Tri-Counties Genealogy & History by Joyce M. Tice
Pioneer & Patriot Families by Heverly
Bradford County PA
Chemung County NY
Tioga County PA
Bradford County :Chronology 1820 - 1840

Photo by Joyce M. Tice

Pioneer and Patriot Families of Bradford County, Pennsylvania

By Clement F. Heverly

in Two Volumes

1913 & 1915

Tri-County Genealogy & History Sites Home Page
How to Use This Site
Warning & Disclaimer
Table of Contents Heverly
Bradford County Townships
No Unauthorized Commercial Use
Say Hello to Joyce
Joyce's Search Tip - December 2007 -
Do You Know that you can search just these Heverly books by using the Heverly button in the Partitioned search engine at the bottom of the Current What's New Page
PIONEER AND PATRIOT FAMILIES OF BRADFORD COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

BY – CLEMENT F. HEVERLY

Page 324 - 354

BRADFORD COUNTY CHRONOLOGY

1820 – 1840

Typed by Pat Smith Raymond

1820—May, Sheshequin township organized from Ulster and Wysox.

1820—The first river bridge in the county constructed over the Chemung at Athens; rebuilt in 1836.

POPULATION of Bradford county in 1820 was 11,554; in 1810 it was 6,288

Township Reorganization—In 1820 there were 20 townships in Bradford county, 7 east of the river and 13 west of it. A petition was presented to the court setting forth:

"That your petitioners being sensible of the uncommon pressure of the times and being anxious to remove every source of unnecessary expense as well as to facilitate the transaction of public business in the county, are of the opinion that those objects may be forwarded by altering the present division of the county so that it may contain 12 townships only—an expedient which would be of much public benefit without injury to the property of individuals. Your petitioners would therefore pray the court to appoint commissioners to view and divide the county in such manner that 7 townships may be formed on the west and 5 townships on the east side of the Susquehanna river."

The movement met with storms of protest; public meetings were held in the different townships and resolutions passed opposing any change and offering methods of relief. The court took no action and the question was soon dropped.

Campaign of 1820—In 1820, for the first time since 1789, a great political convulsion swept over the state, electing a governor in opposition to the Democratic party. Governor Findlay’s administration had been made unpopular and his own official conduct subject to investigation by an opposing legislature. In 1820 he was re-nominated by the Democrats. Joseph Heister, a brave officer of the Revolutionary war, was put in the field against him by the Federalists and Independent Democrats. The result was very close, Heister being elected by only 1,600 plurality. The independent movement was general throughout the state. In Bradford county the Heister Democrats joined with the Federalists and gave the Democratic nominees a close race. At the October election the following was the result: Governor—Findlay, 915; Heister, 788. Congress—George Denison, 1503; Thomas Murray, 962; Wm. Cox Ellis, 574. Assembly—Simon Kinney, Towanda, 854; Joseph C. Powell, Troy, 765. Commissioner—George Hyde, Wells, 887; Darius Bullock, Smithfield, 779. Auditor—Harry Morgan, Wysox, 902; Andrew Coburn, Warren, 715. At the November, or presidential election, only one-seventh of the vote of the county was polled. The Monroe and Tompkins electors received 254 votes while two independent set of electors received respectively 2 and 7 votes each.

1821—April 18, two feet of snow after a three days’ snow-storm.

1821—September, Monroe township organized from Towanda.

1821—December, Litchfield township organized from Athens.

First Agricultural Society—In 1820 an Act was passed by the legislature "For the Promotion of Agriculture and Domestic Manufacture." Evan at that early day with all the disadvantages in a new country, farmers were progressive and desired to become better informed and excel in their chosen avocation. During December court 1821, a meeting was held at the court house in Towanda and the "Agricultural and Manufacturing Society of Bradford County" organized. Joseph Kingsbury was elected president, Ethan Baldwin secretary and Andrew Irvine treasurer. A constitution and by-laws were adopted at a meeting held in February 1822 and a list of premiums offered. Owing to the severe drought no exhibition was held that year. In 1823, Ethan Baldwin was elected president, Edmund Lockwood, vice president, George Scott, secretary and Andrew Irvine, treasurer. Premiums were offered on the following: "1. Best quality maple sugar made from 50 trees; 2. Greatest and best quality made from any number of trees; 3. Greatest quantity of good wheat from one acre; 4. Greatest quantity of corn from one acre; 5. Best piece of cloth of wool from sheep of our own raising, not under 10 yards; 6. Best lamb; 7. Greatest quantity of flax from ¼ of an acre; 8. Greatest quantity of hemp from ¼ of an acre to any number; 9. Best colt not under 1 nor over 3 years old; 10. The best figure and the best blooded seed horse; 11. The best bull from 1 to 3 years old; 12. Best yoke of oxen from 1 to 6 years old; 13. Best spring calf; 14. Best hog, according to age; 15. Greatest quantity of cheese and the best quality from any number of cows, not less than five; 16. The finest and best quality of linen, not less than 10 yards; 17. Greatest quantity and best quality of potatoes, not less than ½ acre." There seems to have been no general exhibition, the society having only a temporary existence.

Campaign of 1821—With the Heister Democrats the old Federalists reorganized in 1821 under the name of "Republicans" in opposition to the Democratic-Republicans. The Republicans nominated the following: Congress, Thomas Murray, Jr.; assembly, Simon Kinney, Towanda; sheriff, George Scott, Towanda; commissioner, Lemuel Streator, Orwell; auditor, Luman Kellogg, Smithfield; coroner, Joseph Bloom, Burlington. The Democrats supported: Congress, Wm. Cox Ellis; assembly, Samuel W. Morris, Tioga county; sheriff, Joseph C. Powell, Troy; commissioner, George Kinney, Sheshequin; auditor, Joseph M. Piollet, Wysox; coroner, Chauncey Frisbie, Orwell. Wm. Keeler of Towanda was an independent candidate for sheriff. The successful candidates at the October election with the vote in the county, electing were: Assembly, Kinney, 689, having a majority of 52 in the two counties; sheriff, Powell, 671; commissioner, Streator, 693; auditor, Piollet, 717; coroner, Frisbie, 753. The contest for sheriff seems to have been everybody’s race, more than 30 different persons having received votes for that office; Keeler, stood second.

1821-‘22—"Snow fell in the beginning of November which continued all through the winter."—The Settler.

Monroe’s Grand Celebration—"July 4, 1822, about 150 persons assembled at the bridge to celebrate the birthday of American Independence. The service of the day was opened by sacred music and an appropriate prayer by Rev.Elisha Cole. An oration was delivered by Dr. Benoni Mandeville, the service then closing by sacred music and prayer, after which the company sat down to an excellent dinner, prepared mostly by each individual and placed in common stock, so that independence and harmony characterized the day. After the cloth was withdrawn 17 toasts were drank, while volleys of musketry were discharged from the troops, commanded by Capt. Frederick Fisher, with cheers of martial music. The day was particularly honored by the attendance of a number of old soldiers of the Revolution, among whom was Noadiah Cranmer, aged 88 years, who formerly resided in New Jersey and was in most of the battles fought in that state during the Revolutionary war. Cheerfulness was fixed on the countenance of the whole assembly, and at 6 in the afternoon each individual returned to his home thankful for the blessings their forefathers had achieved for them."—The Settler.

1822—The M. E. church (wooden) at West Burlington erected; yet standing, being the oldest church edifice in the county.

Drought and Deaths—The Settler, published at Towanda, under date of August 31, 1822, says: "It has been our unpleasant task to record more deaths within a few months than any other period of time of the same length for years. This is undoubtedly owing to the peculiarity of the season—the extreme drought and heat which have so long prevailed. A parallel to it is not in the recollection of the oldest inhabitant of the county. Week after week has passed away and not a drop of rain has reached us. The earth parched, meadows and pastures dried up, streams and springs, never before known to fail, now dry, cold chilling nights, a continuous gloomy and sultry heat during the day, has been the peculiar character of the whole season. Sickness disorders and deaths have been the consequence. Scarcely a day, and not a week passes without some one within our knowledge, falling sick. In some instances whole families are taken down at once. This may, indeed, be called and will be remembered as a sickly and unprecedented season." December 7th, The Settler adds: "The sun and breezes of September and October have visited the month of December and the first day of winter was ushered in with a warm and heavy rain. Dec. 3, a light fall of snow, the first, and barely sufficient to hide the face of the earth. These are strange events, a summer with but little rain, 40 days without a cloud in the horizon, an autumn with but few cold and frosty nights and winter begun with a temper of air that would not be remarkable in September.

"The Bradford Debating Society will meet at the school house in this village on Monday next at 6 o’clock p.m. The following subject is to be discussed: ‘Had the Holy Alliance a right to detain Napoleon Bonaparte otherwise than a prisoner of war?’ The gentlemen and ladies of the village are respectfully invited to attend.

Towanda, Nov. 12, 1822 S. St. J. Mix, Secretary."

Candidates and Election, 1822—Following were the Democratic nominations: Congress, Samuel McKean, Burlington, George Kremer and Joseph Wood; state senator, Jonah Brewster; assembly, Dr. Stephen Fowler, Columbia; commissioner, Darius Bullock, Smithfield; auditor, Nathaniel Clapp, Athens. The opposition candidates were: Congress, Wm. Cox Ellis, Henry Welles, Athens, Henry Yarrick and Ethan Baldwin, Towanda; state senator, David Post; assembly, Wm. Myer, Wysox; commissioner, Harry Morgan, Wysox; auditor, Thos. B. Beebe, Smithfield. The vote at the October election follows: Congress—McKean,720; Kremer, 663; Wood, 625; Ellis, 687; Welles, 482; Baldwin, 350; Yarrick, 319. State Senator—Brewster, 755; Post, 552. Assembly—Myer, 774; Fowler, 621. Commissioner—Bullock, 614; Morgan, 522; Beebe, 265. Auditor—Clapp, 1094—elected without opposition. Jonah Brewster of Susquehanna county was elected senator from the district consisting of the counties of Bradford, Susquehanna and Tioga. In 1822 Bradford county for the first time comprised a separate Assembly district.

