Tri-Counties Genealogy & History by Joyce M. Tice
G.A.R. Post No. 48, Mansfield PA
Bradford County PA
Chemung County NY
Tioga County PA

1907 Civil War Veterans march to Hope (Prospect Cemetery), 
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MICHAEL DALEY was born in Ireland. He enlisted August 7, 1862 (age 21) as a Private in Co. B 111th NY Vols. and was honorably discharged June 4, 1865. This regiment was recruited by Gen. Jesse Segoine as Colonel and was organized at Auburn, NY and there mustered into the service for three years on Aug. 20, 1862.  Clinton McDougall also served a Colonel, Lt. Colonels, Seneca B. Smith, Isaac M. Lusk, Aaron P. Seeley, Lewis W. Husk; Majors, James H. Lusk, Joseph W. Corning, Sidney Mead. The officers of the Company were Captains, John S. Coe, Robert C. Perry, Philip I. Lape; 2nd Lts., Jacob J. Van Buskirk, John C. Smith; 2nd Lts., John Tremper, Howard Sevis. The Regiment participated in the following battles and engagements, Siege of Harpers Ferry, Gettysburg, Falls Church, Lewinsville, Auburn, and Bristoe Station. Blackburns Ford, Mine Run Campaign, Robertson’s Tavern, Morton’s Ford, Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Po River, Salient, Landern House, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Totopotomay, Weldon Railroad, Deep Bottom, Strawberry Plains, Ream’s Station, Hatcher’s Run, Appomattox Campaign, White Oak Ridge, Deatonsville Road, Farmville, Appomattox Court House. They lost in the service, 12 officers and 392 enlisted men – a total of 404. They were honorably discharged and mustered out on June 4th 1865 near Alexandria, VA. – GAR48 p.160

Milton A. Goodall

Milton A. Goodall born in 1845 in Richmond Township enlisted in June 1863 in Company J 35th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Militia, under a call from Governor Curtin for troops to repel the rebel invasion of the state, and served until the Regiment was mustered out after the battle of Gettysburg. He enlisted at Williamsport Sept. 1, 1864 as a private in Battery K, 3rd Pa. Heavy Artillery. In November 1864 he was transferred to 188th Pa. Volunteer Infantry and served in that regiment until after the capture of Richmond, doing guard duty at that place for three weeks after its evacuation by the Confederates when he was transferred to his old Regiment, the 3rd Heavy Artillery. He was discharged from service June 9, 1865. Milton Goodall joined General Mansfield Post, GAR on August 21, 1893.


MILTON R. GOODALL was born on the 25TH day of November 1845 in Richmond Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania. In June 1863 he enlisted in Co. I, 35th Regiment PA Vol. Militia, under a call from Governor Curtin for troops to repel the Rebel invasion of the state (PA), and served unto the Regiment was mustered out after the battle of Gettysburg. He enlisted at Williamsport, PA, Sept. 1st 1864 as a private in Battery K, 3rd PA Heavy Artillery. In Nov. 1864 he was transferred to 188th PA Volunteer Infantry and served in that regiment until after the capture of Richmond, doing guard duty at that place for three weeks after its evacuation by the Confederates, when he was transferred to his old regiment, the 3rd Heavy Artillery. He was discharged from service June 9th 1865. The 35th regiment was composed of men who responded to the call of President Lincoln issued immediately after the call of Fort Sumter. Upon their arrival at Camp Curtin finding it impossible to be accepted for the three months service, the quota being full, they re-enlisted for three years. It was mustered out June 14th 1864. Its regimental officers were W. Wallace Ricketts of Columbia County, Colonel; William Pierce, Lt. Colonel; and Henry J. Madhill of Bradford County, Major. It was assigned to the Third Brigade of General McCall’s Division of the Army of the Potomac with which it served years. In the last engagement although but 150 strong it captured 102 and buried 72 dead Rebels in its front. – MILTON R. GOODALL joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on Aug. 21st 1893. SIGNED BY C.M. Rumsey, Adjutant & H.C. Bailey, Commander. – GAR48 p.39

M.R. Goodall Answered Call to Defend State against Invasion

Milton R. Goodall enlisted in Co. I 35th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Militia in June 1863, following a call from Governor Curtin for troops to repel the rebel invasion of the state and served until the regiment was mustered out after the battle of Gettysburg. He reenlisted at Williamsport, Sept. 1, 1864 as a private in Battery K 3rd Pa. Heavy Artillery. In November 1864 he was transferred to 188th Pa. Volunteer Infantry and served in that regiment until after the capture of Richmond, doing guard duty for three weeks after its evacuation by the Confederates when he was transferred to his old regiment the 3rd Heavy Artillery. He was discharged from service June 9, 1885. The 36th Regiment was a part of the third Brigade of General McCall’s Division of the army of the Potomac. M.R. Goodall was a member of the General Mansfield Post No. 48 GAR, joining in 1893 and served as Commander of the Post.

The chair which belonged to Mr. Goodall is in the home of Mr. and Mrs. William Knowlton, Hamilton, NY formerly of Mansfield. It has painted on the back: M.R. Goodall, Co. K 3rd Pa. Arty. Each member of the post bought his own chair, and after his death it was returned to the family.

H.S. Horton Suffers Great Hardship in Prison

Hervey Schuyler Horton was born August 11, 1829 in Orange County, New York. He enlisted at Mansfield, Pa., in Sept. 1861 and entered service as 3rd Sergeant of Co. B 101st Regt., Pa. Volunteer Infantry. He was later made 1st Sergeant and in Sept. 1862 he was promoted to the office of 2nd Lt., which rank he held during the remainder of his military service. He was with his Regt., during the Peninsular Campaign and fought in the bloody battles, which occurred during that famous movement, viz: Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, Savage Station, and others. As the result of the terrible experience of this campaign he was in the hospital in Philadelphia, Pa., during July and Aug. 1862.

In the spring of 1863, his Regt. was transferred to North Carolina and with the other regiments composing the command was sent on a raid into the interior of the state. During this movement he was engaged in the battles and skirmishes which occurred at Kingston, Whitehall, Goldsboro and Little Washington. In June 1863 he was taken prisoner at Plymouth, N.C. by the 10th N.C. Inf., and he remained from June 1863 to May 12, 1864, when he was removed to Macon, Ga. Sometime after he was at Columbia, S.C. and last at Charleston, S.C., but was finally removed to Camp Sorgum, S.C. From this prison he was paroled Dec. 8, 1864 having suffered the nameless horrors of rebel prisons for more than a year and a half. During this time, by the effect of starvation, disease and the depression of spirits occasioned by the dreadful surroundings he was reduced to a mere shadow of his former self and his health seriously impaired. His weight when captured was 170 pounds and when released only 90 pounds.

During his confinement at Libby Prison he became acquainted with many distinguished fellow prisoners: among whom were Gen. Neal Dow, Col. Strait, Chaplain McCabe (now Bishop McCabe in 1897), Capt. Sawyer and Capt. Flinn. The last two were chosen to be executed as an act of retaliation. He was discharged from the service at Washington, DC in Dec. 1864, on account of expiration of his term of enlistment. Hervey S. Horton joined Gen. Mansfield Post, No. 48 GAR on May 18, 1876. He held the offices of Commander, Vice Commander and Officer of Guard.


