Tri-Counties Genealogy & History by Joyce M. Tice
History of Bradford County by H. C. Bradsby, 1891
Bradford County PA
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History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches

By H. C. Bradsby, 1891

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THE Bradford Gazette was the first paper published in the county, by Thomas Simpson. Vol. 1, No. 5 of that paper, is the first whole paper that I found. Small parts of the other preceding numbers were in the bound volume, but so little remained that nothing I through the could be gleaned from them. I examined the old volume kindness of Dallas J. Sweet, of Towanda. It is dated Towanda,

HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY. 149 Tuesday , September 7, 1813. A. four column folio, and rates $2 a year. I it the 11 proposal" of publication, the proprietor, among other things, says:

The necessity of a weekly publication in this county being sufficiently obvious, it resumed there will be no impediment to the general patronage of this paper, when the public are fully assured that its object is not discussion and domestic animosity, but tile acceleration of local business; diffusion of national intelligence, and all those extra matters which are generally comprehended within the limited view of a newspaper amusement and benefit of our subscribers. Situated as the United States are, it 13 impossible that any man who interests himself in the affairs of his country should be impartial between its two great political sects. He who pretends to be impartial is no more than a pretender. The Editor is a republican, and his paper will bear that character in tile editorial department, but its pages will be f ree at all times to well-written communications of whatever political nature.

It may be well enough to exclaim that when the editor announces that he is " a republican," that he means he was what we now call a Jeffersonian Democrat. The two parties then were Republican and Federalist, then came Democrat and Whig, and now Democrat and Republican is the order of designation. These are the changes in name of tile two leading parties of the country. A prominent notice in tile Gazette is that " all letters to the editor must be post-paid to be attended to." The first page is made up of three columns of "foreign news," dated May 6. From May to September would be a long little to wait for news now-a-days. Advertisements on this page are two by the editor-" All Kinds of Printing, and " Blanks of Every Description." Andrew Irwin offers for sale a quantity of "Soal and Upper Leather," and also " Fresh Goods," by Spalding & Comp; and all indebted to Harry Spalding & Co., to pay up or be sued; the last one is by William Means, 11 Oats Wanted." The second page is made of extracts, and among others is, a long, biography or Capt. James Lawrence. This was, it seems, cut in two and marked "to be continued." The third page contains other long extracts, but in the way of original matter, under date of Tuesday, August 31, gives the proceedings of a "Republican meeting held at the house of Mr. Means, in Towanda, August 18, 1813; Guy Wells, Esq., was appointed chairman, and A. C. Stuart, Esq., secretary. -Resolved, that delegates from each township, of that part of Bradford county which formerly belonged to Luzerne, be appointed to meet the delegates front Luzerne and Susquehanna counties, at tile house of Cyrus Avery, at Tunkhannock, on Monday, the 20th of September: Jesse Ross, of Rush; Guy Wells, of Wyalusing George Scott, of Wysox; Burr Ridgway, of Towanda; Seeley Crofut, of Canton, and Chester Gridley, of Orwell, were appointed. Two from each township in the county were appointed as a " Committee of Vigilance and Correspondence." as follows: Chester Gridley, Lemuel Streeter, for Orwell; Jesse Ross, Jesse Hancock, for Rush; Guy Wells, Jonathan Terry for Wyalusing George Scott, Moses Coolbaugh. for Wysox; Burr Ridgway, William Means, for Towanda; Seeley Crofut, Noah Wilson, for Canton; Samuel Satterlee, Ephraim Gerould, for Smithfield; John McKean, Howard Spalding, for Burlington ; Henry Wells John Saltmarsh, for Athens ; John Cummings, Samuel Edsell, for Wells; William Furman, David Haswell, for Columbia; James


Harkness, Isaac Cooley, for Murraysfield; and Samuel Gore and Abraham Menier, for Ulster. A vote was then taken, and Burr Ridgway nominated for county commissioner, and Jonathan Stevens, Henry Welles and Moses Coolbaugh, for auditors. In another column is a "Proclamation " of Abner C. Rockwell, sheriff, dated September 2, 1813, giving notice of the approaching election, and the places of voting as the law required; for two members from Lycoming, county, and that part of Bradford formerly belonging to Lycoming, in the Legislature; one for county commissioner; three for auditor; two to represent Luzerne, Susquehanna, and that part of Bradford formerly belonging to Luzerne, in the Legislature, and one inspector of elections in each township. The places of voting were: At the house of Erastus Lomis, Athens, for Athens and Ulster; Smithfield, at the house of John Cummings; Burlington, at the house of Mary Goddard; Canton, at the house of Henry Mercur; Towanda, at the house of William Means; Wysox, at the house of William Keeler; Orwell, at the house formerly occupied by Capt. Josiah Grant; Wyalusing, at the house Gaylord. Then follows the professional card of Dr. of Justus James Grant. The fourth page opens with the spring and. fall poets' corner, giving two short effusions, one on 11 To-morrow," and the other, " The Sabbath " some correspondence between the British General, Proctor, and Gen. Harrison, referring to the then recent battle or 11 Raisin," and it is stated " before Gen. Harrison knew of the massacre of the Americans." Then come the other advertisements of this issue: 11 A Set of Blacksmith Tools," by William Keeler, Towanda; 11 Tincher Wanted," Samuel C. Hall, Cecil, Md.; 11 Notice," by Obadiah Gore and Simon Kinney, adms. of the estate of Isaac Cash, late of Ulster township ; "Notice," by Charles F. Welles, prothonatory; 11 To debtors and creditors." by Obadiah Gore and Simon Kinney, administrators; "Wanted at this office, an apprentice," by the editor; " Wanted-good butter," by William Means For sale a new and Fashionable Riding Chair," by Ebenezer R. Gregory; " Wanted," at the printing office, "twenty or thirty weight of tallow; " "Boot & Shoemaking, wanted a good man to open a shop in Towanda," by several leading citizens; 11 Tailor," Jesse Woodruff. Then follows a long " Notice to Millers," by Oliver Evans, in which he notifies all using his mill patents to come forward and pay for the said use.

This is a bird's eve view of the Bradford Gazette, as well as a similar sight of the county in business and politics. True, it is only one side (" Republican ") of politics, and no doubt in looking at the next succeeding numbers there will be found accounts of the meetings and. nominations of the other side-the Federalists. Men were quite as much interested in politics then as now.