The Bradford County Bible Society was organized Feby. 25, 1823 at a meeting held at the court house in Towanda after an appropriate discourse had been delivered by Rev. Lyman Richardson. The object of the society, as auxiliary to the American Bible Society, was "to operate in the wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures in Bradford county and its vicinity." Officers were chosen as follows: Hon. Edward Herrick, president; Hon John McKean, vice president; Eld. Levi Baldwin, secretary; Joseph C. Powell, treasurer; trustees—Chas. Cumstock, Litchfield; Daniel Gardner, Windham; Parley Coburn, Warren; Maj. Geo Ranney, Pike; Eld. Hezekiah West, Orwell; Wm. Myer, Wysox; Joseph Smith, Ulster; Dr. Ozias Spring, Athens; Eld. Thos B. Beebe, Smithfield; Samuel Benight, Ridgebery; Wm. Evans, Springfield; Jesse Edsall, Wells; B. G. Avery, Columbia; Capt. Solomon Morse, Troy; Dea. Samuel Rockwell, Canton; Dea. Alpheus Holcomb, Franklin; Joel Calkins, Burlington; John B. Hinman, Monroe; John Laporte, Asylum; Maj. John Taylor, Wyalusing; Hon, Geo. Scott, Towanda; Samuel Gore, Sheshequin. This society was active many years.

1823—March 23rd, a great snow storm.

Regimental Training—"Notice is hereby given that the 15th regiment of the 2nd brigade, 9th division Pennsylvania Militia will meet for regimental training on Monday, May 12, 1823 at the house of Joseph M. Piollet in Wysox township, armed and equipped for military exercise according to law. Hiram Mix, Colonel." The annual or semi-annual turnout and training was a legal requirement and was supposed to keep up military organization and military spirit, useful for state or national defense. It was an inheritance of the organization which came down from the war of the Revolution and the War of 1812 and at these annual musters were often to be seen the regimentals worn by ancestors who had fought in those wars. Originally, in Pennsylvania, all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 45 years were required by law to do military duty and were organized into companies, regiments and brigades. In 1788 Bradford county had four military companies, being Tioga Company, Solomon Bennett, captain; Sheshequin Company, John Spalding, captain; Wysox Company, Roswell Franklin, captain; Wyalusing Company Daniel Shaw, captain. These military organizations multiplied as the population of the county increased and were kept up until the beginning of the Civil War.

Patriotic Spirit at Wyalusing—"The 47th anniversary of American Independence was commemorated at the house of John Taylor in Wyalusing in a style peculiarly gratifying and expressive of the high sense in which the Revolutionary achievements are held by the president of the day, Calvin Stone, vice president and Dr. J. Tuxbury marshal. The procession formed at one o’clock p.m., headed by a few expert riflemen and proceeded to a place prepared with seats convenient for the company. The ceremonies of the day were opened by a fervent and solemn address to the throne of Grace by Major Taylor, after which the ode of science was snug, the Declaration of Independence read when Alpheus Ingham pronounced an oration. The audience then retired to an arbor where about 80 gentlemen and ladies partook of an excellent and unadorned dinner prepared by Mr. Taylor in the true style of American simplicity. After the cloth was removed 13 toasts were drunk."—The Settler.

Celebration in Windham—"On the morning of July 4, 1823, the inhabitants of Windham and those of adjoining towns, assembled at the house of Henry Russell, Jr. for the purpose of celebrating the anniversary of American Independence. Geo. W. Russell was appointed president and Ives Baker vice president of the day. The audience was invited into the hall prepared for the purpose, where after an appropriate address and prayer by Theron Darling, Esq. of Orwell, the Declaration of Independence was read and an oration delivered by Wm. Russell. From the hall the marshal formed a procession and marched with music to a bowery where all sat down to a very elegant dinner prepared by Henry Russell. After the cloth was removed 23 toasts were drunk. At 6 o'clock the party withdrew in harmony, no accident occurred to cloud the united pleasures of the day.""-The Settler

Candidates and Election, 1823—The Democrats presented the following ticket: Governor, J. Andrew Shulze; assembly, Lemuel Streator, Orwell; commissioner, Theodore Leonard, Springfield; auditor, Burton Strait, Columbia. The opposition candidates were: Governor, Andrew Gregg; assembly, Wm. Myer, Wysox; commissioner, John Taylor, Wyalusing and Henry Mercur, Towanda. The vote was as follows at the October election: Governor—Shulze, 977; Gregg, 804; Assembly—Streator, 956; Myer, 801; Commissioner—Taylor, 580; Leonard, 546; Mercur, 517; Auditor—Strait, 1168—no opposition.

1823-‘24—A very mild winter with only a few biting cold days.

1824—February, Albany township organized from Asylum.

1824—March 30 and 31, over two feet of snow on the level.

1824—Welsh settlement begun in Pike, the first comers of that nationality being Joseph Jenkins and Edward Jones.

Grandfather’s Weather Signs—Not a dainty affair, with silver or satin trimmings, nor yet with the credentials of Uncle Sam attached, but a constant companion, shifting from woods and fields to skies—this, says the Scientific American, was the weather bureau of our grandfathers; and mingled with the signs and omens of old there was just enough of fact that the old-timer sometimes gets the best of it now in foretelling the weather:

Rainbow at night, sailors’ delight;

Rainbow in the morning, sailors take warning;

Rainbow at noon, rain very soon.

Just adopt this couplet the next time a rainbow comes your way and see for yourself.

A combination of rain and sunshine was also supposed to bring rain the next day. Another verse, which found favor, was:

Evening red and morning gray

Will set the traveler on his way;

Evening gray and morning red

Will pour down rain upon his head.

This is but an adaption of the adage that a red sunset is a sign of clear weather. And if the sun goes down in a cloud, rain will surely come the next day. If it clears off in the night, look for rain the next day. If smoke from the chimney settles instead of rises, there is a storm at hand. When sound travels a long distance there is also a storm near. Never expect much storm in the old of the moon. The absence of dew and an usually heavy dew are alike forerunners of rain. Not much frost need be expected in the light of the moon An owl hooting in the hollow is a sign of a cold storm; on the hill it foretells a thaw.

If the hornets build low the winter will be hard. When leaves fall early the winter will be long. When snow falls on a hard road it will not last long. The last spring snowstorm never comes until after the "sugar snow," which may be recognized by coming in unusually large flakes and only lasting a few minutes.

If the hog’s melt is found big at the front the first part of winter will be the most severe; if the reverse is true, we may look for hard weather in February and March. Bright "northern lights" bring severe cold. If the sun shines on the second day of February so as to permit the woodchuck to see his shadow, it will go back in its hold and remain six weeks. If March comes in like a lamb it will go out like a lion; if it comes in like a lion it will go out like a lamb. In other words, one extreme at the beginning promises the reverse at the end of the month. Sundogs indicates a bad storm.

Distant sounds heard distinctly forbode no good weather. If the sun "draws up water" it will rain. The pitcher sweating and the teakettle boiling dry also indicates rain. Cobwebs thickly spread upon the grass are an indication of fair weather.

Animal life seems, according to the popular notion, to have peculiar warnings regarding the weather changes. Some of these are explainable by natural causes. It is a fact recognized by all intelligent stockmen, that cattle have an intimation of an approaching storm some hours before it is visible to the human eye. There is a certain restlessness which the cowboy has learned to interpret at once. When you see a pig pasturing in a field build for itself a nest you may look for a storm. Chickens take extra pains in oiling their feathers just before a rain. Peafowls send forth their shrill cries as a warning, and when the quail cries "more wet" from the meadow, the farmer works briskly to get his hay under shelter. If the chickweed and scarlet pimpernel expand their tiny petals rain need not be expected for a few hours. Bees work with redoubted energy just before a rain. If the flies are unusually persistent either in the house or around stock there is rain in the air. The cricket sings at the approach of cold weather. Squirrels store a large supply of nuts, and the husks of corn are unusually thick, and the buds of deciduous trees have a firmer protecting coat if a severe winter is at hand. If the poplar or quaking asp leaves turn up under side rain will soon follow:

If the fog rises in the morning, it is a sign of rain; if it settles, a clear day may be expected. Watch the smallest cloud you can see. If it increases in size it is going to rain; if it melts away and vanishes completely, fair weather will follow. If the camphor bottle becomes roily it is going to storm. When it clears, settled weather may be expected. This idea has seemingly been utilized in the manufacture of some of our cheap barometers. The main trouble is they seldom foretell the change until about the time it arrives. Last, but not least, rheumatics can always tell it "in their bones" when a storm is approaching, and in this prognostication the octogenarian of today is as firm an adherent as were his forefathers.

Candidates and Election. 1824—Following were the Democratic candidates: Congress, Samuel McKean, Burlington, Geo. Kremer and Espy VanHorn; assembly, Lemuel Streator, Orwell; sheriff, Reuben Wilber, Troy; commissioner, Theodore Leonard, Springfield; coroner, John Fox, Towanda; auditor, Chas Comstock, Litchfield. The opposition candidates were: Congress, Wm. Cox Ellis; sheriff, Wm. Keeler, Towanda; commissioner, Wm. B. Spalding, Franklin; coroner, Jacob Myer, Wysox. Following was the vote at the October election: Congress—McKean, 1208, Kremer, 1533; VanHorn, 912; Ellis, 718; Assembly—Streator 1299—elected without opposition; Sheriff—Wilber, 838; Keeler, 817; Commissioner—Leonard, 807; Spalding, 670; Coroner—Fox, 802; Myer, 482; Auditor—Comstock, 968—elected without opposition. At the presidential election of the same year, the Jackson electors received 639 votes, the John Q. Adams electors 31 and the Crawford electors 16.