HARVEY SCHUYLER HORTON was born the 11th day of August 1829 in Orange County, New York. He enlisted at Mansfield, Tioga Co., PA in Sept. 1861 and entered service as 3rd Sergeant of Co. B, 101st PA Vol. Infantry. He was afterward made 1st Sergeant and in Sept. 1862 he was promoted to the office of 2nd Lt., which rank he held during the remainder of his military service. He was with his regiment during the Peninsula Campaign and fought in the bloody battles which occurred during that famous movement, viz.: Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, Savage Station and others. As the result of the terrible experiences of this campaign he was in hospital in Philadelphia, PA during July and Aug. 1862. In the spring of 1863 his regiment was transferred to North Carolina and with the other regiments composing the command, was sent on a raid into the interior of the state. During this movement he was engaged in the battles and skirmishes which occurred at Kingston, Whitehall, Goldsboro and Little Washington. In June 1863 he was taken prisoner at Plymouth, NC by the 10th NC Infantry and with many others was sent to Libby Prison, where he remained from June 1863 to May 12th 1864, wh4en he was removed to Macon, GA. Sometime after he was at Columbia, SC and later at Charleston, SC but was finally removed to Camp Sorghum, SC. From this prison he was paroled Dec. 8th 1864, having suffered the nameless horrors of Rebel prisons for more than a year and a half. During this time, by the effect of starvation, disease and the depression of spirits occasioned by the dreadful surroundings, he was reduced to a mere shadow of his former self, and his health seriously impaired. His weight when captured was 170 pounds and when released, only 96 pounds. During his confinement in Libby Prison he became acquainted with many distinguished fellow prisoners, among whom were, Gen. Neal Dow (?), Col Strait, Chaplain McCabe (now Bishop McCabe), Capt. Sawyer, and Capt. Flinn. The last two were chosen by lot to be executed as an act of retaliation. He was discharged from the service at Washington DC in Dec. 1864 on account of expiration of his term of enlistment. HARVEY S. HORTON joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on May 8th 1876. Held offices of Commander, Vice Commander and Officer of Guard. SIGNED BY H. C. Bailey, Commander. – GAR48 pp.47 & 48

J.E. Horton

James E. Horton born in January 1833 at Warwick, NY. He enlisted Sept. 18, 1861 at Tioga, Pa., in Co. H 45th Pa. Volunteer Infantry. He was appointed Corporal and Color Guard, which position he held during his term of service. He was discharged in March 1863 on account of disability. He was engaged in two skirmishes on James Island near Charleston, SC. Benham’s Brigade, with which Horton served, was stationed on Islands to support batteries which cooperated with the squadron blockading the entrance to Charleston Harbor. In March 1862, he was one of 36 picked men who went with Capt. Sheflin of Co. H and Capt. Rambeau of Co. A to Edesto Island to capture rebel pickets. Early the next morning, while pickets were in a brick house, the Union men divided, each party going a different direction to surround the house. On account of a dense fog they were unable to see far. Horton’s party hearing approaching which they supposed were rebels, fired on them killing five and wounding four of their other party. Among the killed was Capt. Rambeau. James Cady, Levy Leigh and Isaac Sherman were among Horton’s intimate comrades. James E. Horton joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48, Aug. 20, 1888.


JAMES E. HORTON was born the 9th day of January 1833 in Warwick, Orange County, New York. He enlisted Sept. 18th 1861 at Tioga, Tioga County, PA in Co. H, 45th PA Vol. Infantry. He was appointed Corporal & Color Guard, which position he held during his term of service. He was discharged in March 1863 on account of disability. He was engage in two skirmishes on James Island near Charleston, SC. Benham’s Brigade with which Horton served was stationed on Islands to support batteries which so operated with the squadron blockading the entrance to Charleston harbor. In March 1862 he was one of 36 picked men who went with Capt. Sheflin of Co. H and Capt. Rombeau (?) of Co. A to Edisto Island to capture Rebel pickets. Early next morning, while the pickets were in a brick house, the Union men divided, each party going in a different direction to surround the house. On account of a dense fog, they were unable to see far. Horton’s party, hearing men approaching which they supposed were Rebels, fires on them killing five and wounding four of the other party. Among the killed was Capt. Rombeau. James Cady, Levi Leigh and Isaac Sherman were among Horton’s intimate comrades. JAMES E. HORTON joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on Aug. 20th 1888. SIGNED BY H.C. Bailey, Commander. – GAR48 p.43

John Lounsbury

John Lounsbury born in 1846 at Canoe Camp enlisted as a private in Battery G, 3rd Pa. Heavy Artillery on February 29, 1864. In the summer of 1864 he served as a Naval Picket around Gen. Butler’s famous Canal and in the blockade of the James River. He was in the boat’s crew that blew out the bulkhead of the canal. In the winter of 1864 and 1865 he was at Converse Meadow on the Appomatox. In the spring he was engaged in building pontoons at Deep Bottom from which he went with the Bridge Corps to Richmond. After the evacuation of Richmond and the capture of Jefferson Davis he and the soldiers were sent to guard Fortress Monroe while the "Ex-Pres." of the Confederacy was held there as a prisoner. He was discharged from Fort Monroe on November 9, 1865. John Lounsbury joined General Mansfield Post No. 48 GAR on August 21st, 1898.


JOHN LOUNSBERY (Lounsbury) was born the 12th day of May 1846 in Canoe Camp, Tioga County, Pennsylvania. On Feb. 29th 1864 he enlisted as a private in Battery G, 3rd PA Heavy Artillery. In the summer of 1864 he served as a Naval picket around Gen. Butler’s famous canal and in the blockade of the James River. He was in the boats’ crew that blew out the bulkhead at the canal. In the winter of 1864 and 1865 he was at Converse Meadow on the Appomattox. In the spring he was engaged in building pontoons at Deep Bottom from which place he went with bridge corps to Richmond. After the evacuation of Richmond and the capture of Jefferson Davis he was with the soldiers sent to guard Fortress Monroe while the “Ex Pres.”, of the Confederacy was held there a prisoner. He was discharged at Fortress Monroe Nov. 9th 1865. His Company served in the defense of Suffolk, April and May 1863, also served in forts around Richmond and Petersburg, also fought at Fort Fisher 1865. They were constantly being called upon for various forms of service, serving as light and heavy artillery and infantry as occasion required. They guarded forts and fortified camps, but their batteries were also found upon the battle line and acting not infrequently with the Navy. Few regiments were called upon to perform such varied service and none performed it more effectively than they did. JOHN LOUNSBURY joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on Aug. 21st 1893. SIGNED BY H.C. Bailey, Commander. – GAR48 p.40

Benjamin Moody

Benj. Moody born 25th day of Sept. 1841 near Towanda, Pa. He enlisted in Co. F 13th Pa. Militia on Sept. 12, 1862 and went to Hagerstown, Md. Getting there early in the morning of Sept. 18, the day after the battle of Antietam a few miles from Hagerstown. He was discharged on Sept 25, 1862. July 1, 1863 he enlisted in Co. C 37th Pa. Militia and was in Camp Curtin at Harrisburg during the battle of Gettysburg. He was discharged on Aug. 2, 1863. He enlisted then in Co. F NY Heavy Artillery on Sept. 5, 1864 at Avon, NY and served in the Hatchers Run engagement on Oct. 27, 1864. During the battle he changed his position by a step or two, another soldier in Co. took his place and in a few moments was torn to pieces by a cannon ball. Feb. 5 and 6, 1865 he was in the second Hatchers Run battle. He was taken sick about Mar. 1, 1865 and was taken to City Point Hospital. When he got better he was held there as a nurse and was there on April 8th when President and Mrs. Lincoln, Secretary and Mrs. S.P. Chase and the Honorable and Mrs. Charles Sumner, returning from Richmond, stopped to see the soldiers. He met them, shook hands with the President. He was in the grand review of the Army of the Potomac on May 23, 1865. He was discharged from service on June 10, 1865 on account of the close of the war, being mustered out at Munson Hill, Va.


