., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Co. K, Nov. 6, 1863; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
John Anglun, quar.-mast., Oct. 2, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Co. K, Nov. 21, 1862; killed at Old Church Tavern, Va., May 30, 1864.
Edwin A. Bean, quar.-mast., Sept. 17, 1862; promoted from sergt., Co. L, July 22, 1864; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Henry M. Donehue, com. sub., Sept. 6, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. A, Nov. 19, 1862; to capt., Co. B, Dec. 29, 1862.
John P. Ross, com. sub., Sept. 6, 1862; promoted from com.-sergt., Co. A, to com.-sergt., Nov. 1, 1862; to com. sub., May 26, 1865; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Isaac Walborn, surg., Jan. 10, 1863; resigned, Sept. 28, 1863.
Thad. S. Gardner, surg., Aug. 2, 1862; promoted from asst. surg., 62d P. V., Oct. 23, 1863; resigned, April 6, 1864.
Geo. B. Pomeroy, surg., April 8, 1863; promoted from asst. surg., 110th P. V., May 2, 1864; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Jas. B. Moore, asst. surg., Oct. 23, 1862; resigned, July 18, 1863.
J. Wilson De Witt, asst. surg., April 10, 1863; discharged by general order, June 25, 1865.
Henry A. Wheeler, chap., Nov. 21, 1862; resigned, March 8, 1863.
Robert S. Morton, chap., March 24, 1865; discharged by general order, June 25, 1865.
Samuel M. Drew, vet. surg., June 4, 1863; discharged, Aug. 7, to date Jan. 16, 1865.
Jerome I. Stanton, sen. maj., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., Co. B, June 10, 1865; mustered out with regiment, June 16, 1865.
Isaac N. Grubb, sen. maj., Sept. 26, 1862; promoted from corp., Co. I, Aug. 23, 1863; to 1st lieut., Co. I, July 22, 1864.
Stanley N. Mitchell, sen. maj., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. B, Aug. 1, 1864; to 2d lieut., Co. D, Dec. 28, 1864.
James Brannon, sen. maj., Sept. 22, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. M, July 21, 1864; to 2d lieut., Co. M, June 10, 1865.
Geo. S. Drexler, sen. maj., Sept. 26, 1862; promoted from quar.-mast. sergt., Co. I, Nov. 1, 1862; transferred to Co. I, Aug. 25, 1864.
Thomas H. Boyd, quar.-mast. sergt., Oct. 6, 1864; promoted from priv., Co. I, Jan. 1, 1865; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
John A. English, com.-sergt., Sept. 6, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. A, May 26, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
Henry J. Tarble, hosp. stew., Sept. 22, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. M, Oct. 4, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
Peter F. Clark, hosp. stew., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. K, March 1, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
John M. Furman, hosp. stew., Oct. 3, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. D, Nov. 20, 1862; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, April 11, 1863.
James N. Smith, hosp. stewd., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. B, April 9, 1863; discharged on surgeon’s certificate, date unknown.
Thomas Lawrence, saddler, Sept. 30, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. K, April 6, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
Wm. C. Walker, saddler, Oct. 3, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. M, Nov. 1, 1862; transferred to Co. M, April 6, 1863.
James Hyde, chief bugler, Feb. 28, 1864; promoted from bugler, Co. B, Nov. 1, 1861; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Jonathan M. Darrow, farrier, Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. B, Nov. 1, 1862; transferred to Co. B, May 26, 1863.
Charles Ames, capt., Oct. 28, 1862; resigned, May 22, 1863.
Warren F. Simrell, capt., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., Co. B, July 22, 1864; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Charles F. Williard, 1st lieut., Oct. 4, 1862; resigned, April 7, 1863.
Johnson Rogers, 1st lieut., Oct. 30, 1862; promoted from 2d lieut., Nov. 1, 1863; discharged by general order, June 20, 1865.
Stanley N. Mitchell, 2d lieut., Sept. 21, 1862; promoted from sergt.-maj., Dec. 28, 1864; discharged, May 15, 1865.
THE ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIRST REGIMENT.