The next issue of the Gazette has on the first page three columns more of the biography of Capt. James Lawrence, and at the foot is this: "Concluded next week." Page 2 is filled with foreign news of date, June 10; clippings from foreign papers. This issue gives the proceedings of a county convention of the "Federal Republicans." It was a delegate convention, and met at the house of Harry Spalding


in Towanda township, Wednesday, September 8, 1813, "to take into consideration and agree on the most suitable characters for Commissioner and Auditors to be supported at the next General Election." Ralph Martian, chairman, and J. F. Satterlee, secretary. t was voted that Col. Joseph Kingsbury be a suitable candidate for County Commissioner.'' And Col. Aden Stephens, Russell Fowler and Perly Coburn were nominated for auditors. A corresponding committee if two from each township was selected, as follows: Dr. Thomas Huston and John F. Satterlee, Athens; Samuel Campbell and John Harkness, Smithfiled; Ezra Long and Levi Soper, Burlington Jared Holcomb, and George Kinney, Ulster; Abner C. Rockwell and Noah. Spalding, Towanda; Hugh Holcomb and William P. Spalding, Canton; Williams V. Dinniger and William Allen, Wysox; Ebenezer Lewis and Danial Brown, Wyalusing; Josiah Bosworth and Col. Theron Darling, Orwell; and Benajah Bostwick and William Bradshaw, Rush. In this paper appears the rather flowing advertisement of the 'I Boot & t (I y 0 f Henry Harris. This was the quick response to the call for a shoemaker in the preceding week's paper. It paid in those to advertise, it seems. But on reading the "ad.," it is discovered that the hold Henry Harris is not of Towanda, or Bradford county, but of Williamsport; and he gives elaborate directions how to send your measure for footgear. As it may sound a little curious to this generation, his instructions are given: "Take a strip of paper one inch broad, tile length you want the boot-then measure round the calf. over pantaloons and stocking-then round the heel and instep, the thickness of the foot round the instep-then the exact length of the foot: cutting it notch for calf, heel and instep and length of the foot -also, mark each notch and take the exact size," etc. In the next column is a notice of a meeting of " Democratic Republicans" to nominate it candidate for auditor in the stead of Henry Welles, who kid been placed on the ticket for member of the assembly. The old style f makes a person inclined to read the paper as though he was tongue tied every time it occurs. This issue contains the first announcement of a marriage-Thomas Overtop., Esq., of Sheshequin, to Miss Marv Tracy "of this town." Ceremony by Burr Ridgeway. Another notice is by Theron Darling, lieutenant colonel, One Hundred lit, P. M., to the officers and men to meet at and Forty -fourth Regime the house of Joshua Moger Wysox." This is followed by a notice Irv Richard Benjamin, executor of the estate of Amos Bennett. Then comes a list of letters, Ebenezer B. Gregory, postmaster, Towanda, as follows: County of Bradford-Isaac Allen, Absalom Carr; -Towanda, Ethan Bahl win, Samuel Cranmer, Isaac Ellsworth, William French, Sally Kent, Eliphalet Mason, Esq., Silas Scovel; Canton-David Way; Orl, well-Nancy Darling; Wysox-Jacob Strickland. It will be understood from this notice that the mail for the entire county came to Towanda. When we reflect on the number of postoffices now in the county, the change will be strongly marked indeed.

The next issue of the Gazette is dated September 21, and contains the conclusion of Lawrence's biography. On the third page is a notice of the Celebration of the National by " the friend s of American


Liberty and Independence," in the township of Burlington, September 9, "in the meeting-house contiguous to Nathaniel

Ballard's." The account says: An appropriate and patriotic discourse was delivered by Rev. John M'Keen." In this paper is

a notice by Eli Parsons, "Adm'r of William Johnson's estate." Then follows a notice dated, " Jail at Towanda," by Constant

Williams, stating that he has applied to the judges "for the benefit of the laws for the relief of insolvent debtors." The poor man was imprisoned for debt. Abner C. Rockwell, sheriff, offers " $30 reward " for John Shrader, Jr., "of dark complexion, black curly hair, dark eyes, speaks broad English, and the German tongue, about six feet high who made his escape from the jail of Bradford on the evening of the 13th inst." He does not inform us what the man was in jail for. The next issue has a notice of a farm for sale, by Orr Scovell. It is described as lying on Towanda creek, 190 acres, within a mile and a half of Towanda. Another notice, by the same man, of a paire of 2 yr. old steers, that broke into the inclosure of the subscriber." The next is by Joel Stevens and Elisha Rich, administrators of avus Ellsworth, deceased. The issue, dated October 5, has a notice Gust, by A. V. -Mathews, 11 Wanted, a good steady laborer." Ebenezer Gregory " forbids any person cutting timber" on the land in Towanda, he had contracted for with the town proprietors, John Shepherd and Benjamin Durrance; Lieut. Col. Samuel Satterlee gives notice to the officers and men of the Fifty-seventh Regiment, that the battalion

Commanded by Samuel McKean will meet at the house of William Furman, in Columbia township, and the second battalion,

Commanded by Maj. Abraham Snell, are to meet at the house of Abner -Murry, Athens; Justus Gaylord and William

Myer, commissioners give to all persons who have subscribed toward the public buildings of the county notice to pay up,

and that they will receive proposals for 800 perches of stone for building the jail. The paper of October 12th, publishes on

the first page the "official account of the capture of the British fleet on Lake Erie, by the American fleet under Commodore Perry." This celebrated naval battle was fought September 10, 1813. In the Gazette of October 12, appears an advertisement by Commissioners Justus Gaylord and William Myer, calling for contracts for materials to be used in constructing " a court house and gaol, as follows: 6,763 ft. square timber; 7,181 ft. scantling; 8,860 ft. white oak plank; 200 ft. cherry plank, 500, clear white pine; 5,000 ft. 11 inch white pine boards; 50,000 ft. boards for ceiling; 4,500 ft. 11 yellow pine flooring; 6,500, siding; 13,000 shingles; 10,000 brick, and 200 bu. lime." And again, the notify all who have subscribed toward public buildings to pay up. 'then comes David Pratt with "Look Here," notifying those who owe him for "clothdressing" to promptly settle for the same. The next issue, October 17, contains the official returns of the election in the county. Burr Ridgway, Democrat, was elected over J. Kingsbury, Federal, county commissioner, by a majority of 108, in a total vote in the county of 622 ; 365 for ridgway, and 257 for his opponent. The lowest majority given the Democratic candidates for auditors over their Federal opponents was 105. The vote in the respective townships between

HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY. 153 the two parties as follows-the first number being Democratic: Athens, 61-73 Cliffsburg, 73-10 ; Burlington, 49-8 ; Canton, 35-21; Towanda, 47-37; Wysox, 34-38; Orwell, 27-27; Wyalusing, 39 . The three, auditors elected were Clement Paine, Moses Coolbaugh and Jonathan Stevens. The elected assemblymen for the Lycoming section of Bradford county were John Forster and Henry Welles, Democrats; to the assembly from the Luzerne section of Bradford county, Jabez Hyde Jr. and Joseph Pruner, Democrats. As a foot note to' the election returns, the editor says:

It is presumed it will not be amiss to say there has not been a single word of slander or abuse on either side of the country.