BENJAMIN MOODY was born the 28th day of Sept. 1841 in Asylum, Bradford County, Pennsylvania. He enlisted in Co. F, 13th PA Militia, Sept. 12th 1862 and went to Hagerstown, MD, getting there early in the morning of Sept. 18th; the day after the battle at Antietam, a few miles from Hagerstown, He was discharged on Sept. 25th 1862. July 1st 1863 he enlisted in Co. C, 37th PA Militia and was in Camp Curtin at Harrisburg during the battle of Gettysburg. He was discharged on Aug. 2nd 1863. He enlisted in Co. F, 8th NY Heavy Artillery, on Sept. 15th 1864 at Avon, NY and served in the 2nd Corps under Gen’l Hancock. He was in the Hatcher’s Run engagement on Oct. 27th 1864. During the battle he changed his position a step or two, another soldier of his Company took his place and in a few moments was town to pieces by a cannon ball. Feb. 5th & 6th 1865 he was in the second Hatcher’s Run battle. He was taken sick about Mar. 1st 1865, and was taken to City Point Hospital. When he got better he was held there as a nurse and was there on Apr. 8th when Pres. & Mrs. Lincoln, Secty. & Mrs. S.P. Chase and the Hon. & Mrs. Charles Sumner, returning from Richmond, stopped to see the soldiers. He met them, shook hands and talked with the President. He was in grand review of the Army of the Potomac on May 23rd 1865. He was discharged from the service on June 10th 1865 on account of close of the war. Being mustered out at Munson Hill, VA. – GAR48 p.83

Jonathan L. Moore

Jonathan L. Moore, born in 1843 in Wells, Bradford Co., enlisted at Mansfield on Oct. 14, 1861 as a private in Co. C 7th Pa. Vol. Cavalry. In January 1863 he was promoted to the office of corporal and on Nov. 1, 1864, he was made a Sergeant which rank he held to the close of his service. At the end of his term of enlistment, Nov. 1863, he reenlisted.

He was first engaged in battle at Lebanon, Tenn. May 5, 1862 and afterwards was in battles at Sparta, Gallatin, Brentwood, Unionville, Thomson Station and many others. While on march from Chattanooga to Atlanta, at Brentwood, he was captured by guerrillas and was confined in Lafayette Co., jail for about 10 days. He was then taken to Chattanooga later to Knoxville and finally sent to Libby Prison, Richmond, being confined in all thirty-one days. He was paroled Oct. 20, and sent by boat to Baltimore, then by rail to Annapolis, Md., where he was exchanged on Dec. 20 and returned to his regiment.

In the battles mentioned he had two horses shot from under him. In the advance from Chattanooga to Atlanta, under Gen. Sherman, his reg’t was constantly in front skirmishes and picketing and was said to have been under fire a hundred times. In the Campaign of 1865, under Gen. Wilson, from Louisville, Ky., through Tennessee and Alabama to Macon, Ga., he traveled 2000 miles on horseback.

He was never absent from his company nor excused from duty for a period of nearly four years. He was finally discharged at Macon, Ga., Aug. 23, 1865 on account of the close of the war. He joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 GAR, July 21, 1884 and held office of Officer of the Guard. Jefferson Davis hastening South in flight from Richmond was captured at Irwinsville, Ga., on the 10th of May, 1865 and imprisoned at Fort Monroe where he was guarded by other Mansfield men in service with the heavy artillery regiment.


JONATHAN L. MOORE was born the 23rd day of July 1843 in Wells, Bradford County, Pennsylvania. He enlisted at Mansfield, Tioga County, PA on Oct. 14th 1861 as a private in Co. C, 7th PA Vol. Cavalry. In Jan. 1863 he was promoted to the office of Corporal, and on Nov. 1st 1864 he was made a Sergeant, which rank he held to the close of her service. At the end of his term of enlistment, Nov. 1863 he re-enlisted. He was first engaged in battle at Lebanon, Tenn., May 5th 1862 and afterward was in battle at Sparta, Gallatin, Brentwood, Unionville, Thomson Station and many others. While on march from Chattanooga to Atlanta, at Brentwood, he was captured by guerrillas and was confined in Lafayette Co. jail for about ten days. He was then taken to Chattanooga, later to Knoxville and finally sent to Libby Prison, Richmond, being confined in all thirty-one days. He was paroled Oct. 20th, and sent by boat to Baltimore, then by rail to Annapolis, MD, where he was exchanged on Dec. 20th, and returned to his Regiment. In the battles mentioned he had two horses shot (from) under him. In the advance from Chattanooga to Atlanta, under Sherman, his Regiment was constantly in front, skirmishing and picketing, and was said to have been under fire a hundred times. In the campaign of 1865, under Gen. Wilson, from Louisville, KY through Tenn. and Ala. to Macon, GA he traveled 2000 miles on horseback. He was never absent from his Company nor excused from duty for a period of nearly four years. He was finally discharged at Macon, GA, Aug. 23rd 1865 on account of the close of the war. JONATHAN L. MOORE joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on July 21st 1884 and held the office of Officer of Guard. SIGNED BY H.C. Bailey, Commander. – GAR48 pp.45, 46

James Sharp in N.Y. Engineers

James Sharp born in June 1845 at Tioga, Pa. entered the service Aug. 11, 1863 at Elmira, NY as a private in Co. I 50th NY Engineers. He was discharged June 13, 1865 at Fort Barrie, Va., on account of close of the war. In the work of constructing bridges, railroads, roads and entrenchments for the Union Army, and destroying those of the rebels, the engineers were often under fire, sometimes from the troops artillery of both armies. In this way Sharp was wounded three times, viz: at City Point, Tree Creek and at Hatchers Run. He participated in the Warren Raid in December 1864. The raider started with one day’s rations and were gone thirteen days. Following the Cavalry, who took first pickings. They foraged for supplies. They destroyed twenty-five or thirty miles of railroad. During this time a five-day rain kept them constantly wet. Sharp helped to build a pontoon bridge across the James River at Wind Mill Point in which 113 boats were used. The distance was nearly 1600 feet. While in winter quarters at Popular Grove, 1864 and 1865, his Co. built of split logs, a church to replace on that the Union troops had torn down and put into breast works. The spire was of whole logs standing on end, and the front was ornamented with the corps badge made of saplings and twigs. The church was presented to the M.E. Society, who used it as a place of worship for many years. Daniel Wooden, John Brown and Chas. Cornish were among Sharp’s intimate comrades. James Sharp joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48, March 5, 1884. SIGNED BY H.C. Bailey, Commander. - GAR48 p.44

Three Tuttle Brothers took part in Civil War

Peter N. Tuttle

Hiram B. Tuttle

Guy Tuttle

Peter N. Tuttle enlisted Sept. 18, 1861as a private in Co. H 45th Pa. Vols. and was honorably discharged Oct. 18, 1864. He was born in Charleston, Tioga County. His Company was recruited in Tioga County, the regiment was organized Oct. 12, 1861 with Thomas Welch of Lancaster County as its Colonel and it was noted for its fine discipline and splendid bravery. It saw service in both the western and eastern armies and was engaged in the battle of the James Island, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Siege of Vicksburg, Jackson, Blue Springs, Campbell Station, Siege of Knoxville, the Wilderness and many others. At the battle of the Wilderness Peter Tuttle was wounded and later discharged but served his full term of enlistment.