This regiment was one of the regiments of nine months’ drafted militia, called into the service in November, 1862. The regiment was composed of men from the counties of Bradford, Juniata, Lycoming, Somerset, and Tioga, Cos. B, C, D, and G being wholly or in most part filled up in Bradford County. The regimental organization was effected about Nov. 15, Everard Bierer, of Fayette county, being appointed colonel; Theophilus Humphrey, of Bradford County, lieutenant-colonel; and Robert C. Cox, of Tioga county, major. Col. Bierer had served as captain in the 11th Reserve Regiment, and had been appointed commandant of Camp Curtin, with the rank of colonel, Oct. 28.
Nov. 27 the regiment left camp for Washington by rail; thence by water to Norfolk, and thence by rail to Suffolk, Va., where it was assigned to Spinola’s Brigade of Ferry’s Division, Gen. Dix commanding the department. A school for instruction of officers was at once established, and drill thoroughly prosecuted.
The regiment does not appear to have been in any important engagements, though it was of Gen. Prince’s force, sent to relieve Gen. Foster, besieged at Washington, N. C., on Tar river, and was one of the two regiments which landed therefrom to storm the Hill’s Point battery, both being withdrawn before the assault was made. It then proceeded with Spinola’s Keystone Brigade, of which it formed a part, to break the rear lines of the enemy investing Gen. Foster, but Spinola again withdrew. A gunboat having in the mean time run past the batteries, Gen. Foster ran down and returned to New Bern, and took command in person, concentrated his troops, and marched to the relief of the beleaguered garrison, when the siege was hastily raised by the rebel force, which retreated.
The brigade was then posted at Washington, N. C., for the defense of the place, and on May 29 Col. Bierer relieved Spinola of the command.
The regiment returned, with the brigade, to Fortress Monroe, near the close of June, where the 171st remained till July 11, when it marched to Boonesboro, and thence to a pass in the South mountain, where it remained until Lee had escaped into Virginia. It then proceeded to Frederick, and on Aug. 3 was ordered to Harrisburg, where it was mustered out of service on the 6th to the 8th of that month.
(The date following the rank, in each case, is that of muster into service.)
Everard Bierer, col., Nov. 18, 1862; discharged, to date Aug. 8, 1863.
Theophilus Humphrey, lieut.-col., Nov. 19, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Robert C. Cox, maj., Nov. 19, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Samuel D. Sturgis, adj., Nov. 21, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Isaac J. Post, quar.-mast., Oct. 17, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. A, 151st P. V., Nov. 22, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Thos. B. Lashells, surg., Dec. 6, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Thomas C. Pollock, asst. surg., Oct. 29, 1862; discharged, Dec. 30, 1862.
Wm. B. Hull, asst. surg., Nov. 1, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
John B. Culver, asst. surg., May 26, 1863; mustered out with regiment.
N. B. Critchfield, chap., Nov. 28, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
A. E. Chamberlain, sen. maj., Nov. 2, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. B, Nov. 18, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Seth Homet, quar.-mast. sergt., Oct. 28, 1862; promoted from sergt., Co. D, Nov. 18, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Wesley Wirt, com.-sergt., Oct. 28, 1862; mustered out with regiment.
Hiram D. Deming, hosp. stew., Nov. 1, 1862; promoted from priv., Co. A; mustered out with regiment.
Ulysses E. Horton, capt., Nov. 12, 1862; mustered out with company.
Wm. Jennings, 1st lieut., Nov. 12, 1862; mustered out with company.
Wm. J. Brown, 2d lieut., Nov. 12, 1862; mustered out with company.
Wm. B. Hall, capt., Nov. 10, 1862; resigned, April 11, 1863.
Clinton E. Wood, capt., Nov. 10, 1862; promoted from 1st lieut., April 11, 1863; mustered out with company.
Sanderson P. Stacey, 1st lieut., Nov. 14, 1862; promoted from 2d lieut., April 11, 1863; mustered out with company.
James H. Van Ness, 2d lieut., Nov. 2, 1862; promoted from 1st sergt., April 11, 1863; mustered out with company.
Minier H. Hinman, capt., Oct. 31, 1862; mustered out with company.
Hiram A. Black, 1st lieut., Oct. 31, 1862; mustered out with company.
Loomis B. Camp, 2d lieut, Oct. 31, 1862; mustered out with company.
Albert Judson, capt., Nov. 12, 1862; mustered out with company.
Samuel C. Robb, 1st lieut., Nov. 12, 1862; mustered out with company.