The importance attaching to this quoted paragraph comes from three sources: First, it indicates a decent circumspection on the part of the respective candidates and voters ; second, the only paper in the county was Democratic, and had no organ to reply to it; third, it was the first line or paragraph of editorial that ever appeared in the paper, either general or local. The style of papers in that day differed. much from those of the present. Then the first page had a few "ads.," and was all " foreign news," about a month old, the remainder of the paper being clippings from other papers-long articles on religious, war or political subjects. The issue now under consideration has a " Communicated" of over two columns,-a circular letter of the Chemung Baptist Association.

The editor of the first paper, or of any country paper for that matter. hardly reflects on the very important position be tills, especially with reference to the rising generation-the children in the farm- where the county paper is an institution. As a farmer boy, file writer of these lines has fastened on his mind distinctly the numbers of the paper that he first read. he had been going to the country log school-house and the Sunday-school ; had been' sup -plied with some of the moral fictions about good children, and had surreptitiously read Alonzo and Melissa," but rather liked better 11 Daniel and the Loris," ,)I" "Jonah and the Whale and from these would turn with some interest to the weeld arrival of the paper from the county town The cuts " ail( ads." were first read, and as implicitly believed as Alonzo and Melissa," and the other stories he had been devouring. he was forcibly struck with the character enigmas attached to the advertisements as 7-tf, 9-3t, or 10--3, 9tf, and other puzzles of this What did they mean He made inquiry of all the family, but was none the wiser therefor After reading the big type " ads'," he would turn to the " Poets' Corner "-first column on the fourth page always he hardly ever understood what it was saying, but the short lines made it easy reading, comparatively. From here he would scan over the paper for very short articles, leaded articles, -with very short paragraphs, but it was a long time before he had the courage to read a long article ,,of solid, with few paragraph breaks in it. A boy, though possessed of' telescopic eyes, like the eagle, will almost jab his nose against anything he is much interested in looking at. Therefore very large display type does not make so good an impression on his mind as the medium sized letter. But in time the boy will come to read the paper


carefully all through, and implicitly believe every word. A child's capacity to believe is very large. and is only gradually worn away to a respectable degree of doubting by repeated experiences. In time. the boy, who had finally become so deeply imbued with the excellencies and greatness of the county paper, reached the acme of his ambition, and owned a country paper, and was called upon to do at times about ever thing in the office. He plunged in with all the faith, hope and wild ambition of earliest manhood, to set the world aright-settle all these questions that the earth's great men had so criminally neglected. He read over and over the proofs of his own articles; re-read them when the damp first impression was struck off, and held his breath to witness the shock that would now come to. our little universe. His amazement that people did not stop him on the street, rush up in crowds to his sanctum sanctorum (one corner of the imposing-stone), to talk about his editorials, -was mitigated somewhat by a visit from the fellow who wanted to whip the editor. He rapidly ran the rounds of a new country editor's experiences; would lose faith in mankind, but eventually lost much of his own faith in himself. Whether he was a success in teaching mankind or not, was a question; but one thing remains a fact-the world taught the young man a great deal. He had been to the log school, the academy and to college, but at last realized that the days of education commenced when he entered the printing office. The country newspaper is the best school in the world, at least for the youth who performs the rounds in it from roller-boy to editor-in-chief, and all the intermediates of compositor, job man, press man, mailman, general business manager, writing "ads.," and then setting them up; solicitor, paymaster, purchasing agent, fighting editor, his own lawyer in damage suits; clean the office, keep the files, read the exchanges, and placate a howling mob occasionally at the front door. If I had a boy and there was any promise in him, and I was given the free choice of the rounds in -a country printing-office and a course through Oxford for him, I would by far prefer the former. The printing office turns out no learned e-never. The schools and colleges do-a swollen stream ignorance that runs on forever. I have beard many a 11 tramp printer" (that is the title he gives himself) criticise a 11 take " of some man's manuscript, perhaps a man noted for his learning, until it would make his checks tingle, could he hear this rough and unpretentious man's just remarks in reference to it. The war-times printer, especially, was a character -reckless and dissipated often-making short stays at each place, tramping hundreds of miles in the course of the year, and at all times, either "broke" or drunk; his more steady-going brother always giving-him a chance to "sub" on his case, and make a "stake," as he called" it. But this is now all changed. The printer is beginning to have his home, and as a rule he is looking forward to someday having his own office.

The Bradford Gazette, of October 4, 1813, opens the first page with a five-line editorial, which is placed at the head of a long article by John Dickinson, an address to 11 the free electors and all candid citizens of Pennsylvania." A new advertisement is in this paper: a


notice by John Ballard, "not to trust my wife, Polly," because she has left my bed and board," The inference is that John and Polly found marriage a, failure. In the next column is a notice in the divorce case of Mary Pitcher versus Jonathan Pitcher. It seems that Mary and Jonathan were not as Jonathan and David. Phineas C. Morgan and 'John McClelland, of Columbia, as administrators of the estate of Nathaniel C. Morgan, give notice of settlement. October 20, David Ridgway gives notice that 11 his indentured boy named Henry Shoemaker," has run away. The lad was sixteen years old. John Robinson Stephen C. King and Harry Spalding, of Towanda, publisb notice of dissolution of partnership. John Northrup gives notice of mill-stones to sell. John M'Kean, administrator of the estate of Widow Jane M'Kean, gives notice of settlement. The paper dated November I6, 1813, appears with a new head. So momentous is this fact that Editor Simpson ventures upon the only real long editorial he bad yet printed. The opening sentence says: 11 The unexpectedly liberal support bestowed on this paper, so early in its establishment, has induced the editor to present to his subscribers the new head which ornaments his fourteenth number. While our readers are admiring the taste and skill of the artist, let them not fail to remember that the emblems with which he has surrounded the AMERICAN EAGLE are not now as they have been for twenty years past-vain. gasconading and ridiculous fancies-The AMERICAN EAGLE is no longer a web-footed fowl plucked by every passer by '-but, as the artist indicates, his wing is indeed above the clouds, the lightening that he grasps his enemies have felt, and the radiance of his crest will at length be real." As editorial eagle-soaring, that is very fair indeed.