Post-offices and Inns, 1825—The post-offices that had been established were Wyalusing, Athens, Wysox, Sheshequin, Towanda, Troy, Sylvania, Springfield, East Smithfield, Canton, Granville Center (North Branch), Monroeton, Albany, Ulster, Litchfield, Orwell, Windham and Wells (French’s Mills). Those licensed to keep inns or hotels in the county, 1825 were Abner C. Rockwell, Warren Brown, Jonathan Lawrence, Rowland Wilcox, Frederick Fisher, Sheffield Wilcox, Jr., John F. Satterlee, James Long, Horatio Ladd, John Taylor, Humphrey Brown, Wm. Means, Jr., Wm. W. Rice, John Watkins, Ebenezer Shaw, Warren Jenkins, James Calkins, Daniel Miller, Wm. Snyder, Darius Bullock, Wm. Myer, Joseph Armstrong, Russell Fowler, Daniel Bartlett, Jesse Woodruff, Hosea Hill, Vine Baldwin and Isaac N. Pomeroy—28.

Candidates and Election, 1825—Following was the Democratic ticket: State senator, John Ryan, Jr., Tioga county; assembly, Lemuel Streator, Orwell; commissioner, Gould Seymour, Pike; auditor, Asa Pratt, Canton. The opposition candidates were: State senator, Horace Williston, Athens; assembly, Joseph C. Powell, Towanda; auditor, Sidney S. Bailey, Ulster. The vote at the October Election follows: State Senator—Ryan, 736; Williston, 953; Assembly—Streator, 1034; Powell, 662; Commissioner—Seymour, 1473—elected without opposition; Auditor—Pratt, 950; Bailey, 544. While Williston had a majority of 217 in the county it was overcome by Ryan’s majority in Tioga county, electing the latter by a narrow margin.

The First Steamboat Up the Susquehanna—"The steamboat Codorus arrived at Towanda on Monday, May 8, 1826, about 10 o’clock in the forenoon. As she appeared round the bend in the river, below the village, she was hailed by the firing of a feu de joi and the ringing of bells. The banks of the river were immediately lined with hundreds of citizens that had been previously appraised of her near approach to the place and who flocked in to greet her arrival. On Tuesday Captain Elgar was invited to partake of a public dinner, which was accepted, and a most respectable party sat down to a sumptuous dinner, prepared by Mrs. Spalding, at which Judge Herrick of this county and Judge Franes of Dauphin county presided. On Captain Elgar’s introduction to the company at dinner, he was appropriately addressed by Alpheus Ingham, Esq., in behalf of the citizens of Bradford county, in which he complimented Captain Elgar for his enterprise and alluded to the importance of Pennsylvania turning her attention to the improvement of the river. We understand that Captain Elgar intends to continue his expedition up the river to Newtown and Owego. We will take occasion to repeat what has often been published, that much difficulty has been experienced by the captain for the want of wood. The inhabitants along the river should take pains to have dry yellow pine or pitch knots prepared plentifully at convenient places, so as to prevent any delay on that account."—The Settler. The Codorus was built at York, Pa. She was 60 feet long, 9 feet beam with 10 horse-power engine, carried fifty passengers and expected to make up stream 4 miles an hour; drawing only 8 inches of water. She ran up the West Branch to Williamsport, back to Northumberland thence up to Elmira, back to Tioga Point and then to Binghamton from which she turned back reaching the starting point four months after the trip began. Captain Elgar was disappointed and reported that it was a failure for practical purposes.

Market Prices 1826 as published in The Settler at Towanda, May 11:

Wheat, per bushel 80 cents

Rye, per bushel 62 cents

Corn, per bushel 72 cents

Oats per bushel 42 cents

Butter (fresh), per pound 10 cts.

Butter (salted), per pound 9 cts.

Cheese, per pound 9 cents

Lard, per pound 9 cents.

Coffee, per pound 17 cents.

Tobacco (best), per pound 18 cts.

Tea (hyson) per pound $1.00

Tea (hyson skin), per lb., 50 cents.

Molasses, per gallon 40 cents.

Whiskey (rye), per gallon 26 cts.

Whiskey (apple), per gallon 37 cts.

Patriotic Spirit in Warren—The 4th of July, 1826, was observed by a grand celebration in Warren. The orator of the day was Rev. Salmon King who delivered a patriotic discourse. After dinner the following toasts were drank:

    1. The 50th year of American Independence: may it ever be remembered by friends and dreaded by tyrants.
    2. The memory of Gen. George Washington.
    3. The heroes of ’76; may their heroic deeds be ever remembered with gratitude and their virtues ever be imitated by Americans.
    4. The United States; increasing in number and strength, their arms are already extended to the ocean on the west.
    5. Civil liberty; may we have the wisdom to secure it; the strength to defend it and the generosity to share it with others.
    6. The President of the United States: may his virtues subdue all his political opponents and turn their animosities into friendship.
    7. Agriculture, commerce and manufactures; the great springs of national wealth, the necessaries, the comforts and the luxuries of life.
    8. Internal improvements; a grand link in the chain that binds us together like the arteries and veins; may it extend throughout our whole system, defusing life and health to every part.
    9. The militia of the U. S. our only standing army; may they ever stand firm in defense of their country.
    10. The American flag; may every nation respect its bearers, its stars enlighten the path of its friends.
    11. Greece: may the fame of their ancestors rouse up to emulation—as the hand of oppression has goaded them on to desperation until like a new risen Phoenix, they more than rival their former splendor.
    12. South America; may they long be blessed with that freedom they have so arduously struggled to gain.
    13. The Daughters of America; while they increase our felicity in prosperity, they smooth the rugged path of life adversity.—The Settler.
Political Matters 1826—Lemuel Streator who had been elected representative died during the session of the legislature. To fill the vacancy caused by his death a special election was held Feby. 7, 1826. Dr. Darius Bullock of Smithfield was put forward by the Democrats, his opponent being Thomas Elliott of Towanda. The race proved a very close one, Bullock being defeated by 9 votes. The vote stood: Elliott, 874; Bullock, 865. In 1826 J. Andrew Shulze was renominated by the Democrats for governor. The Federal candidate was John Sergeant. No fight was made against Shulze in Bradford county who at the October election received 1753 votes and Sergeant 15. Samuel McKean, George Kremer and Espy Van Horn were again the Democratic candidates for Congress and elected without opposition. The Democratic county ticket in 1826 comprised the following: Assembly, Constant Mathewson, Athens; Commissioner, Burton Strait, Columbia; Auditor, John Laporte, Asylum. The opposition ticket was: Assembly, Thomas Elliott, Towanda; Commissioner, Isaac Myer, Towanda; Auditor, Dr. Almerin Herrick, Troy. At the October election the entire Democratic ticket was elected, the vote being: Congress—McKean, 1380; Kremer, 1396; VanHorn, 1403. Assembly—Mathewson, 1143; Elliott, 1034. Commissioner—Strait, 1142; Myer, 1006. Auditor—Laporte, 1230; Herrick, 885.

1827—May 14, Stephen Evitts of Pike, killed by Nathaniel Platt, who struck him with a stone at a training in Orwell, causing much excitement in Eastern Bradford. Platt was indicted for murder, tried and acquitted by the jury Sept. 19, 1827.

1872—The autumn was one of the coldest ever remembered, but it was followed by one of the mildest winters (1827-28) that had occurred in 27 years. In January the average temperature was 37 degrees.

Troy Village 1827 consisted of two stores, kept by Orrin P. Ballard and George Kress, two hotels, those of vine Baldwin and Col. I. N. Pomeroy, the Case grist-mill, Capt. James Hickok’s fulling mill, Joseph Wills’ saw-mill, Elihu Newberry’s blacksmith shop, a tannery, operated by Calvin Dodge and a school house. The residents were Vine Baldwin, Orrin P. Ballard, Churchill Barnes, Mrs. Aaron Case, Adrial Hibbard, Dr. Almerin Herrick, Capt. James Hickok, George Kress, James Lamb, Elihu Newbery, Col. Isaac N. Poemeroy, Reuben Smead, Ansel Williams, Caleb Williams, Warren Williams and Joseph Wills.

Candidates and Election, 1827—The Democratic ticket comprised the following: Assembly, Constant Mathewson, Athens; Sheriff Benjamin McKean, Columbia; Commissioner, Chauncey Frisbie, Orwell; Auditor, Wm. Russell, Windham; Coroner, John L. Webb, Ridgebery. Opposition candidates: Assembly, George Kinney, Sheshequin; Sheriff, Francis Tyler, Athens; Commissioner, Churchill Barnes, Troy; Auditor, Harry Morgan, Wysox; Coroner, Buckley Tracy, Smithfield. The election showed the following vote: Assembly—Mathewson, 1156; Kinney, 1952; Sheriff—McKean, 1172; Tyler, 1048; Commissioner—Barnes, 1133; Frisbie, 1063; Auditor—Morgan, 1072; Russell, 1058. Coroner—Webb, 1107; Tracy, 968. This year The Towanda Republican appeared as the advocate of National Republicans in opposition to Jeffersonian Democracy, championed by the Bradford Settler.

Towanda Borough, the county seat and first borough in the county, was incorporated by Act of the legislature March 5, 1828; population about 225. The first officers were: Burgess, Hiram Mix; Council, Jared D. Goodenough, Warren Brown, Warren Jenkins, John N. Weston and Stephen Hiatt; High Constable, Wm. Kelly.