PETER N. TUTTLE was born in Charleston Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania. He enlisted Sept. 18th 1861 as a private in Co. H, 45th PA Vol., and was honorably discharged Oct. 18th 1864. His company was recruited in Tioga County and had as its Captains, Edward G. Schiefflin, Edgar F. Austin and Luke D. Seely. This regiment was organized Oct. 21st 1861 with Thomas Welch of Lancaster County as its Colonel and were noted for their fine discipline and splendid bravery. It saw service both in the eastern and western armies and was engaged in the battles of James Island, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Siege of Vicksburg, Jackson, Blue Springs, Campbell Station, Siege of Knoxville, The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, North Anna, Mine Explosion, Weldon RR, Poplar Spring Church, Hatcher’s Run and capture of Petersburg. After Lee’s surrender it took part in the grand review at Washington DC May 22nd & 23rd 1865 and on July 17th 1865 was mustered out of service. His company was recruited at Tioga PA and was composed of men from Tioga County and other officers than those mentioned above were E.G. Howard, 1st Lt; Hiram Pickering, 1st Lt; Reuben H. Close, 2nd Lt.; John F. Trout, 2nd Lt., promoted to Captain; J.D. Greenfield, Levi R. Robb and Nathan Edwards 2nd Lts. The subject of this was wounded in the battles of the Wilderness but served his full term of enlistment up to Oct. 20th 1864. – GAR48 p.222

Hiram B. Tuttle enlisted Feb. 29, 1864 at Williamsport as a private in Battery K, 3rd Pa. Heavy Art’y. He was born at Nelson, Tioga Co. Later that year Nov. 1864, he was in the hospital at Fortress Monroe because of illness. In April he was transferred to the Quartermaster Dept. During the last of his service he was detailed for guard duty at Fortress Monroe, where Jefferson Davis was held prisoner. The several companies of the 3rd Art’y were constantly sent out upon special services acting as occasion demanded, as light and heavy artillery and infantry. They were in the defense of Suffolk, Va., Siege of Plymouth, NC and Smithfield, NC. The Artillery also served in Forts around Richmond, Va., Petersburg, Va., Fort Fisher and were at Gettysburg. In the engagement at Smithfield, a gunboat containing Company A of the 3rd, was attacked and many taken prisoner.

HIRAM B. TUTTLE was born the 5th day of February 1833 in Nelson, Tioga County, Pennsylvania. He enlisted Feb. 29th 1864 at Williamsport, PA as a private in Battery K, 3rd PA Heavy Artillery. In November 1864 he was in a hospital at Fortress Monroe on account of sickness. In April 1865 he was transferred to the Q.M. (Quarter Master) Dept. During the last of his service he was detailed for guard duty at Fortress Monroe, where Jefferson Davis was then held as a prisoner. He was discharged at Philadelphia, Nov. 6th 1865. Detachments of his regiment served in the Naval Brigade upon the James River and also at the capture of Fort Fisher. They were in the engagement at Smithfield, VA, where the gunboat containing Company “A” was attacked and many taken prisoner. Company “I” was detailed a guard at headquarters, Army of the James, and in that capacity witnessed the scene of the surrender at Appomattox Court House. On April 1st 1864 six hundred men from the regiment volunteered to enlist in a new regiment which was designated the “188th” Pennsylvania Infantry. The several companies of the “3rd” were being constantly sent out upon special service acting, as occasion demanded, as light and heavy artillery and infantry. They were in the defense of Suffolk, VA, Siege of Plymouth NC and Smithfield NC, also served in forts around Richmond and Petersburg, VA, Fort Fisher and were at Gettysburg. – GAR48 p.10

Guy Tuttle, a third brother, also enlisted in the service and was killed or died and was buried near New Orleans, according to Lewis D. Foster of Sinclairville, NY. He was a private in Company H, 45th Pa. Vol., the same Company his brother, Peter was in. This would indicate that he served with the western armies and took part in the battles of Vicksburg and Mississippi campaigns as many from this area did, including his brother. They were under the command of General Grant.

GUY TUTTLE – not written about because he died in the war. (FACT- enlisted Sept. 18th 1861 in Co. H, 45th PA Infantry; died Feb. 4th 1862 in Otter Island, SC.)

All three of the Tuttle brothers entered service from Tioga County. Hiram (Hi) and Peter both were members of the General Mansfield Post 48 GAR. Hiram married and lived at Canoe Camp; Peter also married following service, according to Mr. Foster, and lived on St. James St., No. 56 or 58, and later moved to Lambs Creek. He died in New York State in April 1913.

W. Warters

William Warters born 1832 in Sussex, England enlisted November 1, 1861 at Troy, Pa., as a private in Co. C 7th Regt., Pa. Cav. He was first discharged in January 1863 at Nashville, Tenn., for re-enlistment. Finally discharged at Harrisburg, Pa. Sept. 4, 1865 at the close of the war. He was engaged in the following battles and skirmishes: Lebanon, Tenn., Stone River, Shelbyville Pike, Town of Shelbyville, Snow Hill, McMinnsville, Noon Day Creek, Chattanooga, Resace, Snake Creek Gap, Kenesaw Mountain and Big shanty. In the summer of 1864 he was in a field hospital near Atlanta two weeks, He was also in hospitals at Columbia, Tenn., Nashville and Louisville, Ky. At Chickamauga in Sept. 1863, 1,000 men of Gen. Wilder’s Brigade, with Warters and a citizen as guides, were sent to guard some fords. 500 men with three pieces of artillery were left at the first ford, 400 men and two pieces at the second ford and the remaining 100 in command of the Major, went with no advance guard to look after a bridge on the other side of a hill – the guides riding in front. At the top of the hill they found a rebel battery in position with riflemen in ambush on one side of the road. The enemy opened fire and only five men including Warters escaped death or capture. Warters rode a short distance in the bushes when he found a wounded man to whom he gave his horse. He then proceeded on foot until seeing the major’s horse without a rider, he secured it and rode to the fords where the men had been posted. Finding neither men nor artillery at either ford, he rode around Rossville and followed on until he overtook his command. On one occasion when the Union forces were going out of Nashville on one pike, the Rebel forces were coming in on another. Warters discovered and reported the advance of the enemy in time to save the Union forces from capture. The latter turned, drove the Confederates back and re-entered Nashville. Among Warter’s intimate comrades were Albert Smith, John Moore, Charles Rumsey, Uriah Verbeck and Anson Fish. He joined General Mansfield Post No. 48 GAR, April 18, 1897.

WILLIAM WARTERS was born the 29th day of February 1831 in Sussex, England. He enlisted Nov. 1st 1861 at Troy, Bradford County, PA, as a private in Co. C, 7th PA Cavalry Regiment. He was first discharged in Jan. 1863 at Nashville, Tenn. for re-enlistment. He was finally discharged Sept. 4th 1865 at Harrisburg, PA on account of close of the war. He was engaged in the following battles and skirmishes; Lebanon, Tenn., Stone River, Shelbyville Pike, Town of Shelbyville, Snow Hill, McMinnville, Noon Day Creek, Chattanooga, Resaca, Snake Creek Gap, Kennesaw Mountain and Big Shanty. In the summer of 1864 he was in a field hospital, near Atlanta, two weeks. He was also in hospital at Columbia, Tenn., at Nashville and at Louisville, KY. At Chickamauga in Sept. 1863, 1000 men of Gen. Wilder’s brigade with Warters and a citizen as guides were sent to guard some fords. 500 men with three pieces of artillery were left at the first ford, 400 men and two pieces of artillery were left at the second ford, and the remaining 100 men, in command of the Major, went with no advance guard to look after a bridge on the other side of a hill, the guide riding in front. At the top of the hill they found a Rebel battery in position with riflemen in ambush on one side of the road. The enemy opened fire and only five men including Warters, escaped death or capture. Warters rode a short distance in the bushes when he found a wounded man to whom he gave his horse. He then proceeded on foot until seeing the Major’s horse without a rider, he secured it and rode to the fords where the men had been posted. Finding neither men nor artillery at either ford, he rode around Rossville and followed on until he overtook his command. On one occasion when the Union forces were going out of Nashville on one pike, the Rebel forces were coming in on another. Warters discovered and reported the advance of the enemy in time to save the Union forces from capture. The latter turned, drove the Confederates back and re-entered Nashville. Among Warters’ intimate comrades were Albert Smith, John Moore, Charles Rumsey, Uriah Verbeck and Anson Fish. – GAR48 pp. 33 & 34