Samuel B. Pettingell, 2d lieut., Nov. 12, 1862; mustered out with company.
THE TWO HUNDRED AND SEVENTH REGIMENT.
This regiment was recruited for one year’s service, in July and August, 1864, Cos. A, D, H, and K being filled up in Tioga county, B, E, and G in Tioga, Bradford, York and Lancaster counties, C in Clinton county, F in Cumberland and Franklin counties, and I in Lycoming county.
The regiment was organized Sept. 8, at Camp Curtin, with the following field-officers: Robert C. Cox, formerly major of the 171st Pennsylvania Vols., colonel; W. W. S. Snoddy, lieutenant-colonel; Victor A. Elliott, major. On the 12th it moved to the front, and on its arrival at City Point was ordered to duty with the Army of the James.
The regiment first came under fire on the picket-line on the Bermuda front, Nov. 16, the enemy charging the line on the evening of that day, and the regiment losing 2 killed and a number wounded in the brisk engagement which ensued. Previous to this attack the videttes of both armies fraternized in the most amicable manner, exchanging papers for coffee and tobacco.
The regiment was engaged, March 25, 1865, in the assault and recapture of Fort Steadman, losing 1 man killed and 16 wounded, being fortunately sheltered by a precipitous bank. It captured many prisoners and 1 battle-flag.
In the assault on the enemy’s works in the early morning of April 2, the 207th, led by Col. Cox, distinguished itself greatly. The grand assault of three divisions was signaled just at daybreak, and amid a storm of grape and canister, and musketry at short range, Col. Cox led his regiment, closely followed by the rest of the brigade, across the picket-lines of both forces, pausing but an instant at the double line of chevaux-de-frise, which strong hands seized as the pioneers cut away the obstructions, and swinging them open like gates rushed through, and with wild shouts carried the enemy’s main line and planted the regimental colors on the fort commanding the Jerusalem plank-road. From this the brigade, its regiments now commingled, turned to the left and rushed on and captured three other works with five pieces of artillery. The guns were immediately turned upon the enemy and dispositions made to hold the line, which was done, against successive and desperate attempts to retake it, each assault being repulsed with fearful slaughter. In speaking of the assault, Col. Cox, in his official report, says, "Officers and men fell on every side. My color-sergeant, George J. Horning, fell, pierced with seven balls, and three of the color-guard fell wounded by his side. Sergt. C. H. Ilgenfritz, of Co. E, sprang forward and raised the colors, and my men rushed over the enemy’s works and planted the colors on their fort."
Col. Mathews, in command of the brigade, in his report says, "To Col. R. C. Cox, who commanded the leading regiment, I owe the entire good success that attended the charge. Foremost among those who scaled the enemy’s works, cheering his men by his courage, preparing to meet the many charges of the enemy to retake the lines, and thus beating them back each time with heavy losses in killed and wounded, he is deserving of the highest praise." Col. Mathews, though suffering from illness, had up to ten A.M. remained in command at the fort, but was then relieved by Col. Cox. A heavy fire was kept up by both sides, the enemy holding their inner line, and also one of his batteries away to the left on the first line, which latter enfiladed partially the position captured by the brigade. The enemy’s own ammunition, found in the fort, having been exhausted in his own punishment, supplies were brought from Fort Sedgwick, the men having to cross grounds in so doing commanded by the enemy’s guns. Several were killed while crossing, but enough ammunition was secured to keep the guns in play till four P.M., when the firing ceased. The entire loss of the regiment in the engagement was 37 killed, 140 wounded, and 8 missing. Capt. James Carothers was killed, and Lieuts. Alonzo R. Case and Allen G. Dodd wounded. Ten officers were wounded.
Finding the enemy had evacuated his position during the night, the regiment about six o’clock the next morning prepared for the pursuit. The division was charged with keeping open the line of supply along the South Side railroad. At Burkesville the column halted, and the 207th was engaged in picket-duty and in taking charge of and paroling rebel prisoners.
It was mustered out of service near Alexandria, May 31, with the exception of its recruits, who were transferred to the 51st Pennsylvania Vols.
FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS.
(The date following the rank, in each case, is that of muster into service.)
Robert C. Cox, col., Sept. 6, 1864; promoted from priv., Co. B, Sept. 9, 1864; brev. brig.-gen., Apr. 2, 1865; mustered out with regiment.