Notice to Settlers—"The settlers on the land under the management of the subscriber will take notice, that wheat, rye, oats and flaxseed will be taken in payment for the land at the market price, if delivered this winter at his house in Sheshequin or at his store in Towanda. Those settlers on Mr. Leray’s land whose contracts bear date the 1st of May, 1821, will do well to remember that their contracts will be out the 1st of May, 1828, and those who have paid nothing, would also do well to remember that they once had an indulgence that may not be granted again.

Sheshequin, Jany. 3, 1828 Joseph Kingsbury."

Campaign of 1828—The Federal party having gone out of existence the opposition to the Democratic party now formed under the name of National-Republican. The following were the tickets in 1828; Democratic—Congress, Philander Stephens, James Ford, Alem Marr; Assembly, John Laporte, Asylum; Commissioner, Hezekiah Dunham, Windham; Auditor, Isaac Cooley, Springfield. Nathional-Republican—Congress, Geo. H. Hollenback, John Murray, Chauncey Alford; Assembly, Joseph C. Powell, Towanda; Commissioner, Nathaniel Clapp, Athens; Auditor, Geo. W. Hollenback, Wyalusing. The following was the vote: Congress—Stephens, 1424; Ford, 1427; Marr, 1431; Hollenback, 918; Murray, 927; Alford, 925; Assembly—Laporte, 1359; Powell, 1044; Commissioner—Dunham, 1326; Clapp, 1098; Auditor—Cooley, 1444; Hollenback, 952. The vote in the county for President was: Andrew Jackson (D), 1552; John Q. Adams (N.R.) 910. Jackson carried 18 districts and Adams 5, being Sheshequin, Towanda, Ulster, Warren and Wysox.

1829—Tuscarora township organized as Spring Hill from Wyalusing; changed to Tuscarora, February, 1830.

First Temperance Movement—In the early history of the county whisky was regarded as a panacea for all ills. The man who built a distillery was a public benefactor. It furnished a market for the grain and cheapened a necessary article to the consumer. It was considered no offense against good morals to make, sell or use it. Deacons in the church owned distilleries and manufactured whisky. Deacons and elders sold it and ministers and church members drank it, not infrequently to intoxication. Everybody drank whisky—young men and old men, women and maidens. Whiskey was the currency of the country, the standard of value. Things were bought to be paid for in whisky. A man agreed to work for so much whisky per day. The state of things was deplorable. We were fast becoming a nation of drunkards. Good men saw the evil and were trying to find means to avert the danger. Just then the Washingtonian movement was inaugurated and swept across the continent, revolutionizing public sentiment and reforming public morals, teaching sobriety and seeking to lead men to abstain from intoxicating drinks. In 1829 there was a general awakening on the subject in Bradford county. Lecturers traversed nearly every locality. Some of the best men gave the movement countenance and support. Temperance societies were organized in Orwell and other towns and did much in promoting reformation.

Parties and Candidates. 1829—In consequence of the anti-Masonic movement which allied itself with the opposition to the Democratic party strength was added to the Democratic ticket in 1829. Following were the nominations: Democratic—Governor, George Wolfe; State Senator, Samuel McKean, Burlington; Assembly, John Laporte, Asylum and Curtis Parkhurst of Tioga county; Commissioner, Eliphalet Mason, Monroe; Auditor, John E. Hale, Smithfield. Anti-Masonic or opposition—Governor, Joseph Ritner; Assembly, Simon Kinney, Towanda; Commissioner, John Harkness Jr., Springfield. The vote was as follows: Governor—Wolfe, 1219; Ritner, 333; State Senator McKean, no opposition in the county and received 2795 votes in Bradford and Tioga; Assembly—Laporte and Parkhurst elected, the former receiving 2261 and the latter 1471 votes in the two counties, Kinney’s vote in the county being about 500; Commissioner—Mason, 1115; Harkness, 409; Auditor—Hale elected without opposition.

1829-30—A mild winter until the 23rd of January when the weather became intensely cold.

Population of Bradford county in 1830 was 19,746, a gain of 8,192 in ten years, which was equal to the population in 1812 or the increase for 42 years after the settlement of the county.

Campaign of 1830—In 1829 General McKean had been elected Senator from the district but in December following, he resigned the Senatorship to become Secretary of the Commonwealth under Governor Wolfe. Accordingly a special election was called for Jany. 12, 1830, to fill the vacancy. There were two candidates, Col. James P. Bull, editor of the Bradford Settler and ex-Sheriff Reuben Wilber. Both were Democrats and each had about equal strength in the party. The election, however, resulted favorable to Wilber, who had 530 majority in the district. The regular Democratic ticket in 1830 comprised the following: Congress, James Ford, Philander Stephens and Lewis Dewart; assembly—John Laporte, Asylum and John Beecher, Tioga county; sheriff—Chauncey Frisbie, Orwell; commissioner, John L. Webb, Ridgebery; auditor—Miron Ballard, Columbia; coroner—John VanDyke, Canton. The opposition ticket: Congress-John Burrows and George Walker; assembly, Simon Kinney, Towanda; sheriff—Lockwood Smith, Ulster; commissioner—Samuel Strait, Troy; auditor—Josiah Benham, Pike; coroner—Abiram Pierce, Smithfield. The entire Democratic ticket was elected with the exception of sheriff, the vote for that office being Smith, 1392; Frisbie, 1172. The vote for assembly in the district stood, Laporte 2652; Beecher, 1988; Kinney, 1471; in the county Laporte received 1512 votes, Kinney 1175 and Beecher, 1164. For coroner, Vandyke received 1145 and Pierce 848 votes. Webb received 1284 and Ballard 1145 votes, electing as commissioner and auditor respectively.

1830—The Anti-Masonic Democrat established at Troy with Thomas E. Paine editor; it was discontinued after two years.

1831—February Granville township organized from Burlington, Canton, Franklin and Troy.

1831—March 29, Athens borough incorporated by act of the legistature.

1831—December, Rome township (originally Watertown) organized from Orwell, Sheshequin and Wysox.

1831-‘32—"A very severe winter; hardest experienced since that of 1779-‘80—Lieut. Samuel Gore, Sheshequin.

Candidates and Election, 1831—Candidates of the Democratic party: Assembly—John Laporte, Asylum and John Beecher, Tioga county; commissioner—Isaac Cooley, Springfield; auditor—Samuel Stevens, Jr., Pike. Opposing candidates: Assembly—Samuel Strait, Jr., Columbia; commissioner, Samuel Bartlett, Sheshequin; auditor, Justus Lewis, Wyalusing. The result was an overwhelming Democratic victory. The vote stood: Laporte, 1209; Beecher, 1710; Strait, 610; Cooley, 11162; Bartlett, 657; Stevens, 1069; Lewis, 664.

1832—June 5, four inches of snow fell all over Eastern Pennsylvania.

1832—Products of Bradford county as given by Watson’s Gazette: Grain, flour, whisky, fruit, salted provisions live stock and lumber.

Towanda Village, 1832, consisted of 63 dwelling houses (2 of brick and 1 of stone), 7 dry goods stores, 3 grocery and provision stores, 2 hotels, 1 tin shop, 2 cabinet-makers shops, 1 foundry, 6 blacksmith shops, 4 tailor shops, 2 gunsmith shops, 3 shoemaker shops, two watch repairing shops and 1 hatter’s shop; 2 physicians, 3 justices of the peace and 7 lawyers. The town had neither school house nor church.—Enumeration by Wm. Scott.

Campaign of 1832—Democratic State and county ticket: Governor, George Wolfe; congress, John Laporte, Asylum; assembly, Samuel W. Morris, Tioga county and Eliphalet Mason, Monroe; commissioner, John Elliott, Wyalusing; auditor, Abraham Goodwin, Ulster. Opposition ticket: Governor, Joseph Rituer, anti-masonic; congress, Simon Kinney, Towanda; assembly, Ellis Lewis, independent Democratic, Towanda and Dr. Alkerin Herrick, Troy; commissioner, Franklin Blackman, Sheshequin and John Wilson, Monroe; auditor, Wm. Evans, Springfield. When the votes were counted it was found that Kinney had carried the county against Laporte but was defeated in the district, that Lewis had defeated Mason. The vote stood: Governor—Wolfe, 1685; Ritner, 920; Congress—Kinney, 1309; Laporte, 1198; Commissioner—Elliott, 1288; Wilson, 936; Blackman, 244; Auditor—Goodwin, 1641; Evans, 391. The candidates for the presidency in 1832 were Andrew Jackson, Democrat, and Henry Clay, National Republican. The November election showed the following result in Bradford county: Jackson, 1592 votes, Clay, 1220. The Jackson electoral ticket in the State that year was headed by Gen Samuel McKean of Burlington and the Clay ticket by Richard Rush. McKean was chosen by a large majority and when the electoral college met he was made its president.

The Meteoric Shower—A grand celestial phenomenon or Meteoric Shower was exhibited in the heavens on the morning of November 13, 1833. This beautiful and wonderful exhibition of "falling stars" or "shooting stars," as sometimes called, was seen and is yet remembered by some of the oldest inhabitants.

Camp Meetings—"A camp meeting for the Burlington circuit of the Methodist Protestant church will be held on the grounds of Jon Clark, about two miles from Burlington Corners on Sugar Creek, to commence Thursday, August 22, 1833, and continue several days. Every preparation will be made for the comfortable accommodation of our friends. We heartily invite Christians of every name to come and unite with us in this feast of tabernacles, laying aside all party spirit and sectional zeal, and let us try to unfurl the banner of our Redeemer and encourage and invite sinners to enlist in the army that Jesus leads. Anthony McReynolds, superintendent of Burlington circuit." While not the first, the foregoing calls attention to a religious feature that was popular in many parts of the county. These annual festivals, usually largely attended, were kept up until recent years.