Westbrook Brothers serve with 11th Pa. Cavalry

Benjamin F. Westbrook

Ephriam C. Westbrook

Benjamin F. Westbrook born in 1837 at Chemung, NY entered the service Aug. 24th, 1861 at Troy, Pa., as a private in Co. F 11th Pa. Cavalry. His brother, Ephriam C. Westbrook, also born in Chemung in 1831 entered the service at Williamsburg, Va., in 1864, signing into the same company and cavalry as his younger brother, Benj. F. Westbrook.

Benjamin entering in 1861 was discharged March 17, 1864 at Williamsburg and reenlisted. His brother having joined in February. War ended April 12, 1865 but he was held for guard duty and other government service until he was finally discharged Aug. 19th, 1865 at Philadelphia.

His (Benjamin) first engagement was at Deserted House and he also took part in the following battles: Suffolk, Va., May 30, 1862; Franklin, Va., Aug. 31, 1862; Cassville, Va., Oct. 15, 1862; Beaver Dam, Va., Dec. 2, 1862; Deserted House, Va., Jan. 30, 1863; Norfolk, Va., Feb. 10, 1863; Franklin, Va., March 17, 1863; Suffolk, Va., April 11, 1863. (The Siege of Suffolk by Longstreet continued from April 11th to May 3rd in he was actively employed.) Carrsville, Va., May 17, 1863; Suffolk, Va., June 4, 1863; South Anna, Va., Nov. 10, 1863; Jarrett’s Station, May 7, 1864; City Point, Va., May 17, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 9, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 15, 1864; Staunton Bridge, Va., June 27, 1864; Fair Oaks, Va., Sept. 29, 1864; Reams’ Station, Va., June 29, 1864; Ram’s Station, Va., Aug. 25, 1864; James River, Va., Oct. 31, 1864; Darbytown Rd., Va., Oct. 7, 1864; Geurrillas, Va., Feb. 15, 1865; Five Forks, Va., April 1, 1865; Deep Creek, Va., April 3, 1865.

At Ranover Court House, attacked the enemies’ works in the rear by a mounted and dismounted charge, resulting in the capture of 125 prisoners. On the 25th of July we made a raid into N. Carolina and captured 40 prisoners and 100 horses. On the day following Lee’s surrender, a squad was detailed to search for buried artillery on the battlefield of Red Oak Church. They found buried 54 pieces of field artillery, carriages and caissons. In this short campaign, the 11th captures and delivered fifty-four pieces, four field mortars, six heavy guns, one hundred thirty carriages and caissons, seven forges and a quantity of ammunition to the proper officers.

The 11th was raised originally as an independent regiment under special authority from the War Department but was afterwards placed in the Penna., line. Some of the companies were raised in other states; two came from NY, one from Iowa, one from Ohio, and one from NJ. It organized at Philadelphia Oct. 5, 1861 and the same month went to Virginia 1130 strong. After a month’s stay in a camp of instruction, it proceeded to Fort Munroe where it spent six months or more in drill and light duty. Active service commenced in May 1862, some of the companies doing duty near Suffolk, while five companies served with Gen. McClellan’s army on the Peninsula. In 1862, the regiment was employed on scouting and outpost duty in the vicinity of Suffolk and the backwater during which several skirmishes occurred with considerable loss in wounded and killed. Over 400 men reenlisted in the fall of 1863, which preserved the organization of the regiment after its term had expired. In 1864 it fought Kantz’s Cavalry Division and at Reams’s Station lost over 100 in killed and wounded including three officers killed. At Five Forks another contest occurred in which Major Munroe and two officers were killed.

Benj. Westbrook joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48, GAR on May 22, 1880 and held the offices of Senior Vice Commander and Officer of the Day.

BENJAMIN F. WESTBROOK was born the 19th day of December 1837 in Chemung, Chemung County, New York. Entered the service Aug. 24th 1861 at Troy, Bradford County, PA as private in Co. F, 11th PA Cavalry. He was discharged March 17th 1864 at Williamsburg, VA for re-enlistment. War ended April 12th 1865 but was held for guard duty and other government service until he was finally discharged Aug. 19th 1865 at Philadelphia. His first engagement was at Deserted House. Was also engaged in the following battles: Suffolk VA, May 30th 1862; Franklin VA, Aug. 31st 1862; Cassville VA, Oct. 15th 1862; Beaver Dam VA, Dec. 2nd 1862; Deserted House, Jan. 30th 1863; Norfolk VA, Feb. 10th 1863; Franklin VA, March 17th 1863; Suffolk VA, April 11th 1863 (The siege of Suffolk by Longstreet continued from April 11th to May 3rd in which he was actively employed) Carrsville VA, May 17th 1863; Suffolk VA, June 4th 1863; South Anna VA, June 26th 1863; Guerrillas VA, Sept. 12th 1863; Blackwater VA, Nov. 10th 1863; Jarrett’s Station, May 7th 1864; Flat Creek Bridge, May 14th 1864; City Point VA, May 17th 1864; Petersburg VA, June 9th 1864; Fair Oaks VA, Sept. 29th 1864; Ream’s Station, June 29th 1864; Ream’s Station, Aug. 25th 1864; James River VA, Oct. 3rd 1864; Darbytown Road, Oct. 7th 1864; Richmond VA, Oct. 30th 1864; New Market Heights, Dec. 10th 1864; Guerrillas Va, Feb. 15th 1865; Five Forks VA, April 1st 1865; Deep Creek VA, April 3rd 1865. At Hanover Court House attacked the enemies works in the rear by a mounted and dismounted charge, resulting in the capture of 125 prisoners. On the 25th of July we made a raid into North Carolina and captures 40 prisoners and 100 horses. On the day following Lee’s surrender a squad was detailed to search for buried artillery. On the battle field of Red Oak Church we found buried 54 pieces of field artillery, carriage and caissons. In this short campaign the 11th captured and delivered fifty-four field pieces, four field mortars, six heavy guns, one hundred thirty carriages and caissons, seven forges and a quantity of ammunition to the proper officers. The 11th was raised originally as an independent regiment under special authority from the War Department but was afterwards placed in the PA line. Some of the companies were raised in other states; two came from New York; one from Iowa; one from Ohio and one from New Jersey. It organized at Philadelphia Oct. 5th 1861 and the same month went to Virginia, 1130 strong. After a month’s stay in a camp of instruction it proceeded to Fort Monroe where it spent six months or more in drill and light duty. Active service commenced in May 1862, some of the companies doing duty near Suffolk, while five companies served with General McClellan’s army on the Peninsula. In 1863 the regiment was employed on scouting and outpost duty in the vicinity of Suffolk and the Blackwater during which several skirmishes occurred with considerable loss in wounded and killed. Over 400 men re-enlisted in the fall of 1863 which preserved the organization of the regiment after its term had expired. In 1864 it fought Kantz’s Cavalry Division and at Ream’s Station lost over one hundred in killed and wounded, including three officers killed. At Five Forks another contest occurred in which Major Monroe, and two Officers were killed.  I certify that the sketch of my War Service as above written is true as I verily believe (SIGNATURE) Benjamin F. Westbrook. Dated Nov. 6th 1906. BENJAMIN F. WESTBROOK joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on May 22nd 1880. Held Offices of Senior Vice Commander & Officer of Guard. SIGNED BY H.C. Bailey, Adjutant & W.H. Colony, Commander. – GAR48 pp. 25 & 26

Ephriam C. Westbrook entered the service February 1864, at Williamsburg, A., as a private in the 11th Pa. Cavalry but was soon employed as a blacksmith to do work for the Company and continued to do this until he was discharged at Philadelphia Aug. 19, 1865. War ended April 12 but was held for guard duty and other government service on account of his late enlistment.