The editor gives notice that he wants a quantity of "square timber also that he has blanks " at his office. in the next issue, 23d, Harry Spalding treasurer gives notice that he is required b the commissioners to make immediate collections on " all obligations and subscriptions.'' Walter Wheeler says a stray steer broke into his inclosure in Wysox : John Smith, of New Sheshequin, states that a, three year-old black and white bull had strayed to his place; Eli Parsons, Of Smithfield, gives notice, as administrator of William Johnson's estate; 111. Spalding wants to buy rags. The issue of December 7th, is filled with war news from France and Austria, and new " ads." as follows: William Means issues a short notice for customers to 11 pay up or give notes at once." Thomas Beebe gives notice that he has a supply of saddles, harness, portmanteaus, bridles, lines, shoes, etc.: George Scott wants a Journeyman blacksmith : J. W. Alder, of Lewis- Glass Works, wants wood-offers 67 cents for chopping; Ezra Rutty. or Towanda, gives notice as executor of Ezra Rutty, deceased; Samuel C. Hall, of Cecil gives notice "Timber Wanted." In the Issue of December 21st, appears an elaborate advertisement by Benjamin Coolbaugh, of a valuable farm in Towanda township, for sale, six miles from Towanda on the bank of the Susquehanna, adjoining the lands of William Coolbaugh on the north, Solomon Coal on the west, and Aaron Morris on the south-one hundred and twenty acres. A good hewed-log house, with four rooms 11 on a floor," and thirty-five


acres under fence and about fifty acres planted, inquire of Mr. Coolbaugh, " on Towanda creek, and near Mr. John Mints, innkeeper.'' Samuel E. Grier, collector of 21st District., gives notice to retailers of liquors. William Knapp has on band, for sale. 11 good sole and upper leather shoes, boot-legs and harness leather." George Scott wants a journeyman blacksmith for a term of six months Walter Whellar, of Wysox, says a stray steer came to his place. The paper of December 28th, gives President Madison's message in full. It had been delivered December 7th. These, too, were stirring times of war-sometimes called our second war for Independence from Great Britain. The new ads." in this paper: Dawner Woodworth, of Tioga, warns the public against a note given by him to Ebenezer Bacon. He says: " I am determined not to pay it, unless compelled by law." Henry Wells, of Athens, offers for sale a quantity of clover seed; Lieut. Col. Samuel Satterlee gives notice to the Fifty-seventh Regiment to meet at the house of Capt. Ebenezer Kendall, in Burlington.

On January 4th-he forgot to mark up the new year, and so it is "January 4, 1813,'--is given Gov. Simon Snyder's message in full. The opening sentence is replete with history: "Since the last session of the Legislature, events the most interesting have followed one another in rapid succession. Our sister States on the lakes and on the Atlantic have been invaded, and the Capitol of the Union menaced by hostile fleets and armies. I am happy and grateful to say that under Divine Providence the savage invaders have been repelled. A torritory has been restored to the Union ; our western fellow-citizens now sleep in safety and pursue without fear their lawful occupations. The hands dyed in innocent blood, which were uplifted to slay and scalp our fellow-citizens, are now raised to supplicate for mercy."

A second letter list is published. and this time the postmaster is, Thomas Simpson, A. P. M. The following letters are advertise Scovel Bailey, Sally Kent, Eliphalet Mason", 2 Hugh Johnson. Dr. Stephen Ballard, Nathaniel Allen, Esq., Octavius A. Holden, David Pratt, Hous Bentley, Jacob Stricklaud, Silas Barton, Esq., Ebenezer Bixby, Stephen Flower, Charles Thompson, Jeremiah Smith, Peter Bright, Elijah Sturdevant, Samuel Rockwell, Elias Vaughan. A postscript is added, as follows: 11 Persons wishing to forward letters by Mail, must send them to the postoffice every Tuesday before 12 o'clock." Then comes a 11 $10 Reward," by William Allen, constable, of Wysox, for John Strope, who bad made his escape; a sheriff's sale, by Abner C. Rockwell; a notice, by S. T. Barstow, librarian of the Wysox and Orwell Library, of the purchase of books, etc. This issue has two editorials. The first is set in display job type, and informs the patrons of the paper that they must pay up. "The editor flatters himself that there will be no necessity of his resorting to coercive measures to obtain just dues," etc. Then follows an account of a fracas near Terrytown. We have only learnt the names for them Crocker and Turner; the quarrel ended thus unfortunately both-Crocker had or procured a, loaded gun, which be discharged arrived but a few days-not being acquainted with the latter, who survived the facts, think it proper not to make any further statements." Suppose


a modern reporter should bring in that style of a report of a homicide to the managing editor! A notice is given "to purchasers of ]and of CharlesPleasants through the agency of Thomas Overton," notifying them that their bonds and mortgages are now in the hands of John of Wellsburg.

The issue of January 18, 1814, is filled with war news, clipped from exchanges; long communications on the conduct of the war, and complaints of the failures of the commanders of the army. An article front the Alany Argus is headed, 11 Disastrous and Shocking." It goes on to say that 11 We stop the press to say that an express has just arrived, who left Baltimore on Tuesday, A. M., with the horrid intellience that on Sunday morning last, about three thousand British regulars, militia and Indians, crossed the Niagara river, carried the fort by storm, and murdered the whole garrison except three who made their escape over the pickets; that they had also burnt the villages of Lewancliester , and every building between the latter place and Niagara; it was expected that they were now proceeding to Buffalo." This is followed by a notice to 'all the world by Isaac Holestead, that " my wife, Jemima, hath eloped from my bed and board." Next is a notice by Peter Latimer, concerning the estate of Stephen Latimer. A notice is inserted by Josiah Crocker, that be wants " pay for cording

The issue of February 1, 1814, is also filled with war news. Among other papers is a message from President Madison, informing Congress that he has received from Great Britain overtures for negotiation of terms of peace. On page 3, is a report from Commissioners Justus Gaylord, William Myer and Burr Ridgway, giving receipts and expenditures of the county. Total receipts of the county, $2,646.27 ; total expenditures, $2,7 43.96. The most interesting items in the expenditures :ire the following: To county commissioners, $319.94; clerk hire, $120.75: panther certificates, $40; wolf certificates, $231 ; fox certificates, $1.87 ; temporary jail, $26.90 ; commissioners' and prothonotary's office $342; treasurers' commissions, $76.09. The report is attested by Joseph Kingsbury, clerk. Then follows the notice of a public vendue, of the personal property of the late Isaac Cash. In the paper of the next week is an estray notice, 11 taken up on the Susquehanna river, a large ferry boat," by Jame's Anderson, of Wyalusing Jacob Bell, of Wysox, gives notice to "pay up;" William Means, of Towanda, wanted a quantity of " Bair and Deer skins." The only editorial in the Gazette of February 15, is a notice in brackets that, " being under the necessity of moving the office. there will be no paper next week." William Ueans offers to lease for a term of three years his store and tavern in Towanda. The premises consist of 11 a large mid commodious dwelling-house, with a store annexed, a well and house likewise, and aqueduct water from an unfailing spring, an ice smoke-house, carriage-hose and stables, barn with cellar stables, distillery with overhead water, a ferry, and about 100 acres of best mowing pasturage, an excellent garden, and good hearing orchard, all conveniently situated and in order." He explains that the place is widely known, " as the Courts of Common Pleas, etc., are now held