Wm. W. S. Snoddy, lieut.-col., Sept. 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Victor A. Elliott, maj., Sept. 14, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Geo. M. Bastian, adj., Sept. 6, 1864; promoted from priv., Co. B, Sept. 29, 1864; wounded at Fort Steadman, Va., March 25, 1865; brev. Capt., Apr. 2, 1865; mustered out with regiment.
Wm. F. Weseman, quar.-mast., Sept. 6, 1864; promoted from priv., Co. B, Sept. 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Washington Burg, surg., Sept. 12, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Alexander E. Linn, asst. surg., Sept. 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Henry S. Lindley, asst. surg., Sept. 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
James T. Wilson, chap., Sept. 9, 1864; mustered out with regiment.
Darius L. Deane, quar.-mast. sergt., Sept. 8, 1864; wounded at Petersburg, Apr. 2, 1865; not accounted for.
Chauncey F. Dartt, com.-sergt., Sept. 8, 1864; promoted from priv. Co. K; wounded at Petersburg, Apr. 2, 1865; discharged by general order, May 24, 1865.
John S. McGinness, hosp. stew., Aug. 29, 1864; promoted to asst. surg., 199th P. V., Jan 7, 1865.
James A. Rogers, capt., Sept. 10, 1864; brev. Maj., Apr. 2, 1865; mustered out with company.
Alonzo R. Case, 1st lieut., Sept. 10, 1864; died Apr. 3, of wounds received at Petersburg, Va., Apr. 2, 1865.
J. H. Schambacher, 1st lieut., Sept. 10, 1864; wounded at Petersburg, Va., Apr. 2, 1865; promoted from 2d lieut., May 11, 1865; mustered out with company.
Tracy S. Knapp, 2d lieut., Aug. 27, 1864; promoted from 1st sergt., May 11, 1865; mustered out with company.
Lewis Small, capt., Sept. 2, 1864; mustered out with company.
Richard C. Ivory, 1st lieut., Sept. 6, 1864; brev. Capt., Apr. 2, 1865; mustered out with company.
Wm. L. Keagle, 2d lieut., Sept. 7, 1864; mustered out with company.
Joseph W. Rutt, capt., Sept. 12, 1864; wounded at Petersburg, Apr. 2, 1865; brev. Maj., Apr. 2, 1865; mustered out with company.
P. H. Blanchard, 1st lieut., Sept. 13, 1864; wounded at Petersburg, Apr. 2, 1865; mustered out with company.
Henry G. Stephen, 2d lieut., Sept. 12, 1864; mustered out with company.
From Craft’s History of Bradford County (pgs. 247-249)
Beside the organizations heretofore enumerated (which, as will be seen, contained one or more organized companies recruited in Bradford County), a large number of volunteers and recruits went into other organizations, both outside and inside of the limits of the State of Pennsylvania. The southern tier regiments of New York received a large number of Bradford County volunteers,--not less, probably, than from 300 to 500 men. The 15th and 50th Regts. of New York Engineers both had many men from this county. The 51st, 56th, 97th, 155th, 203d, and 210th Pennsylvania Regts. had recruits in their ranks from Bradford County also, but no fully organized companies held positions therein formed of Bradford men. The 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry was commanded by a Bradford man, Col. Lewis B. Pierce. The 8th United States Infantry also had nearly, if not quite, 100 of Bradford’s citizens in its ranks.
THE MILITIA OF 1862.
The militia were called out to resist the threatened invasion of the State after the second battle of Bull Run. Governor Curtin issued his proclamation, Sept. 4, 1862, calling on the people to arm and prepare for defense, recommending the immediate formation of companies and regiments, and the commencement and prosecution of drill. On the 10th, the enemy having already appeared in Maryland, the governor issued a general order calling on all able-bodied men to enroll immediately for the defense of the State, and to hold themselves in readiness to march at an hour’s notice, to select officers, to provide themselves with such arms as could be obtained, with sixty rounds of ammunition per man, tendering arms to such as had none, and promising they should be held for service for such time only as the pressing exigency for State defense should continue. The people all over the State flew to arms, and moved promptly to the State capital. In Bradford County the telegram to arm and come forward was received on Saturday, the 10th, and on Monday four full companies were on their way to the capital. These companies were assigned to the 13th Regt. Pennsylvania militia, and were Capt. E. O. Goodrich’s, from Towanda; Capt. J. N. Evans’, from Athens; Capt. Gorham’s, from Wyalusing and Pike; and Capt. Daniel Wilcox’s, from Canton. The emergency passed without bringing the militia into conflict, by the defeat of the rebel hosts at Antietam, and on Sept. 24 the companies were disbanded. Fifteen thousand men stood at Hagerstown and Boonsboro, a portion of whom were in line of battle during the fight at Antietam, in close proximity to the field, in readiness to advance, if need be; 10,000 more were posted in the vicinity of Greencastle and Chambersburg; and about 25,000 more were at Harrisburg, on their way to Harrisburg, or waiting for transportation thither.