Towanda and Asylum Celebrate—On the evening of July 4, 1833, a number of citizens of Towanda and vicinity convened at Daniel Bartlett’s hotel to duly celebrate the 57th anniversary of American Independence. Benjamin Spees was chosen president and E. S. Goodrich vice president. Capt. Wm. Patton, Benj. Spees, Henry Mercur, David M. Bull, James T. Hale, Hon. Ellis Lewis, Hiram Rice, Elias W. Hale and Daniel Bartlett each expressed sentiments fitting the occasion. "At Asylum the day was celebrated at the house of F. X. Homet. A procession was formed at 2 o’clock opposite the dwelling and marched to the schoolhouse where the Declaration of Independence was read by Joseph Homet and an oration delivered by Dr. Coe G. Jennings. The company returned in the same order. A dinner was prepared and after removing the cloth 13 toasts were drunk by the company."

Candidates and Election, 1833—The Democrats in convention nominated the following: State Senator, Almon H. Reed, Susquehanna county; assembly, Samuel W. Morris, Tioga county and Lockwood Smith, Ulster; sheriff, John L. Webb, Smithfield; commissioner, Isaac H. Ross, Pike; auditor, Alpheus Holcomb, Franklin; coroner, Elliott Whitney, Wysox. No regular ticket was nominated in opposition. However, Morris Spalding of Towanda was an independent candidate for commissioner and there were several independent candidates for sheriff, the most formidable of whom was Franklin Blackman of Sheshequin. Spalding was elected. The vote was as follows: Reed, 1445 (no opposition); Morris, 1866 (no opposition); Smith, 1885 (no opposition); Webb, 1405; Blackman, 1003; Spalding, 1464; Ross, 889; Holcomb, 1386 (no opposition); Whitney, 1223 (no opposition).

1834—May 14, ten inches of snow fell.

Public School System Established—The public, or free school system, was established by the Act of April 1, 1834, which provided for the election of six school directors in each district, defining their powers and duties and giving them authority to raise money by taxation to meet the necessary expense of such free schools. The act further provided: "The several courts of quarter sessions in this Commonwealth shall, annually, at their fist session after the election of school directors within their respective counties, appoint two competent citizens of each school district to be Inspectors of the public schools therein established by this act who shall be exempt, during the performance of their said offices, from military duty and from serving in any township or borough office. It shall be the duty of the school inspectors to visit every school in their respective districts, at least once in every three months and as much oftener as they think proper, to enquire into the moral character, learning and ability of the several teachers employed therein; they shall have power to examine any person wishing to be employed as a teacher, and if found qualified of good moral character, shall give him or her a certificate of that effect, naming therein the branches which he or she is found qualified to teach, which certificate shall be valid for one year from the date thereof and no longer; and no person who shall not have obtained such certificate, shall receive from the county treasurer, or the treasurer of the Commonwealth any compensation for his services." The office of County Superintendent was created in 1854, taking the place of and annulling the office of school inspectors. The first school inspectors of Bradford county, appointed by the Court, Dec. 9, 1834, were as follows:

Albany—Seth Stevens, Dyer Ormsby.

Asylum—Francis Horton, Benjamin Moody.

Athens—John F. Satterlee, Justin Morley.

Athens Boro—Lemuel S. Ellsworth, E. H. Perkins.

Burlington—Mark Preston, Chester Campbell.

Canton—John H. Hazelton, Edwin Manning.

Columbia—Silas E. Shepard, Samuel Bullock.

Franklin—Ira Crofut, Wm. B. Spalding.

Granville—Luman Putnam, Alanson Bailey

Litchfield—Charles Kinney, Thomas Park.

Monroe—Gordon F. Mason, Curtis Hinman.

Orwell—Robert McKee, Cicero Dimock.

Pike—Elisha DeWolf, Lewis H. Woodruff.

Ridgebery—Lathrop Baldwin, Nehemiah Smith

Rome—Justus Eastman, David Buffington.

Sheshequin—Joseph Kingsbury, Jabez Fish.

Smithfield—Darius Bullock, David Farnsworth.

Springfield—John Salisbury, William Evans

Tuscarora—John Ford, Miles Coburn.

Towanda—David F. Barstow, Geo. A. Mix.

Troy—Almerin Herrick, Alvin W. Thomas

Ulster—Henry Plowman, Warren Brown

Warren—Algernon S. Coburn, Enoch P. Coburn.

Wells—Nathan Alvord, Jr., Wm. P. Wylie.

Windham—Jeptha Brainard, Edmund Russell.

Wyalusing—Chas. F. Welles, Justus Lewis.

Wysox—Harry Morgan, Peter C. Ward.

1834—Bradford county paid bounties on wild animals killed as follows: Wolves, $350, wild cats, $57.75, foxes, $215.

First Bridge Across the Susquehanna in Bradford county was built at Towanda in 1834-’35. In 1833 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 towards the construction of the bridge, the balance necessary for its completion, being raised by individual subscriptions as stock. Proposals were advertised in December, 1833, and the contract given to John Bottom, a practical bridge builder, who performed the work in 1834-’35, the structure consisting of three spans. A new appropriation was made by the State and 1837-’38 the original bridge was taken down, the piers raised, the bridge extended on the east side one span and a towing-path added. Bottom & Scott were the contractors. October 24, 1849, the east span of the bridge was burned and immediately rebuilt. Again in 1854, the same span was destroyed by fire. The river having cut around the east end of the bridge, it was again taken down, rebuilt and raised seven feet in 1854-’55, M. C. Mercur and Thomas Elliott being the contractors. In 1914 the wooden structure was taken down and a modern steel bridge erected on the same site by the county at a cost of $74,300 besides concrete work. Toll was taken until Sept. 16, 2879, since which time it has been a free county bridge.

Political Parties and Candidates, 1834—The following were the Democratic nominees: Congress, John Laporte, Asylum; assembly, Lockwood Smith, Ulster, and Samuel W. Morris, Tioga county; commissioner, Elias Rockwell, Canton; auditor, Aaron Chubbuck, Orwell. Democratic-Whig convention was held and the following opposition candidates chosen: Congress, Horace Williston, Athens; assembly, Reuben Wilber, Troy; commissioner, Jere Adams, Troy; auditor, Joel Cook, Jr., Orwell. The regular Democratic ticket was successful, the vote in the county being: Congress—Laporte, 1512; Williston, 1630; Assembly—Smith, 1657; Morris, 1449; Wilber, 1411; John Cochran (Tioga county), 1444; Commissioner—Rockwell, 1587; Adams, 1523; Auditor—Chubbuck, 1639; Cook, 1348. Williston carried the county against Laporte but was defeated in the district. Smith and Morris had a large majority for assembly in the two counties.

The Towanda Bank—the first in the county, was established in 1834-’35. The first officers were Thomas Elliott, president, Wm. B. Storm, cashier with Col. Joseph Kingsbury, Edward Overton, Col. Hiram Mix, H. S. Mercur, L. S. Ellsworth and Harry Morgan active directors. During the first years the bank did a good business, established credit and at one time is said to have been able to command over $700,000. In about 1837 Mr. Elliott resigned and Colonel Kingsbury became president. After a number of changes the stock finally passed into dishonest hands, resulting in a failure in 1843.

1835—May 20-21, snow fell to a depth varying from 15 inches to two feet; apple, peach and plum trees were in blossom.

1835—May, South Creek township organized from Ridgebery and Wells.

1835—December, LeRoy township organized from Canton and Franklin.

The Steamboat Susquehanna which had been building at Owego the past winter to ply between that place and Wilkes-Barre is now completed and on Thursday, May 7, 1835, passed down the river on its first trip. It is apparently a fine, well made boat and the hasty observation afforded by its short stay at this village (Towanda) did not at all diminish our hope of its success. It is constructed on a plan new to us and seems peculiarly fitted for the navigation of streams filled like the Susquehanna with shoals and rapids. A little time will test its efficiency.—Northern Banner. In its issue of July 2, 1835, the Banner says: "The steamboat Susquehanna touched at this place on her second passage down from Owego to Wilkes-Barre on Thursday last. This is her second trip, and although somewhat unfortunate in her first, we still have hopes that she will ultimately succeed and establish the practicability of navigating our noble river by steam. We are confident that there is at all times a sufficient quantity of water in the river and that the bed of the channel might be so improved as to render it navigable by steamboats constructed on the plan of the one now floating upon her waters. The Susquehanna is a beautiful boat and is said to draw but 16 inches of water."

Land Difficulties in Bradford County spread over a long series of years. For more than a quarter of a century there was a bitter strife between Connecticut and Pennsylvania claimants. Neither the Trenton decree of 1782 nor the Comprise Act of 1799 satisfied all or ended the land troubles. As time went on new phases and conditions presented themselves and it was not until within the memory of our oldest inhabitants that there was a final adjustment. In 1835 the settlers became greatly aroused and held numerous "Land Meetings" in different parts of the county. The object of these meetings and the grievances of the settlers are fully set forth in the proceedings published at the time as the following will show:

"Pursuant to notice, the settlers from various townships in Bradford county met at the house of E. Goodrich in Columbia township on the 26th day of June, 1835, for the purpose of adopting measures for maintaining the legal and equitable rights of the Settlers against the aggressions of a landed nobility.