"I never was engaged in fighting except a few skirmishes owing to my work as blacksmith. My most intimate comrades were brother, Benj. Westbrook, Adelbert West, Henry Colestock and Al White."

Co. F 11th Pa. Cavalry was raised in Tioga and Bradford Counties and had as its Captain, B.B. Mitchell. The regiment was raised by Col. Josiah Harlan as an independent company, and was known as "Harlan’s Light Cavalry." It was finally mustered in as the Eleventh Cavalry assigned to the Army of the Potomac. It achieved a high reputation as an active and efficient scouting regiment and it was conspicuous among the cavalry, which under Gen. Sheridan pursued the Confederates at Appomatox.

Ephriam joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 GAR Jan. 1, 1893

EPHRIAM C. WESTBROOK was born the 28th day of December 1831 in Chemung, Chemung County, New York. Entered the service Feb. 1864 at Williamsburg VA as a private in Co. F, 11th PA Cavalry but was soon employed as a blacksmith to do work for “F” Co., and continued this until I was discharged at Philadelphia Aug. 19th 1865. War ended April 12th but were held for guard duty and other government service on account of my late enlistment. I never was engaged in fighting except a few skirmishing, owing to my work as Blacksmith. My most intimate comrades were brother Benjamin F. Westbrook, Adelbert West, Henry Colestock and Al White. His Company was raised in Bradford & Tioga Counties and had as the Captain B.B. Mitchell of Troy, PA. The regiment was raised by Col. Josiah Harlan as an independent company and was known as “Harlan’s Light Cavalry”. It was finally mustered in as the 11th Cavalry. The regiment was assigned to duty in the Army of the Potomac and participated in numerous engagements and skirmishes, doing a large amount of scouting duty. It served with distinction in the various battles of Virginia and was mustered out of the service August 3rd 1865. It achieved a high reputation as an active and efficient scouting regiment and it was conspicuous among the cavalry, which under Gen. Sheridan pursued the Confederates at Appomattox and captured many guns and stores. I certify that the sketch of my War Service as above written is true as I verily believe (SIGNATURE) Ephriam C. Westbrook. Dated Nov. 6th 1906. EPHRIAM C. WESTBROOK joined Gen. Mansfield Post No. 48 on Jan. 1st 1893. SIGNED BY C.M. Rumsey, Adjutant & H.C. Bailey, Commander. – GER48 p.27

7th Cavalry Recruited B & C Co.’s in County

The Mansfield area can be justly proud of its heritage in the Civil War. Fir it furnished men to several famed unites, among these were the Bucktail Wildcats, the Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry 7th Regiment and the Mountaineers – Mansfield’s own Company B, 101st Regiment Vol. Infantry.

The 7th Cavalry soon became known as the "Saber Regiment". Many of the men who later formed the General Mansfield Post belonged to one of these companies. Company C of the 7th was made up of men recruited in Tioga and Bradford Counties. A resume’ of its history is given here as taken from the book "Minty and the Cavalry" by Joseph G. Vale. Capt. Vale was Adjutant General of the Reg’t.

In July 1861 George C. Wynkoop, Brig. Gen., was authorized by Governor Curtin to raise a regiment of Cavalry as part of Pennsylvania’s quota under President Lincoln’s call for 300 thousand volunteers for war. Company B was recruited in Lycoming and Tioga Counties, and Company C in Tioga and Bradford Counties. The 7th Reg’t. was assigned to the Army of the Cumberland and sent to Kentucky, arriving there after a very short training period in Pennsylvania. Both men and horses were very green and unfit for duty on arrival. They became seasoned troopers at Louisville and Bardstown, where they were held in camp from Sept 1861 to March 1862.

In March they started their first campaign into Tennessee. It was near Murfreesboro, Tenn., where they first met "Morgan’s Own", and with drawn saber and loud cheers dashed forward on their maiden encounter. The 7th captured one hundred seventy prisoners and cut the enemy lines several times with their saber charges causing a general retreat.

They continued this action in several more engagements in rapid succession. General Rosecrans in recognition to the dash and gallantry of the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry in general orders directed that it should be known henceforth in the department as "The Saber Regiment of the Army of Cumberland."

A real fuss started when the boys of the 7th, one day got a hold of a grindstone, and as they had reputation of taking everything they could carry, brought it back into camp after sharpening all the knives and tools, a few concluded that their sabers could be improved by reducing the thick, round edge to a razor like degree of sharpness. The officers to prevent the sabers from being ruined took the matter in charge and had them ground uniformly from the point to about two thirds the distance to the hilt. Colonel Minty issued an order directing all sabers of the Penna. 7th and 4th U.S. Cavalry to be so ground.

When the enemy learned of this it was the subject of official correspondence between commanders of the two hostile armies.

At Shelbyville, Tenn., the 7th Pa., and the 4th U.S. were pitted against the enemy in strong fortifications. They dismounted and lead their horses through tangled underbrush and reached the ditch in front of the entrenchments. At the sound of charge, the men mounted and clashed forward over the ditch and into the entrenchments, and into the midst of the astonished enemy causing them to retreat. This was the first time in the history of the war, strong line of entrenchments, protected by an elaborate abatis, ditch and parapet were stormed and taken by the cavalry in a mounted saber charge.

The men of the 7th gained their first furlough at Mayville, Ala., where they were ordered into camp to await new equipment, horses and clothing, They remained there one month. They then were ordered to railroad duty at Columbus, on which duty they continued until the 2nd of Jan. 1864.

Then having reenlisted as a veteran organization, the 7th received a "Veteran’s Furlough" and started for Harrisburg, Pa.

The 7th Pa., with every company full, returned to Nashville, Tenn., on March 22. Several more Mansfield men joined up on this recruiting.

This time the 7th was to form one of the strongest forces in Sherman’s march to the sea.

Everywhere they went they would get word that the 4th Georgia had ground their sabers and were waiting for them. In the battle of Noon Day Creek, soon after the artillery opened, a full regiment came out of the woods, dressed their lines, and advanced in good style. It was the 4th Georgia coming to try their newly ground sabers. The 7th promptly accepted the challenge and moved, met their charge at a trot. The ranks completely intermingled and the shock was terrific, but in less than five minutes the splendid rebel regiment was cut to pieces and utterly routed, retreated to the shelter of the woods. Not having inflicted even a severe wound on any of the Pennsylvanians, again they formed and charged and were again repulsed. "They could not handle the saber." A third time they advanced but being met by a counter charge they broke and ran to the shelter of their artillery and reserves. This was the last they ever heard of the 4th Georgia and their ground sabers.