in an apartment of the house, and the public buildings are to be erected it." This advertisement is quite a graphic pen-picture of Towanda at that time. The buildings were near what is now the corner of Main and Franklin streets, and the " 100 acres of best mowing and pasture land " is now the heart of the business part of the borough, and where are now- splendid stores, gas and electric lights, with their decorate,] plate-glass windows. These were once the grazing grounds of William Means' cows and calves. In this issue is a proclamation by A. C. Rockwell, sheriff, for the approaching session of the court. The document is so pompous, and f all of the lordly ways of doing these things by our fathers, that some of it is here given Whereas, the Hon. John B. Gibson, President Judge of the Courts of Common Pleas, and Courts of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, and President Judge of the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery, for the trial of Capital and other offenders for the Eleventh Judicial District, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania George Scott and John McKean, Esqrs., Judges of the Courts of Common Pleas and General Quarter Sessions of the Peace and associate Justices of the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery," etc., etc. The court was to convene on the 18th day of April. The whole concludes with the usual " God save the Common wealth." Then follow two new sheriff sales; a notice of the death of Moses Coolbaugh, aged sixty three years, leaving" a wife and eight children." Then follows: By Yesterday's Mails," rumors of peace negotiations with England. It says that " Hon. J. Q. Adarns had written that eace

would speedily take place between England and America. We can hardly imagine what a thrill of joy this brief and modest announcement must have carried to our people. Jeduthen Withey forewarns all persons from taking an assignment of a note " given to the widow Tamson Ballord," for 3,000 shingles, "said note being fraudulently obtained." 11 Bevare of the vidders," unsophisticated Jeduthen. That name ought to have been your complete protection-it wasn't, it seems.

The Gazette of March 8th, notwithstanding the preceding rumors of peace, has this advertisement by the Government. Quoting the line: "A soldier is the noblest name," it proceeds to offer a bounty of " $124 and 160 acres of land to all patriotic, able-bodied young men who are desirous of shouldering a musket to defend the rights of our injured country against a tyrannical and barbarous enemy." This is signed by John Baldy, captain 16th Reg. U. S. Infantry. The next is a notice by Samuel Coolbaugh and Burr Ridgway, Exrs. of Moses Coolbaugh, deceased. John D. Saunders, of Towanda, offers "a valuable farm for sale, containing 440 acres, 37 acres cleared and under fence; also, the possession of 400 acres of improved land, on which is a first-rate saw-mill." The next week is a 11 caution to the public," by George Gerould, not to take a note given by him to John Wilson, for $10. Charles F. Welles, register, gives notice that John D. Saunders, administrator of John Cranmer, has presented full accounts, etc., etc. Then follows a column "ad." from 11. Buckingham drugs, medicines and paints, at Kingsbury. In his items are gentian, ginseng, juniper,


sassafras, ivory, and pewter syringes, tooth instruments, thumb lancets, durable ink, dragons' blood, etc., etc. In the paper dated March 22, the editor again gives notice to "pay up," and he authorized Charles Keyes to collect bills and receipt therefor. March 29, appears only a The editor indulges in another editorial, in 'which 'he explains that his assistant, a young man, is sick. He further explains such action, under such circumstances "is customary," and says, in conclusion, " the foregoing statement will be satisfactory to every person of candoure." Ghost of Thomas Simpson, we metaphorically pat \.()(I o " the back and say , " Yes-sir-ee! " After all, there is a good deal of history in this half-sheet. It tells how the President, in a curt note of four lines. dismissed Gideon Granger, post master-general, from office. Then follows a short paragraph, ( giving an account of Cumber-Carlisle its quota of troops, 500 land county that day sending from C volunteers. The particulars of the death of Tecumseh, shot and killed by Col. Dick Johnson. March 19, Gov. Simon Snyder vetoed the bill creating forty-one new banks. At the same time the Democrats in the Legislature held a meeting, and again nominated Gov. Snyder to be his own successor.

The issue of April 12 appears with all advertisements out. It is supposed the old ones had run out, and no new ones came in. It has another marked feature : there are as many as four short editorials. The first announces that _Mr. Simpson is away, 11 procuring the means to improve the Gazette, and, during the interim, it is conducted by a man long detached from the society of the press ; this announcement will make the critic himself forgive the errour it may contain." [Too bad he withheld his name. Then comes an editorial eulogistic of Gov. Snyder; the writer evidently was in favor of his re-election. There is a ten-line editorial on general glorification of the American character and predicting many prosperous days for our Republic. This is followed by a savage attack, editorially, on Caleb Strong, of Massachusetts. We can not fully learn just what Caleb had been doing to incite the writer's wrath.

A paragraph marked with a informs us that "no mail had arrived when this paper went to press. The uncommon swell of the river, etc., cut off the regular communication. Great news is expected from Europe." Two or three numbers of the paper appear with no advertisements, except those of the editor. Then John D. Saunders again offers for sale his farm The absence of advertisements is somewhat made up by an editorial on the Merino sheep. The article explains that Bradford county is a favored place for raising these animals recommends every farmer to raise this very superior breed appeals to their patriotism, and hopes to see every true American dressed In the superior goods from this wool, and concludes with the information that Mr. Austin Leonard has " Dom Pedro, a ram full of the blood." William Means and Andrew Irwin give notice that they have "taken up a raft of small logs on the Susquehanna river." The important news in this issue is stated: " Since Friday noon there have been various rumors in this city respecting the probabilities of an Armistice."