‘Whereupon, John Egbert of Wells township was called to the chair, and Seth Salsbury of Smithfield chosen secretary. The object of the meeting being explained by the chair, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:

"Whereas, a few individuals in the large cities in our own country and in Europe have monopolized for very small consideration a great portion of the land in Northern Pennsylvania, contrary to the spirit of our free institutions, and in direct contravention to the settled policy and practice of our State government and the government of the United States; and whereas, the few individuals professing to own this large tract of land in Northern Pennsylvania, scattered their advertisements throughout almost every section of the United States, especially the New England States, where the tide of emigration some 15, 20 and 30 years ago was strong. These advertisements held forth the most alluring inducements to the industrious poor man to emigrate—hundreds of families did migrate under the delusive expectation of finding a productive soil, generous and confiding acquaintance with the rugged toils of life. The pioneers of Northern Pennsylvania depended generally upon their own industry and economy to subdue their lands, pay the purchase money and provide for the wants of their families. Thus situated they were in the power of the few professing to own the land. Under these circumstances, what has been the course of conduct pursued by our lordly European and American landholders towards the first Settlers of Northern Pennsylvania? Have they carried out the benevolent intentions of the government of Pennsylvania, parting with their lands at small prices, thereby placing it in the power of the industrious settlers to pay for their land and become freeholders instead of tenants at will? For otherwise, the relentless landholders disregarding the intentions of the legislature, availed themselves of the necessitous condition of the Settlers, they sold them their lands at prices greatly disproportioned to its value; and after 30 years experience (in many cases) of the most untiring industry and rigid economy, the fact is established beyond contradiction, that it is morally impossible for the people to pay for their lands, thereby placing the Settlers of Northern Pennsylvania in the degrading situation of tenants at will to a landed aristocracy, without the least ray of hope or rational expectation of ever becoming freeholders. Is the principle to be tolerated that a community understanding their rights and knowing their duty would suffer themselves longer to be made the sport of chance and prey of ambition? The pioneers of Northern Pennsylvania have sustained with that fortitude, which virtue alone inspires, all the privations attendant upon the early settlement, or one of the most wild and rugged tracts of country within the borders of the United States. Longer to submit to the fraudulent speculators, which nominal landholders have carried on towards the citizens of Northern Pennsylvania, would be to deserve the degradations and slavery, which it imposes upon us and our posterity.

"We have from time to time reminded them of the absolute necessity of observing on their part the intentions of the legislature of Pennsylvania, that lands which were purchased of the state put at small prices, in order to enable the settlers to become freeholders, and as a consequence freemen and not slaves, we have reminded them of the necessity of their producing a valid title to the lands which they profess to own. These requisitions have been treated with silent contempt, or responded to in a spirit of high tone aristocracy. With a firm reliance upon that law of justice, which has ever distinguished the people of Pennsylvania, we shall ultimately submit for their decision the eventful contest now going on between the pioneers of Northern Pennsylvania on the one side, and oppressive landed aristocracy on the other side. We have taken our stand, we have crossed the Rubicon—we have arrayed at the bar of public opinion those who have long defrauded and oppressed us, it is not the hallucination of a morbid imagination, it is not a monetary excitement produced by some political renegade, which led us on, it is the voice of a great community elicited by evils and by injuries no longer to be endured; its origin is as deep as the foundation of society—to reason and the moral sense of community the appeal is made; therefore,

"Resolved. That until the trustees of the Bingham estate establishes a title by a solemn decision of a court of competent jurisdiction, and make such abatement in the price of the land, as to put it in the power of industrious and prudent men to pay the purchase money, we will not pay another dollar to them or their agents.

John Egbert, Chairman S. Salsbury, Secretary

Towanda Academy—"The corner-stone of the Towanda Academy was laid Saturday, August 1, 1835 by Simon Kinney, Esq., the oldest resident of the borough. Prayer was offered by Harry Morgan and a very heat and appropriate address delivered by General Patton. A large procession was formed on the public square and conducted to the site of the building under the direction of Zenas Thomas, where the ceremonies were performed very much to the gratification of all. The building is progressing rapidly under the superintendence of all. The building is progressing rapidly under the superintendence of Col. J. P. Bull, J. D. Montanye and Isaac Myer, and judging from present appearances we think it will be an ornament to the borough." --Northern Banner. School opened in 1836. Among the notable teachers in this institution were O. H. Platt, later U. S. Senator from Conn., Henry M. Hoyt, Governor of Penna., Prof. F. W. Gunn, Prof. Geo. R. Barker and others who attained eminence in different callings. The Academy became somewhat famous and was continued until the incorporation of the Susquehanna Collegiate Institute.

Grand Balls were more in evidence 70 and 80 years ago than in recent years. They were big affairs and generally partook of the military spirit of the times. A Grand Military Ball by the 2nd Brigade 9th Division, Pennsylvania Militia was held in O. P. Ballard’s long assembly room, Troy, September 10, 1835 in celebration of Perry’s victory. The invitations read, "After the ceremonies of the day a Military Ball will be held—

Where belles and beaux will all parade

With officers of every grade

To trip the light fantastic toe

For fashion has decreed it so.

Managers: Col. E. Rose, Col. W. E. Barton, Maj. I. C. Bullock, Maj. D. L. Scott, Col. Allen McKean, Col. V. E. Piollet, Maj. James Kimball, Maj. C. S. Spencer and Maj. Jos. Kingsbury, Jr."

Political Entanglements, 1835—The Democratic party of the county divided on the presidential question, one branch being in favor of John McLean for president, the other in favor of Martin VanBuren. Wolfe had been regarded an ideal governor by the Bradford Democrats but was turned down in the State convention of 1835 and Henry A. Muhlenberg nominated to head the ticket. This broadened the breach between the Democratic factions, which with the differences of opinion on the question of the United States Bank and the anti-Masonic movement, added to the confusion and uncertainty of the contest. Two tickets had been nominated by the Democrats of the county, which resulted in a victory for the more independent element. The vote was as follows: Governor—Wolfe (Ind. D.), 1504; Joseph Ritner (Anti-Mason),1239; Muhlenberg (D), 406; Assembly—Darius Bullock, 2467; Isaac Myer, 2090; David Cash, 949; Samuel W. Morris, 564; Commissioner—Harry Morgan, 1710; Andrew Coburn, 1515; Auditor—Allen McKean, 1638, Cornwall Brush, 1185.

Winter of 1835-’36 remarkable for a great fall of snow and intense cold weather. January 8, 9 and 10 snow fell without cessation and was followed by a heavy wind, which in many places piled the snow in drifts from 15 to 20 feet deep. Again on the 24th and 25th of January snow fell to the depth of more than a foot, making with the previous fall a covering of about four feet on the level. The weather continued extremely cold five weeks and many cattle and other animals perished. There was still good sleighing on the 23rd of March. Teams crossed the river, at Towanda on the ice the 28th, then there was a sudden change and the ice went out March 30, doing little damage.

Governor Visits County—At a meeting of citizens held at the courthouse in Towanda, August 23, 1836, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted.

"Whereas, It is understood that his excellency, Joseph Ritner, in company with the Canal Commissioners is about to visit this place for the purpose of making himself personally acquainted with the improvements now in progress and the extent of the resources and advantages of the county through which they are to pass; therefore

"Resolved, That we hail with pleasure the era that is opening upon the northern section of our state and in particular upon the county of Bradford, and that we feel a consciousness that we at length have a governor who is disposed to visit our county, an occurrence highly gratifying to our citizens inasmuch as no governor of this Commonwealth has ever yet seen Bradford county.

"Resolved. That this meeting bid him a hearty welcome to this borough and that we highly approve of the purpose of the present chief magistrate of the Commonwealth to see in person how far each work under improvement is entitled to the attention and deserving of the energies of the state.

"Resolved, That a committee of 30 be appointed to wait upon his excellency upon his arrival, to give him a welcome, reception and to see that he has such accommodations as may render his visit pleasant and agreeable. The following were appointed: Isaac Myer, J. C. Powell, E. R. Utter, B. Kingsbury, Thomas Elliott, J. D. Montanye, Samuel Strait, Jr., F. Blackman, Harry Morgan, S. T. Barstow, Geo. Tracy, Francis Tyler, Chas. F. Welles, John N. Weston, John F. Satterlee, Chauncey Grant, Nathaniel Clapp, Edward Overton, E. S. Goodrich, Wm. Elwell, O. P. Ballard, Geo. Kinney, Wm. Myer, Eli Baird, Enos Tompkins, Robt. Spalding, Hiram Mix and Jos. Kingsbury."

"Governor Ritner and Thos. H. Burrows, secretary of Commonwealth, arrived in Towanda on the afternoon of September 2, 1836. They were escorted into town by a large number of citizens who went out to meet them. Their arrival was greeted by the discharge of cannon and on being welcomed to our town Governor Ritner made appropriate remarks. On the following day they left to visit Athens, Owego and Elmira."—Northern Banner.

North Branch Canal—The first great public improvement in Bradford county was the North Branch Canal. Its accomplishment was a persistent struggle for more than a quarter of a century (1827-54). In 1836 the canal had been completed only to the Wyoming valley. Then came Bradford'’ turn: "Canal Letting—Sealed proposals will be received at the engineer’s office in Towanda until Tuesday, October 25, 1836 for the construction of 35 miles of the North Branch Division Pennsylvania Canal, commencing at the village of Athens near the New York state line and terminating at Wyalusing creek, embracing a number of heavy rock sections, a dam across the Chemung river at Athens and a dam across the Susquehanna river at Towanda, two guard locks, about ten lift locks, including two large river locks, three aqueducts and several large culverts. Plans and specifications will be exhibited at said office for five days previous to closing of the letting. Wm. Keeler, Supt. of North Branch Extension Pa. Canal." "The letting of contracts of the North Branch Extension Pa. Canal took place on October 25th. For many days previous our borough was thronged with visitors, the principal part of whom were applicants for contracts. The allotments were announced on Friday evening. We understand the contractors are required to commence operations on their respective sections within 30 days."—Northern Banner.