The Campaign of 1864 had taken the 7th from Nashville, Tenn., to McDonough, Ga., and return by Gladson, Ala., to Little River. The 7th had covered some two thousand five hundred miles on horseback fighting with the saber most of the way.

Returning to Louisville, Ky., in December 1864, they secured new horses by taking them from the citizens.

In 1865, they took part in the Mississippi Campaign and assisted in the capture of Jefferson Davis in Georgia.

It was ordered to Eufaula, Ala., where it remained until Aug. 13, 1865. There they were mustered out and returned to Harrisburg.

Fragment of an article

….. "Hail Columbia." The Cowanesque’s finest were on their way to avenge Anderson.

The Anderson Life Guards were headed for Troy in adjoining Bradford County where they would rendezvous with the other Tioga County companies. Two changes of trains were required for the short distance. At Corning, Holland loaded his men on the Erie. At Elmira the men had to wait around several hours for a train back into Pennsylvania and Troy.

Troy was full of Tioga County boys – all anxious to be off for the fun and frolicking, which they then thought was a main ingredient in this new thing called war. But things were bogged down indeed, and the worst part of it was that nobody seemed to know what to do about it. The situation in Troy was now in sharp contrast to that of a few days before when four Tioga County companies, headed by the Wellsboro Brass Band, had proudly, if somewhat awkwardly, marching into the village. There was Julius Sherwood, of Wellsboro, strutting around at the head of his Tioga Invincibles. There was Alanson Niles, destined to see much hard fighting, and his Tioga Rifles. Both of these outfits from the Wellsboro-Pine Creek area had more than the usual compliment of lumbermen, and they already gave great promise of becoming freewheeling organizations.

From the eastern part of Tioga County had come the Wilmont Rifle Guards. Hard-bitten Hugh McDonald had organized this company from headquarters in the village of Tioga. It was named for one of the Northern Tier’s favorite sons, abolitionist David Wilmont, who had just been appointed to the United State Senate. One more Tioga County Company was the National Guards. A.L. Johnson was in charge of this company which he had raised around Mansfield and Covington.

There was no money to pay the cost of transporting the recruits to Harrisburg. Neither were there funds to subsist the men whose disgust and anger at not getting under way did not affect their appetites. So little flag-bedecked Troy found itself bursting at the seams with young patriots who got hungry three times a day and had to be bedded down someplace come nightfall. Churches, halls, even private homes were opened. There were no arms except the few which some of the volunteers had brought with them, but Hayden’s Hall was called the armory. Some of the men who found the pews of the Methodist Church somewhat less comfortable than a featherbed complained because the officers had comfortable quarters at the Troy House.

What neither officers nor men realized was that the situation in Troy, with variations of course, was being duplicated all over the land. War was something new to America in 1861. The country wasn’t prepared. It was necessary to improvise. So far the improvising was going badly. There were at Troy several officers of the defunct state militia who had retained their commissions. Among them were General Josiah Harding and Colonel Robert C. Cox, resplendent in uniforms of Mexican War vintage. After several days’ wait the men became so impatient that this little group of brass went into a huddle. As a result General Harding was dispatched posthaste to Harrisburg to see what could be done.

Harding found things at the capital city in turmoil. Andrew Gregg Curtin would emerge from the conflict a great war governor, but in April 1861 young Andy, like the rest of the country, had to improvise. There were complications. Pennsylvania’s quota of Lincoln’s initial call had been filled. Curtin’s old political foe, the inept Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, would not, possibly could not, cooperate with the governor in handling the hoard of eager volunteers which was descending on Harrisburg from all parts of the state.

At Northumberland on his return trip to Troy, Harding headed for the nearest saloon for a couple of quick ones before the train pulled out. Despite his Union gold braid and gilt epaulets the general was seized as a Confederate spy by some over-zealous local citizens. It was several hours before Harding could convince his captors that they had made a mistake. This done, he hastened on to Troy. Harding’s mission had been successful. On April 30, 1861 a little train was puffing down the Susquehanna Valley carrying five companies of Tioga County lumbermen and boys a little closer to the war which to them just then seemed like high adventure.

Songs of the Civil War

"Battle Hymn of the Republic", "Dixie", "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground", "Yellow Rose of Texas"……. These were the songs of the Civil War, the songs sung by marching infantry and folks back home, the songs remembered and loved by Americans the country over.

Group singing - in army camps in North and South and at gatherings on the home front – was so popular that the War Between the States came to be called "the singing war".

"Penny sheets" of popular music and beautifully illustrated song sheets that sold for 75 cents taught the population its wartime music.

Composers and writers such as George Frederick Root (Tramp, Tramp, Tramp), Daniel D. Emmett (Dixie), William Shakespeare Hays (The Drummer Boy of Shiloh) were as well known then as Cole Porter and Irving Berlin are today.

The best-remembered lyricist of them all is Julia Ward Howe. She took a stirring melody – of undetermined origin and wrote the moving poem "Battle Hymn of the Republic" to fit the music. It is considered the "most popular parody" to the

most-parodied melody in American music.

Soldiers had been singing words of their own to the tune for years. These included the still-famous "John Brown’s Body", a specialty of the Massachusetts Twelfth Regiment…. Dubbed "The Hallelujah Regiment" on account of its rousing marching song.

The most popular war song of the Confederate soldiers, "Dixie", is still the anthem of our southern states and is a favorite throughout the entire country.

One Saturday night, in 1859, Daniel D. Emmett, a professional minstrel, was asked by the head of the Bryant Minstrels for a new song to be ready Monday morning. The rainy weekend made him remember how pleasant one southern tour had been, and he remarked to his wife, "I wish I was in Dixie". Thus, the song was born.

According to Allan W. Greene, a collector of Civil War relics, "Among the most popular songs of the Civil War were those heartrending ballads which told the stories of separated sweethearts, mothers losing their sons and soldiers dying far from home."

Some of these have been long forgotten, many are being revived this year as we observe the 1961 Centennial of the war. They include, "Weeping Sad and Lonely" (When this Cruel War is Over), "Down in Charleston Jail", " All Quiet Along the Potomac", and "Home Sweet Home".

While other collectors may have as many valuable Civil War furnishings – books, uniforms, knapsacks and guns – as Mr. Greene, it is unlikely many others take as deep an interest in the music of a century ago. Being President of the Heath Company of Benton Harbor, Mich., world’s largest producer of stereo and high fidelity kit equipment, he had been especially curious to know what songs America was singing then.

One of Mr. Greene’s favorites, "The Yellow Rose of Texas" is another product of the north’s minstrel stage.

This tribute to the Texas gals – "you may talk about your dearest May, and sing of Rosa Lee. But the Yellow Rose of Texas beats belles of Tennessee" – seems to be one of a group of songs written for various state sweethearts.

"It’s altogether possible", states M. Greene, "that the soldiers shouted lyrics back and forth across the lines, boasting the virtues of the beauties from their respective states".

"Tenting on the Old Camp Ground", as many of the popular Union songs, crossed the front lines and was sung with equal feeling by soldiers of the South. A note which accompanied its publication states, "The air… chimes in well with the feelings of those who had laid down their arms, or who, just before its (the war’s) close, felt that the fight was hopeless and mourned their lost comrades and wasted effort."

In the years following "the singing war", many editors and writers set about collecting these songs for posterity. Thanks to them, and to the writers and composers of that sad and colorful ears, we have the pleasure of listening to these historic ballads and marching songs and spirituals today.

The War that changed our Hats

It took the Civil War to jolt the high top hat of Revolutionary days off the heads of America’s men! Until then, the word "hat" meant high topper – worn by men of all situations except plainsmen and farmers.