One feature of the paper that would appear curious no w t Our nation Of newspaper readers, is that the tiles of which we aye now giving some account of were published in the days of bloody and cruet War; stirring times, indeed,, when every victories and defeats, dreadful marches, storming forts and bloody massacres, with many and many a deceptive rumor of peace, or at least an armistice; and yet the people bided their time in patience for the news from fathers, husbands, brothers and sons in the army, as it was doled out to them often a month old, and at best so meager as to be, it would seem, little better than simply prolonged torture. As a sample, the following is culled from the Gazette, of April 26, 1814. It is a reprint from the Middleburg Columbia Patriot, of April 6--twenty days old. The account proceeds to say, substantially that "at a late hour last evening, we were politely favored with the perusal of a letter from a gentleman in Plattsburg to his friend in this town, dated Friday morning, April I," etc. It then proceeds to give important accounts of the movement of our army, containing an account of a tight at La-Cole Mill, Canada. Our loss was twenty killed and wounded. Among the killed was Ensign Parker. Others rumored killed and wounded. It will be noticed the date of the action is not given. How could our people survive, after their modern habits, such slow and uncertain news from the front? A letter received then did not mean simply so many hours from starting point to destination, as it does now. They had no mails except the pony riders, who would pass a given point, like Towanda, once a week. Thus the most important news might be delayed two weeks before it could start by letter. Now, people in San Francisco, measuring time by the sun, read all about what has transpired in New York three hours or more before the people of the latter city themselves can hear of it. Remember, Fulton's steamboat was five years old-steam navigation was a demonstrated fact; and did our forefathers, just as we now are doing, look back toward their ancestors and marvel how they endured life deprived of all the advantages with which they were blessed ? In this paper is a notice so unique that we give it verbatim:

Oh, god of love, be true to ray enamor'd breast, Be kind to the flame, if dead to all the rest." MARRIED.-At Burlington, by the Rev. Mr. Ripley, Mr. Jehiel Farres, aged 75, to Miss Elizabeth Prouty, aged 19. After a courtship of fifteen minutes. Cephas and William Campbell, administrators of James Campbell, deceased, give notice. Jacob 1. A. Johnson, of Athens, furnishes the paper with the first cut that seems to have been printed in the county -a horse standing on two legs'; the other two he holds up as though he had inflamed corns. He describes him as the beautiful horse Young Yorkshire "-eight years old " next grass." Augustus Pierce gives notice that he will sell "factory cloth shirting forty cents a yard, gin-ham fifty cents a yard, silk, twist, and hair combs of all descriptions "-all at Wysox.

The issue of May 3, has three pages filled with the Meech in Congress of Mr. Findley, " on the loan bill." The next item is a notice that the accounts of Enoch and David Paine, of Athens have been

HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY. 163 placed in the lands of Edward Herrick Esq for collection. The Silver Like Bank" has a notice, dated from Wysox, by the bank commissioners, that subscription books will be opened in the county for receiving stock subscriptions to the bank, etc. On different days, the notice informs the public, the books will be opened at the house, of William Means, Towanda; at the house of Dr. Stephen Watkins, Athens: at William Myers, Wysox; Jesse Ross, Pike; John Hollen- 'file commissioners names to the notice are ]Benjamin Lathrop, Daniel Ross, Reuben Hale, George Scott, Samuel Stanton and Abisha Woodward. This is followed by a library notice of Eliphalet Mason and Samuel Cranmer, of Towanda. This was called the "Orient Library." A meeting was called at the house of Elisha Cole, in Towanda 'The following item is from the Gazette's exchanges:

Merinoes- Spanish and Portuguese governments have made the exportation of Merino Sheep a capital crime, and, although great influence has been used, permission can not be obtained to export from Lisbon a flock now there, belonging to a house in this city.

The paper of May 10 opens, as usual, with the first page filled with foriegn news. such as a ]on(- proclamation by Napoleon to his soldiers. This news is three and four months old. On the next page is a three column

communication from Secretary of State James Monroe to Congress. Then is given, without headlines, an account of Gen. Jackson's victory over the Creek Indians at the " bend of the Talaposa," near Milledgeville. There is another editorial in this issue. It refers to Madison's State paper, and darkly hints that many of the federal I papers " will not publish it--concluding that, if Paul were living he might, with propriety, say Blindness in part has happened to Israel! " Another editorial item states that many of the raftsmen on the Susquehanna have died of sickness; many more are k, and many other deaths are expected.

Deaths are announced of Simon Spalding aged twenty-one, brother of Harry Spalding, near Columbia. Near the same

place, the death of William Gates, aged twenty-two is also announced; and also at Washington City, the death of Samuel Otis, for many years Secretary of the Senate. Then follows a notice of the Lycoming mail stage, giving a schedule of weekly trips to Williamspot --fare, seven cents per mile. William Midauoh gives notice of the elopement of his wife. Clarissa, of Tioga. Again there (ire rumors in the air of peace with England. Then follows some desultory election news from parts of New York, in which is claimed Republican gains. This item closes with the word 11 celum! " This must be a condensed Latin form of editorial exultation. They had not Invented then the rural rooster, it seems, now kept on tap in the average country office about election times.

June 7, 1814, notes an important change in the affairs of the Gazette. In display type, in the first column, appears the proposal of W. Brindle for publishing a weekly political and literary journal in Towanda. Mr. Thomas Simpson had sold to Mr. Brindle, who says he will take charge of the paper, September following-sarne name and terms, and to continue

Republican (Democratic) in politics. Although the new proprietor was not to take control until the following Sep


tember, the paper continued to be issued each week by Thomas Simpson. In the issue of June 14th, is the notice of William Myers and Asahel Jarvis, of Wysox, of their carding machines 11 where wool will be carded by careful hands on short ncotice." June 21st appears a communication addressed to the Gazette, signed which is a patriotic appeal for the people to stand together. The writer asks the people to be united as against the Old World, etc. He says he would risk his life on the proposition that if the 11 glorious news," now current in the East, that 11 Wellington is overthrown, and now Napoleon is on his way to America with a 100,000 men," that then party factions would quickly disappear. He contends further that, while we have two political parties in this country, they 11 are only temporary." Charles F. Welles, register, gives notice that Abraham Minier and Henry Welles will apply for letters of administration on the estate of John Shippy. Married, June 19th, by Harry Morgan, Esq., Daniel Coolbaugh to Miss Sarah Post, of Wysox. Same day, by Burr Ridgway,.David Kenyon to Miss Sarah Post, of Wysox. Maj. John Taylor gives notice for all persons having claims against the One-Hundred and Forty-fourth Regiment Militia, to meet at Harry Morgan's, Wysox; there will be a board composed of Capts. John Mints and William Allen. Jacob Bell, of Wysox, gives notice to debtors for immediate payment.

With Thomas Brindle's Dame at the masthead, and W. Brindle's proposal" 'still running in the paper, the distinguishing mark of the change of proprietors is in the fact that now at least once and a while a short editorial would appear. Under date of July 12, 1814, there is a whole column of editorial, giving an account of a Fourth of July celebration, at the house of Jame Gerould, at Smithfield. The officer the day was Lieut. Hayes; prayer, by Elder Ripley; Declaration of Independence, by Col. Samuel Satterlee; oration, by Charles Woodworth. A general feast was served, and, " after the cloth was removed," toasts were given and responded to as follows:

The day we celebrate." American Soil."