Interest in Railroads—The history of railroads in Bradford county commences in 1835 when meetings were called by her citizens to take steps in promoting the building of the Williamsport & Elmira railroad. Among the arguments advanced and objects to be attained were:

"That the western part of Bradford county is rapidly increasing in population and has no outlet to market for its productions except by the ordinary roads of the county and these products are increasing with the increase of population and wealth;

"That this route is the only natural opportunity to affect a communication from the West Branch to the improvements of the state of New York;

"That the inexhaustible beds of coal and iron on the route and in the immediate vicinity of this road, the products of which are indispensable to the state of New York, render this road highly necessary and offer a sure prospect of an ample return to the stockholders of the company for their outlays;

"That it is of great importance in a national point of view as forming an important link in a direct railway and canal communication through the interior from the seat of general government to the lakes, thereby increasing the facility for transporting the mail, and in case of war indispensable;

"That we do not consider the canal question to be one at all interfering with the railroad. They are distinct objects for distinct purposes, each having strong and equal, but different claims upon the government."

Despite the interest and zeal of her citizens it was nearly twenty years before the Williamsport & Elmira railroad was built through Bradford county. By 1832 the road had been built as far as Ralston, having wooden rails with a strip of iron on top. In 1853-’54 the road was completed and opened between Williamsport and Elmira. Subsequently the roads passed into the hands of the management of the Northern Central railroad, the entire system now from Baltimore to Canandaigua, being known as the "Pennsylvania."

The second attempt in railroad construction was by the Towanda & Franklin Railroad Company. On the 22nd of April, 1836 an Act was passed by the Legislature, chartering the Towanda & Franklin Railroad company. The Act provided: "The president, managers and company of said railroad company shall have power to survey, lay down, ascertain, make and fix such route as they shall deem expedient for a double or single railroad, beginning at the borough of Towanda in Bradford county and to extend to the coal mines in Franklin township in said county, and with the right to extend said road, or to construct lateral railroads therefrom to such coal mines in said township." Nothing was done under this charter and the coal mines were not reached by rail until after the formation of the Barclay Railroad & Coal company. The Barclay railroad, from the canal at Towanda to the coal region was surveyed in the summer of 1854, put under contract and the work commenced in the spring of 1855 and the road completed in the fall of 1856.

Notable October Snow Storm, 1836—The people of Bradford county, back on the hills, were not a little surprised upon arising on the 5th of October to find the ground covered with a great body of snow which had fallen to the depth of nearly two feet during the night. Fruit had not been gathered and buckwheat was still in the field, some not yet cut. Fruit trees were broken down and the roads through the forests blockaded with fallen limbs. On the 6th the sun shone brightly and the snow soon disappeared. Of the storm the Northern Banner says: "This was one of the most unusual storms we have ever witnessed, and being accompanied by the keen, cutting blasts from the north, it had every appearance of real winter. The jingling of sleigh bells was heard through our streets (Towanda) on the 5th of October as merrily as in the middle of winter, and overcoats, cloaks and good fires were as indispensable as in January. *** Palmer Thompson of Smithfield township perished in the snow storm on the night of October 5th. He had been a few miles from home to a raising. Returning home through the woods, night coming on and it being very dark, he lost his way and lay in the woods all night where he was found dead the next morning."

Campaign of 1836—By 1836 the Whigs of the county had put up a strong organization and formed a coalition with the dissatisfied and anti-Masonic Democrats. The result was the nomination of the following ticket: Congress, Wm. Jessup, Susquehanna county; assembly, Dr. Darius Bullock, Smithfield; Sheriff, Francis Tyler, Athens; commissioner, Burton Strait, Columbia; auditor, Joseph Gamble, Asylum; coroner, Isaac Miller, Burlington. The Democrats nominated the following: Congress, Samuel W. Morris, Tioga county; assembly, Isaac Cooley, Springfield; sheriff, Guy Tozer, Athens; commissioner, Daniel Park, Litchfield; auditor, Dr. Geo. F. Horton, Asylum; coroner, Aaron Knapp, LeRoy. There were two independent candidates for sheriff—John Wilson of Monroe and Franklin Blackman of Sheshequin. The following was the vote: Congress—Jessup, 1494; Morris, 1385; Assembly—Cooley, 1516; Bullock, 1509; Sheriff—Tozer, 1420; Tyler, 982; Wilson, 933; Blackman, 385; Commissioner—Park, 1433; Strait, 1378; Auditor—Horton, 1596; Gamble, 961; Coroner—Knapp, 1478; Miller, 1013. The concluding part of the campaign was most exciting, the Whigs making a determined effort to carry the county for Harrison and to defeat John L. Webb, who had been nominated by the Democrats as county delegate to the Constitutional Convention. Isaac Myer had been nominated as the candidate to oppose Mr. Webb but was subsequently withdrawn and Nathaniel Clapp of Athens substituted. There being an element in the party jealous and hostile to Mr. Webb at the November election he was defeated, the vote standing; Clapp, 1540; Webb, 1503. The Whigs in their canvass presented Harrison more as a Democrat than a Whig candidate. The scheme worked, with General Harrison’s brilliant military record, had the effect of drawing many Democratic votes to "The Hero of Tippecanoe." When the votes were counted in November it was found that Harrison had a majority over VanBuren in the county of 24. The vote stood: Harrison, 1583; VanBuren, 1559.

Old Fast Lines—"Look here! If you want to go South take the Berwick Fast Line, which takes you to Philadelphia in 2 ½ days—no failure nor suspension, only to eat, drink and sleep. Leave Towanda every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 11 o’clock a.m. Fare to Berwick $3.50. If East or North, take the Montrose stage which carries you through in a day, and next morning to Binghamton, or by the Jersey City Line in two days to New York. Leave Towanda every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 11 o’clock a.m. Fare to Montrose $2. If you desire to see the far West take the Elmira Line, which leaves here in the afternoon and after the arrival of the Montrose and Berwick stages, and arrives at Elmira next morning for breakfast, thence in the Bath or Geneva stages same day. Leave Towanda every Sunday, Wednesday and Friday at 2 o’clock p.m. Fare to Elmira $2. For seats in the above line apply at the Eagle House or to D. M. Bull, proprietor, Towanda, June, 1837."

Bradford County Anti-Slavery Society was organized in 1837 with Deacon Giles N. DeWolf as president and Deacon Charles Stevens secretary. However, agitation of this subject had been going on six years. J. Washington Ingham, an authority, says: "In 1831 some Anti-Slavery meetings were held in Terrytown, which were addressed by Dr. Geo. F. Horton and Eben Terry, both speakers holding that slavery was wrong and ought to be immediately abolished. Five years later the subject was warmly discussed in public meetings throughout the county, particularly in the townships of Pike, Wyalusing and Asylum. Meetings were frequently held and generally well attended in the church at Merryall and in the school houses in the afore mentioned townships. Among the earlier and most active abolitionists, when the name ‘abolitionist’ was a term of reproach, were the following: Dr. Geo. F. Horton, Geo. Gamble, Thomas Ingham, Francis Viall, J. R. Emery, Jeremiah Kilmer, James Gamble, Nathaniel N. Gamble, John K. Gamble and J. W. Ingham of Asylum, Justus Lewis, Capt. John Keeler, Milton Lewis, Isaac G. Palmer, John McKinney, Joseph Ingham and Nelson Atwood of Wyalusing, Isaac Camp, Clark Camp, Charles Overpeck, Abel Bolles and Wm. Gamble of Herrick, Deacon Giles N. DeWolf, Capt. Isaac Nichols and James DeWolf of Pike, Abner Hinman and Daniel Coolbaugh of Wysox, Wm. Watkins, Henry Booth and John Geiger of Towanda, Benjamin Stevens and Zephaniah Lane of Burlington."

Activity in Temperance—In 1837 there was renewed activity in Temperance work. The Bradford County Temperance Society was reorganized and a new constitution adopted at a meeting held in Towanda, January 11th and the following officers elected: President, John McKean; vice president, Eli Beard; secretary, J. C. Adams; treasurer, J. D. Goodenough; directors, Dr. Geo. F. Horton, Wm. B. Storm, Silas Noble and Parley Coburn. Many addresses were made throughout the county with telling effect. Isaac Smith of Columbia and John Watkins of Ulster quit the distilling business "for the good of humanity."

A Whig Victory—In 1837 the Whigs gained their first substantial victory in the county. Their ticket that year was: State senator, Elihu Case, Troy; assembly, George Kinney, Sheshequin; commissioner, Irad Stevens Pike; auditor, Henry W. Tracy, Wysox. The following was the Democratic ticket: State senator, Aaron Chubbuck, Orwell; assembly, Isaac Cooley, Springfield; commissioner, Wm. S. Ingals, Wells; auditor, Harry Ackley, Tuscarora. Following was the vote: State Senator—Case, 1922; Chubbuck, 1641; Assembly—Kinney, 1925; Cooley, 1647; Commissioner—Stevens, 1853; Ingals, 1690; Auditor—Tracy, 1730; Ackley, 1729; Tracy being elected by one vote.