From 1868 onward, a fellow who didn’t follow the fashion fad and trade in his topper for a derby, was sure to be the object of ridicule. When the Civil War brought a new middle class, it brought the need for a practical hat and the day of the derby arrived!

I took the Civil War to jolt the high top hat of revolutionary days off the heads of America’s men!

The war – not noting its 1961 Centennial – marked the beginning of the factory era and the middle class. Mr. Average American need a practical hat… the day of the Derby arrived!

For the next 40 years, the derby was the fashion of every American from the "Bowery Boy" to the dignified merchant. It even spread through the still-wild West, on the heads of businessmen and gamblers who rushed to the new land of opportunity.

In fact, Lucius Beebe, Eastern playboy turned Western publisher, disputes the claim of the cowboy hat as the Western symbol. He says that most of frontier photos in the 1870s show men in derbies. He overlooks the fact, however, that these were mainly the cardsharpers and traveling salesmen of the day.

The records of America’s oldest hat manufacturer, the Mallory Company, illustrate the mass change to the derby. Ezra Mallory founded his business only 24 years after the death of George Washington. From 1823, when he launched the venture, until 1861, its whole production was of the high toppers – first of the rough napped beaver, and later of both beavers and high silk hats.

The war years were tough for Mallory because Southern clients wouldn’t give their business to a "Yankee Hatter"…. But by 1868, the shop was booming again, making felt derbies that all America wanted.

About this time, the seed of a later hat revolution were being planted by a daring "new" hat maker, John B. Stetson, who began, in 1864 to make the wide-brimmed plainsman’s hat that still bears his name.

This was a "soft" hat, compared with the stiff toppers and derbies. Today, almost the entire production of both Stetson and Mallory is in soft felt styles – now small and jaunty, but distantly related to the cowboy sombrero – thanks to the war that changed our hats!

But why did the Civil War have such an impact on hat habits? A new national mood always follows a major war and 4 million men spent four years wearing headgear of a kind they’d never seen before.

Most of the soldiers on both sides were outfitted with the little flat-topped forage caps, borrowed from the kepi of the French army. The higher officers wore modified sombrero, familiar in the pictures of General Grant and Lee – black for the North, gray for the South – decorated with the insignia of rank.

Certain groups were permitted characteristic headgear. Jeb Stuart’s cavalrymen were proud of their black hats with ostrich feather trim. Morgan’s raiders sported dashing black soft hats with chicken feathers waving from the band. The volunteer Zouaves wore red fezzes with blue tassels. The Black Hat Brigade, a Western contingent, lost a greater percentage of men in action than any other group.

Men who had lived with such informal headwear through the campaigns couldn’t be expected to balance the precariously perched toppers when they returned to civilian life.

The derby, which originated in England a few years before, was just beginning to appear in Eastern shops, and to 1865 eyes, it looked both dressy and carefree. From then until 1900, when the soft fedora arrived, every hat factory was – a derby factory!

Derbies in black, gray and brown were turned out by the multi-millions and sported all over the country.

The cloth cap – another headwear fashion born with war – provided a cheap, comfortable covering for workmen, and later, a smart companionable item for sportsmen.

Abraham Lincoln’s famous topper was the last to be worn by our Presidents except for ceremonial occasions. Abe’s hat, like many of the later toppers, was really high. Over seven inches tall, on top of his six-foot-four, it was impressive! His selection of the towering style may have had something more than showmanship behind it, though. It is reputed that he used the space for carrying state papers to his Cabinet meeting!

Elmira Civil War Veteran

Last GAR Vet Rides in Parade

Inspired by events of the past and undaunted by a heavy rain, Comdr. Edwin Morris, Elmira’s sole surviving Civil War veteran, took an active part in the city’s observance of Memorial Day on May 30, 1942. The commander of both the GAR State Department and Elmira’s Baldwin Post, GAR, withstood the rigors of a busy weekend although out of bed only a short time after suffering a heart attack. The 95-year-old veteran rode in the parade and only because a downpour soaked the ground and speaker’s platform at Woodlawn Cemetery did he remain under cover. He did attend and speak at the traditional commander’s dinner after the service. (Commander Morris died May 25, 1943).


New Post of the G. A. R. at Elkland

We copy the following local article from the Elmira Advertiser of last Saturday: Wellsboro Agitator 16 FEB 1875

The energetic comrades of the G. A. R. in this city, not content with their splendid work in this county, have slopped over the line into Pennsylvania and assisted in organizing and mustering a Post at Elkland, Tioga county.  The veterans of that town and vicinity entered into a correspondence with Comrade Theodore G. Smith, of Baldwin Post No. 6, and by his assistance and instruction received a charter and on Tuesday evening last Comrade, A. M. K. Storrie, Assistant Inspector of the Department of Pennsylvania, proceeded to Elkland and formally mustered the new Post.  He was accompanied from this city by Comrades Theodore G. Smith, John G. Copley, A. G. Barnhart, N. W. Simons.  C. R. Wallace, S. A. Husford and J. B. UpdeGraff, all of Baldwin Post No. 6.  The party got away on the Monitor train at 5 p.m., taking the Lawrenceville train at Corning, arriving at Elkland at 8 o’clock.  They were met at the depot by the Osceola band, and a delegation of the comrades of Elkland, and proceeded at once to the hotel where ample accommodations were provided for the business of the evening.  Comrades Storrie and the comrades of Baldwin Post at once organized an encampment and mustered the comrades present to the number of thirty.  The new post will be known as J. Edgar Parkhurst No. --, Department of Pennsylvania.

The following were elected as officers for the ensuing year:
C. R. Taylor, Commander
J. W. Hammond, S.V.C.
A. A. Amsbury, J.V.C.
W. C. Trim, Q.M.
H. L. Nash, Adj.
Wm. T. Humphrey, Surgeon
John Howe, Chaplain
Robert McCann, O.D.
N. Straight, O.G.
J. A. Brimmer, Q.M.S.
L. W. Fenton, S.M.
S. Smith, O.S.
O.D. Whitcombe, I.S.

After the business of mustering, and installing of officers was finished, the doors were thrown open to the public and the room was speedily filled with an enthusiastic audience including many ladies.  A meeting was organized by choosing Comrade Ambury as chairman, who made a stirring speech.  He was followed by Comrade Storrie with a speech of remark able power and eloquence, setting forth the object, character and work of the G. A. R., eliciting hear?? applause from the audience.  Remarks were also made by Comrade Copley and Smi?? and Hon. Joel Parkhurst, of Elkland.  After some very fine music  by Prof. Hoyt’s Cornet Band, “A Million in the Field,” and “Marching Through Georgia” was sung by Comrade Barnhart, the comrades and audience joining the chorus.  The company then adjourned to the dining hall, where a fine spread was prepared, and it is needless to ????? full justice was done to the things there ??? forth.  supper was followed by dancing and pleasant social greetings, etc.  At a late hour the company separated, the visiting comrades coming home on the early morning train well satisfied with the result of the raid.  The new Post starts off under very favorable auspices, and will gather in the veterans of that section as speedily as possible.  For the present the Post will meet alternately at Elkland and Oeceola.  We look for a flourishing and propserous Post, and the comrades who attended the ?? say we shall not be disappointed.


Medal of Honor Recipients from Tioga County, PA in the Civil War
WRIGHT, ALBERT D.: Elkland, Captain, Company G, 43nd U.S. Colored troops. Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Citation: 1 May 1893. Advanced beyond the enemy's lines, capturing a stand of colors and its color guard; was severely wounded.