The late Gen. G. Washington.'' The Delegated Assemblage of the

James Madison." People of the Earth at Paris."

Elbridge Gerry." Agriculture, Commerce and

Thomas Jefferson'' Manufactures."

Simon Snyder." The American Flag."

The State of Pennsylvania." The American -Fair." (Not the

American Blood." Chicago Fair, but the ladies.)

There were voluntary toasts by Col. Satterlee, Mr. Ripley, S. Wood, Esq., and Col. Tozer. This was one of the first celebrations of the glorious Fourth by the patriots of Bradford county. The editor informs us that it was a great success-many people present, attended by music and the firing of musketry, and the American flag waved seventy feet above the patriots." Charles Woodworth's oration on the occasion is published in part in this issue. Then follows a brief account of a late election in Vermont, where and when "an overwhelming majority of Republicans [Democrats] were elected."

HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY. 167 In the Gazette of July, 19 is an account of the proposed change of Thomas Simpson from Towanda to Williamsport, and he advertises his proposal to publish at that place the "Lycoming Advertiser." We learn from it that he was a native of that county.

July 26, announces the marriage of Jesse Woodruff and Mrs. Polly Ballard, of Towanda, by Rev. York. Also appears a notice by Andrew Coburn, concerning the estate of Ebenezer Coburn, deceased Elisha Cole advertises Benjamin Coolbaugh, 11 a runaway apprentice; Elizabeth and John Knapp give notice concerning the estate of William Cole; another proclamation from Sheriff A. C. Rockwell, convening the courts; John Wilson, of Plainfield, N. J., advertises for ''information concerning Jeremiah Gach, son of the late Elizabeth Dunham." He was a lost heir to a considerable legacy. We refer to it, but not in the hope it will yet restore the lost to their just inheritance.

August 9 is a notice to the Democratic-Republicans to meet at the house of William Means, Towanda, 6' to make arrangements preparatory to the general election."

The editor had a cut of a small eagle, with its wings outstretched and claws full of arrows, with the American colors on its breast, the whole nearly an inch, from tip to tip, and has a good deal of the young gosling air in its tout ensemble, and this he puts occasionally over the very latest war news 11 by I yesterday's' mail"-that is, the olfashioneds looked like f so much that modern readers would think the printer was surely tongue-tied. In his issue of August 16, he brings out his poultry-the aforesaid eagle- and under it, in very large type, is the word "VICTORY." Then follows the account of the "battle at Bridgewater, near Niagara Falls," on the 25th of the preceding month. This stirring news is credited to the Buffalo Gazette-Extra. In the next column is a notice by William Allen that he had purchased the Wysox fulling mill, formerly run by Jacob Bell. In the same number, Walter Wheeler, of Wysox, gives notice to delinquents to pay up - Rhoda Gridley, administratrix of the estate of Chester Gridley, of Orwell, gives notice. sheet. The editor, in a

The Gazette of August 23 is only a half stick-full of italics, but under the head of "yefterday's mail," proceeds to explain as follows: " In consequence of the multiplicity of business, settlement, etc., and the foreign papers almost entirely barren, at least, of anything interesting, or concerning our land or naval engagements-the Editor has thought proper to issue a halfsheet, etc." The importance attaching to this half-sheet is that it was the last that appeared in the name of Thomas Simpson, although it is evident W. Brindle had been running the paper for some time. Also with this half-sheet the paper stopped publication. No mention of this fact, however, is made in the half-sheet. William Brindle bad sold the office, and it was taken to Newtown (Elmira, N.Y.), and Bradford county was without a newspaper.

April 18, 1815, appeared the revived Bradford Gazette, and is indicated as Vol. 11, No. 1, published by B. Ridgway. The type and make-up are different from the first paper. It has the old engraved head, and is the same size. There is not a line or word of editorial,


and, except the very few advertisements, is all reprints, and is mostly under the head of foreign news." No reference to the war except the doings of the navy. The total of the advertisements are a notice by Charles F. Welles, register; a proclamation by A. C. Rockwell, sheriff; militia notices by Edward Herrick and Col. Samuel McKean; S. T. Barstow, of Wysox, offers for sale whisky from his Wysox distillery; and concludes with a list of letters, Burr Ridgway, P. M., as follows: William Buffington, Churchill Barnes, Absalom Carr, James Campbell, Solomon Cole, Selah Crofut, Elisha Foster, Isaiah Grover Elijah Horton, George Head, Alvin Humphrey, William Hitchcock, Matthew Russell, Martin Stratton, Isaac Swain, Ezra Spalding and James Smith.

April 25 issue announces [the eagle not appearing] another great naval victory, by the frigate "Constitution." A four-line editorial announces that 11 returns of votes from 238 towns in Massachusetts, there is a Republican net gain of 2,000; the First Battalion, Fifteenth Regiment, commanded by Maj. Gould Seymour, is ordered to meet at the house of Jacob Meyer, Wysox, and the Second Battalion, commanded by Maj. David Olds, is commanded to meet at the 'house of John Spalding, Ulster township; Martha Benjamin and Jonathan Stevens publish a notice concerning the estate of Richard Benjamin; William Keeler, of Wysox, offers " for sale 950 ready-made horseshoes, and also a lot of factory cloth for cash or approved credit."

May 2, 1815, contains a sheriff's sale of numerous tracts of land 11 on the waters of Towanda creek, and the property of the late Walter Stuart." We give the warrantees' names, as indicating who were once property owners in that section: D. H. Cunningham, 438 acres; James Smith, 410 acres; Thomas Hawthorn, 320 acres; Andrew Beckhart, 420 acres; Alexander Boyd, 450 acres ; Jacob Bennett, 435 acres; George Lowman, 418 acres; Jonas Simons, 406 acres; William Ray, 435 acres; Robert Hopkins, 434 acres; David Rose, 466 acres; Samuel Wallace, 428 acres; George Hoffer, 416 acres; Peter Bedford, 404 acres; Aaron Levy, 400 acres; Isaac Milnor, 419 acres; Deborah Stuart, 304 acres ; William Stuart, 280 acres; Jacob Bemus, 437 acres; Walter Stuart, 100 acres; Then follows a notice by Col. Harry Spalding and Lieut.-Col. William Allen, for the men to meet at the' house of David Olds, Wysox.

May 9 publishes as the most 11 Extraordinary News 1 " the return of Napoleon to Paris, on the 20th of March preceding. Russell Fowler gives notice of the estate of Roger Fowler, deceased.