County’s Merchants, 1837—The following were the retailers of merchandise in Bradford county, 1837; Athens—G. A. & E. H. Perkins, C. Paine, N. Clapp, Morley & Kingsbery, C. N. Shipman; Asylum—G. & J. F. Chamberlain, Rufus Smith, John Horton, Jr.; Burlington—Addison McKean, H. H. Compton & Co.; Canton—Manning & Rose, Bernard Wood, John Cummings; Columbia—Jared Smith, R. & S. Keyes, D. Dewy, Shepard & Roe; Franklin—Stephen Myer; LeRoy—Samuel Bailey; Monroe—Geo. Tracy, S. L. & R. Fowler, Hanson & Hinman, S. S. Bradley; Orwell—Henry Gibbs; Pike—James Hodge, Irad Stevens, Harlow Woodruff; Ridgebery—Beckworth & Satterly; Rome—Cornelius Judson, W. E. Maynard; Smithfield—L. Durfey, B. Hale, Jr., E. S. Tracy; Springfield—S. P. Mattocks, H. Spalding, P. Norman; Sheshequin—Snyder & Moody; South Creek—A.D. Hinkley & Co.; Towanda—Elijah Montanye, Eli Baird, H. S. & J. W. Mercur, M. C. Mercur, E. L. Paine, Joseph Kingsbury, Jr., Betts & Montanye, Burton Kingsbury, O. D. Bartlett, S. S. Bailey, A. Goodwin, R. B. Stewart, D. L. Scott & Co., C. Wilcox, N. Shoemaker, Edward White & Son; Troy—O. P. Ballard, Gilbert & Cone, V. M. Long, J. Reynolds; Ulster—S. S. & M.Bailey, Wilson & Salmon, Luther Goddard, Guy Tracy, D. Sponeberger & Co., Josiah Marshall; Wyalusing—J. McKinney, Jacob Koons, Ralph Martin, Newell Rockwell, A. C. & M. Lanning; Wysox—Wm. Myer & Co., Hollenback & Gordon, Julius R. Barstow, V. E. Piollet, H. W. Tracy, P. C. Ward; Warren—Alexander Dewing; Wells—Wm. Osgood.

1837-‘38—"A remarkably mild winter until the last of January when winter commenced in good earnest and the weather continued intensely cold, the greater part of the time, until the 5th of March. April following was very cold."

1838—February, Herrick township organized from Orwell, Pike, Wyalusing and Wysox.

Campaign of 1838—The Whigs were unable to maintain their advantage and in 1838 lost everything. The Democrats placed the following ticket in nomination: Governor, David R. Porter; congress, Samuel W. Morris; assembly, David F. Barstow, Towanda; commissioner, Myron Ballard, Columbia; auditor, Luman Putnam, Granville. The Whig and Anti-Masonic ticket comprised the following: Governor, Joseph Ritner; congress, Wm.Willard; assembly, Nathaniel Clapp, Athens; commissioner, Allen McKean, Burlington; auditor, Levi Taylor, Granville. Following was the vote: Governor—Porter, 2420, Ritner, 2219; Congress—Morris, 2110, Willard, 2113; Assembly—Barstow, 2380, Clapp, 2173; Commissioner—Ballard, 2368; McKean, 2,159; Auditor—Putnam, 2385; Taylor, 2103. The new constitution, for adoption or rejection, was submitted at this election. In the county, the vote for the constitution was 4116; against, 188.

Bradford County Mutual Insurance Company was organized in 1839 with the following officers: President, Wm.B. Storm; secretary, O. D. Bartlett; directors, N. N. Betts, J. D. Montanye, D. Cash, A. Goodwin, O. P. Ballard, Reuben Wilber, O. D. Bartlett, Jere Adams, H. S. Mercur, Wm. B. Storm, E. S. Goodrich, Enos Tompkins and J. F. Means; the company began writing policies in March.

1839—On the 25th of May snow began falling, continuing during the night until it was over a foot deep. The spring had been early and much framing done. Corn was up. The snow soon melted and passed away.

Candidates and Election, 1839—This year the Democrats held their advantage and increased their majorities. Their ticket was: Representative, David F. Barstow, Towanda; Sheriff, Ira H. Stephens, Rome; prothonotary, David Cash, Towanda; register & recorder, Ephraim W. Baird, Towanda; commissioner, Irad Wilson, Canton; auditor, James M. Edsall, Wells; coroner, Henry S. Salisbury, Monroe. The Whigs had nominated the following: Representative, Henry S. Mercur, Towanda; Sheriff, Allen McKean, Burlington; prothonotary, Alvin T. Myer, Wysox; register & recorder, Henry Gaylord, Wyalusing; commissioner, Franklin Blackman, Sheshequin; auditor, Andrew Dewing, Warren; coroner, Dan A. Gillett, Ridgebery. The vote follows: Representative—Barstow, 2227; Mercur, 2045; Sheriff—Stephens, 2187; McKean, 2083; Prothonotary, Cash, 2203; Myer, 2003; Register & Recorder—Baird, 2237; Gaylord, 1963; Commissioner—Wilson, 2266; Blackman, 1944; Auditor Edsall 2238; Dewing, 1920; Coroner—Salisbury, 2232; Gillett, 1907. The offices of prothonotary and register & recorder, heretofore appointive, were made elective by the constitution of 1838.

Zero Blast and Early Spring, 1840—"Monday and Tuesday morning, January 4 and 5, 1840, were said to have been the coldest that have been known in Pennsylvania for many years. In Williamsport thermometers stood at 26 degrees below zero and in Towanda from 15 to 20 below. The change in the weather between Tuesday afternoon and Wednesday morning was quite as remarkable, moderating some 50 degrees in less than twenty hours."—Banner & Democrat. February was warm as was March when ploughing commenced the first of the month. Seeding and planting were early and corn was in tassel by the 4th of July.

Population of Bradford county in 1840 was 32,769, being by districts as follows:

Athens township---------------1532

Burlington township----------1118

Canton township---------------1254

Orwell township---------------1037

Smithfield township-----------1427

Towanda township-------------1002

Ulster township-----------------1053

Wyalusing township-----------1400

Wysox township---------------1871

Asylum township--------------947

Columbia township------------1421

Franklin township--------------351

Pike township-------------------1214

Springfield township----------1487

Troy township------------------1664

Warren township---------------1308

Wells township-----------------873

Windham township------------879

Albany township---------------803

Litchfield township------------817

Monroe township--------------1153

Sheshequin township----------1010

Tuscarora township------------1020

Granville township-------------651

Herrick township---------------632

LeRoy township----------------679

Rome township-----------------817

South Creek township---------484

Athens borough----------------435

Towanda borough--------------912

Memorable Campaign, 1840—The campaign of 1840 was most exciting and a memorable one. Campaign songs, expressing party sentiment, were sung at the different political gatherings. Great meetings were held in Towanda and other towns in the county. The fife and drum, bands of music, log cabins, live coons, boats on their way up salt river, banners and transparencies were features in the parades. Hickory poles were in evidence everywhere in the county. The opponents of General Harrison, the Whig candidate for the presidency, told stories of his having lived in a log cabin with nothing but hard cider to drink. His friends claimed that this was rather to his credit and log cabins were used in the parades of his adherents. "Hard cider," as well as "log cabin," became party cries. In fact the whole campaign was based on Harrison’s sturdy qualities and his military reputation. One of his best known victories was at Tippecanoe over the Shawnee Indians in 1811. This, too, was turned to account and the cry of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," figured prominently in the campaign. The Democrats had re-nominated Martin VanBuren and Richard M. Johnson for the presidency and vice presidency in opposition to Harrison and Tyler. A new factor in politics introduced itself in this campaign. The Abolition party had formed and nominated James G. Birney for the presidency. The movement was taken up in Bradford county and at a convention held by the Abolitionists or "freemen" in Towanda, September 12, the following ticket was named: Representative, Geo. F. Horton, Asylum; commissioner, Giles N. DeWolf, Pike; auditor, Clark Camp, Herrick. These resolutions were adopted:

Resolved, That it is the indispensable duty of every man who wishes to reserve the blessings of an honest, representative government; the rights of property; the faith of contracts, the honor of his country and the freedom of man, to oppose by all honorable means, the system of slavery now tolerated in this republic.

"Resolved, That we will vote for those persons only who will go for the greatest measure of human liberty and employ constitutional and reasonable means for the extinction of slavery in the United States.

"Resolved, That the creation of monopolies or conferring exclusive privileges by law is at war with every principle of genuine democracy.

"Resolved, That we can not conscientiously confer power by our votes on anyone who is not friendly to the extension of the election franchise.

"Resolved, That we go for a reduction in the salaries of many of the officers of our state and national governments, being fully convinced that the public good and the best interests of our free institutions imperiously demand it.

"Resolved, That we hail with pleasure the organization of the Freeman’s party, based upon the great principle that all men are equal and that we cheerfully enroll ourselves under its broad banner, and hereby pledge to each other and to the world our sacred honor never to disband until liberty shall be proclaimed throughout all the land to all the inhabitants thereof.

"Resolved, That we highly approve of the nomination of James G. Birney for president and Thomas Earle for vice president of the United States, and that we will use all honorable means to promote their election.

"Resolved, that we go for virtue, liberty and independence and for temperance in all things; and therefore, we can not support for office any one who habitually uses intoxicating liquors as a beverage, or trafficks in them for the sake of making money."

The Democratic county ticket in 1840 was: Congress, Davis Dimock, Jr., Susquehanna county; representative, Stephen Pierce, Troy; commissioner, Benjamin Buffington, Warren; auditor, Arunah Wattles, Rome. The Whig nominees were: Congress, George Kress; representative, Allen McKean, Burlington; commissioner, Johnson Cowels, Orwell; auditor, Robert Spalding, Wysox. Following was the result of the election: President—VanBuren & Johnson, 2844; Harrison & Tyler, 2631; Birney & Earle, 26; Congress—Dimock, 2743; Kress, 2411; Representative—Pierce 2594, McKean, 2513; Commissioner—Buffington, 2756; Cowles, 2400; Auditor—Wattles, 2739; Spalding, 2423.