The 13th was organized Sept. 11-13, and discharged Sept. 23-25, 1862.
Field and Staff Officers.—Col. James Johnson; Lieut.-Col., John F. Means, Maj., Samuel H. Newman; Adjt. James W. Chamberlain; Quar.-Mast., Isaiah W. McKelvey; Surg., Wm. F. Reiber; Asst. Surg., Frederick W. Vandersloot; Chap., Benj. G. Welsh; Sergt.-Maj., B. S. Powers; Quar.-Mast. Sergt., L. F. Fuller; Com.-Sergt., Benjamin Musselman; Hos. Stwd., Isaac Pursell.
Company E.---Capt., Daniel Wilcox; 1st Lieut., Truman H. Morse; 2d Lieut., Daniel A. Greno.
Company F.---Capt., E. O’Meara Goodrich; 1st Lieut., James Macfarlane; 2d Lieut., Andrew J. Trout.
Company G.---Capt., Stephen Gorham; 1st Lieut., Wm. B. Stevens; 2d Lieut., Oliver W. Northrop.
Company H.---Capt., Isaac N. Evans; 1st Lieut., Z. Flower Walker; 2d Lieut., Silas B. Carmer.
THE EMERGENCY AND STATE MILITIA TROOPS OF 1863.
When Lee made his second advance into Maryland in June, 1863, his advent there, as soon as his intentions had been fully fathomed, had been preceded by a call of the president for 100,000 men for six months, unless sooner discharged; 50,000 from Pennsylvania, 30,000 from Ohio, and 10,000 each from Maryland and West Virginia. Governor Curtin issued his proclamation heralding the president’s call, and called upon the citizens of the State again to arm and enroll themselves for the defense of the State. It was hard to believe that an invasion of the State was really intended, yet the people responded very promptly, and then the rebel Gen. Jenkins, with a brigade of his soldiers, entered Chambersburg a little before midnight of June 5, and dispelled the illusion, troops were arriving at Harrisburg and being organized at Camp Curtin, and a system of defense for the capital begun.
Under this call eight regiments were organized for the "Emergency," and were mustered into the service of the United States, besides several independent companies of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The regiments were the 20th, the 26th to the 31st inclusive, and the 33d.
The 26th contained one company raised in Troy, Bradford County, commanded by Capt. Warner H. Carnochan, now a prominent lawyer of Towanda. This regiment was mustered into the service June 19-22, commanded by Col. William W. Jennings, and immediately proceeded to the seat of war, arriving in the vicinity of Chambersburg, then in possession of the rebel advance-guard of cavalry, under Gen. Jenkins. Gen. Knipe was in command of the small force of militia then opposing the advance of the veteran troops of the Confederacy. Col. Jennings threw out skirmishers, which were captured before they could get into position.
During the 24th and 25th the main body of the rebel army crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown and Williamsport, and on the 26th the Army of the Potomac, under Gen. Meade, crossed at Edwards’ ferry. On the same day Maj. Granville O. Haller, an aide of Gen. Couch, who had been sent to Gettysburg to exercise command, ordered Col. Jennings to advance with his entire regiment in the face of the enemy on the Chambersburg pike. The colonel earnestly protested against this as suicidal, and asked to be allowed to send forward skirmishers to first feel the ground, but to no purpose. The order was enforced, and this single regiment of raw troops was marched out to face a powerful force of the rebel army, and was only saved from immediate capture or wholesale slaughter by the prompt and decisive action of the colonel commanding. It fell back in good order until within a mile and a half of the town, when the rebel cavalry swooped down and attacked the rear-guard, capturing Capt. Carnochan and a part of his company. The regiment promptly formed on the left of the road and opened fire, checking the enemy’s advance and compelling him to fall back, with some loss in killed and wounded. Its line of advance from Gettysburg, the railroad, was cut off, however, but it kept to the right, and fell back to Dillsburg. Here it fell in with a portion of Jenkins’ Cavalry, moving south from Carlisle. But by maintaining a firm front the enemy was deterred from attacking, and the regiment arrived at Fort Washington, opposite Harrisburg, on Sunday, June 28, after a forced march, with a loss in the campaign of 72 men taken prisoners.
The 30th Regt. also contained one company from Bradford County,---Capt. Newman’s, of Canton. This regiment, however, does not appear to have met the enemy, though organized and mustered into service June 20.
On the 26th, Gov. Curtin issued his proclamation calling on the people for 60,000 troops for ninety days, declaring the enemy to be advancing on the border in force, a fact that heretofore had been hard to believe by the State. But the people at once sprang to arms, and twenty-eight regiments were soon organized, numbered from the 32d to the 60th, besides several independent companies and batteries.
However, the battle of Gettysburg, contested fiercely and stubbornly for three days,---July 1, 2, and 3,---routed Lee’s army, and turned his attention from the rich spoils of the fruitful valleys of Pennsylvania to the avenues of escape for his defeated and harassed columns into Virginia, and the invasion of the Keystone State was at an end, the further service of the State troops rendered unnecessary, and they were, accordingly, for the most part, mustered out during August and September.
Under the last call two companies from Bradford County were raised and assigned to the 35th Regt., and mustered into service July 2. It was organized in Harrisburg, and, with other regiments there formed, sent up the Cumberland valley, a part of them joining the Army of the Potomac in Maryland, in readiness to participate in the expected battle at Williamsport, from which Lee fortunately made his escape.
The 26th Regt. was discharged July 30, the 30th August 1, and the 35th August 7.
Field and Staff Officers.---Col., William W. Jennings; Lieut.-Col., Joseph H. Jenkins; Maj., Lorenzo L. Greenawalt; Adjt., Harvey W. McKnight; Quar.-Mast., Charles F. Sayler; Chap., J. Andrew Kirkpatrick; Surg., Edward H. Horner; Asst. Surg., Charles M. Hill; Sergt.-Maj., John W. Royer; Quar.-Mast Serg., Henry P. Harvey; Com.-Sergt., Daniel Keiser; Hos. Stwd., Joseph L. Lemberger.
Company B.---Capt., Warner H. Carnochan; 1st Lieut., Francis Smith; 2d Lieut., George H. Humphrey.
Field and Staff Officers.---Col., William N. Monies; Lieut.-Col., David N. Mathewson; Maj., Samuel H. Newman; Adjt., William Lance, Jr.; Quar.-Mast., Butler Dilley; Surg., John P. Ashcom; Asst. Surg., William P. Nebinger; Chap., William I. Lance; Sergt.-Maj., Thomas E. Harder; Quar.-Mast. Sergt., Aaron A. Chase; Com.-Sergt., William B. Hurley; Hos. Stwd., Park Benedict.
Company C.---Capts., S. H. Newman (promoted to maj., June 25, 1863); Jacob B. Granteer; 1st Lieut., Matthias K. Morris; 2d Lieut., Israel Biddle.
Field and Staff Officers.---Col., Henry B. McKean; Lieut.-Col., Edward G. Scheiffelin; Maj., Samuel Knorr; Adjt., Henry H. Roe; Quar.-Mast., Hugh Young; Surg., Rensselaer Ottman; Asst. Surg., Wellington W. Webb; Chap., Wm. H. Dill; Sergt.-Maj., Wm. H. Humphrey; Quar.-Mast. Sergt., John G. Keeler; Com.-Sergt., Clark E. Davis; Hos. Stwds., Lemuel A. Ridgeway, Jno. C. Lacy, Jr.
Company A.---Capt., Allen McKean; 1st Lieut., John Saltmarsh; 2d Lieut., William T. Bishop, Jr.
Company C.---Capt., Stephen Gorham; 1st Lieut., Henry Keeler; 2d Lieut., Henry P. White.