The paper of May 16 contains some important items in the history of the borough of Towanda. The notice is headed 11 Naming the Town," and then says that, at a meeting of the Court of Quarter Sessions in the township of Towanda, on May 8, 1815, I-Ion. John B. Gibson presiding, upon the petition of the inhabitants of the townplot, laid out for the seat of justice, to wit: Simon Kinney, Charles F. Welles, Harry Spalding, Obadiah Spalding, Ebenezer B. Gregory, Jesse Woodruff, A. C. Stuart, Adam Conly, John E. Kent, Andrew Irwin, Burr Ridgway and 0. H. Holden, being all the said inhabitants--and John Franklin, Julius Tozer, Joseph Kinney, John Saltmarsh, Joseph

HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY. 169 Kingsbury, David Paine, Michael It. Thorp, Ezra Spalding, Nathaniel Allen, Salmon Bosworth, Edward Herrick, Ethan Baldwin and others, citizens of Bradford county, setting forth that the inhabitants of the town-plot have unanimously selected MONMOUTH for the designation of said town, and all agreed to use that name for the county town. Per- was asked of the court, and given, to spread this proceeding on the court's record.

Then for the next year the paper is dated 11 Monmouth ( Towanda township)." The final naming of Towanda is of itself quite a history. Col. Means was one of those positive men, and a political leader in the county; a Democrat (then called Republican), and he had been the chief influence in locating the town where it stands. The issue of the Gazette, March 4, 1816, is dated 11 Williamston," and Burr Ridgway explains:

"The name of this village having become the source of considerable impetuosity and unreasonable strife, the editor, willing to accommodate all, announces a new name this day-may it give satisfaction and become permanent." This prefix of 11 William" was as much intended for William Means as had the name of 11 Mleansville." The place now had advocates who called it all the various names of Williamston, Monmouth, Towanda and Meansville, Pine Grove, etc. For so small a place it was al read y much named, and each Dame had its advocates as well as its opponents. To all these were added 11 Vauxhall " and the original name of the Connecticut purchase. In 1822 the name was still a subject of contention. The Gazette was now dated. This finally became, when the subject bad fully entered into the county's politics, the Democratic favorite, and Towanda was the favorite of the opposition. This went on unabated until 1828; at that time Judge Ryan was senator from this district. It is said that, through the influence of James P. Bull and William Patton, Democrats, he opposed the incorporation of the village for some time on the ground that the incorporators had selected the name 11 Towanda."

But after some time he consented, and it was finally settled officially and permanently , in the incorporation act. It had enjoyed enough baptismal names to have been a Prince Regent of some royal house. The tradition yet remains that there was a private meeting of the citizens, and those of the meeting petitioned the Legislature for the incorporation under the name of Towanda, and that before they were detected by the other side the bill had passed and become a law. The contention had become quite earnest as it bad grown and spread with the years.

The incident, as insignificant as it now appears, is full of historical meaning. Alan is a contentious animal. If he can not find one thing to disagree with his neighbor about, then he will hunt up another thing if there is nothing, of any importance, then he will seize something unimportant. 11 e naturally feeds upon contention-controversy. Thus, it is to be seen, he rubs off his rough points, polishes the rough diamond, -advances himself in the scale of being. An over-contentious man in a neighborhood is apt not to be much loved, and is often positively dis


liked, but after all he is the fish that keeps the waters stirred-and motion is existence throughout the universe, it is life, and all there is.

In the paper of May" 23, following, is an offer of Ebenezer B. Gregory to sell at public auction "at Monmouth," on a credit of three months, the contents of his store, and two cows, one chaise and two horses; Sterling Holcomb, of Canton, warns the public against " a note of hand given to Michael Griffin;" William Myer, Burr Ridgway and Samuel McKean, commissioners, give notice that in future their regular meetings will be on the first Tuesday of each month.

In the number, May 30, is an account of what we would now call a party county convention. It is worded so as to best show the mode of conducting affairs political at that time, and commences by reciting that at the May term of the court of Bradford county a number of Republicans were convened at the tavern of William Means, 11 with a view of exerting all their energies to support the institutions of their government," etc. The meeting appointed what was called 11 a committee of vigilance'' as follows: Athens, Col. Julius Tozer and Edward Herrick; Ulster, Capt. Joseph Powell, Elijah Saltmarsh; Smithfield, Col. Samuel Satterlee, Capt. Ebenezer B. Gerould Wells, Capt. George Hyde, John Cummings; Springfield, Reuben Wilber, Noah Murray; Columbia, Isaac Wheeler, David R. Haswell; Burlington, Col. Samuel McKean, Samuel Conant; Canton, Isaac Chappel, 'John Knapp; Towanda, Eliphalet Mason, Capt. John Mints; Asylum, Bartholomew Laporte, Maj. John Horton; Windham, Edward Russell, Jonathan Pease; Warren, James Bowen, Benjamin T. Case; Orwell, Maj. David Olds, Joel Barnes; Pike, Jesse Ross, Rathel Stone; Wyalusing, John Hollenbeck, Joseph Elliott; Wysox, Jonathan Stevens, George Scott. Each township committee was instructed to call a township meeting and send delegates to a county meeting. Then Samuel Satterlee and Samuel McKean were appointed to confer with the Republicans of Tioga county, and endeavor to "promote a reciprocity of action."

In the paper of June 6 is a notice of David Ridgway, Wysox, of fancy Windsor chairs, common chairs, great spinning wheels, bureaus and tables," manufactured at his shops, for sale. J. M. Piollett, of Wysox, advertises a "platform of boards " as going adrift from the mouth of Wysox creek; David Paine, secretary of the Cayuga & Susquehanna Turnpike Company, notifies the stockholders of a meeting; William Myer and Asabel Jarvis give notice that their carding machine is about read to commence operations; Nehemiah Tracy, administrator, gives notice concerning the estate of Joshua Eames, of Smithfield township. In the next paper, A. C. Rockwell, Towanda, gives notice that he has a number of grass scythes for sale. The militia of Bradford count , commanded by Captains Brookins, Powell, Kinney, Gerould and Stuart, are notified to meet for the purpose of electing a major, to supply the vacancy caused by the resignation of David Olds. Harry Spalding says he has found a stray ferry boat, says he has found a " ticket in the New Baltimore Jacob Strickland Lottery."

In turning over the leaves of this volume of the Gazette-this

HISTORY OF BRADFORD COUNTY. 171 faithful mirror of it,, times-what would strike any one at this day is, first, the absence of editorials, general or local; second, the prominence given to " European news," especially the movements of Napoleon and the armies of Europe; third, the little attention apparently to the home news of the war that our country was engaged in with the mother country. The compiler had traveled along in this old file carefully, page by page and column by column, but he found no announcement of the end of the war and the happy return of peace to America. This great fact, however, does finally appear in type, I'd only as an inference in this way July 4th, 1815. the national day celebrated at Haslet's Tavern." An oration was delivered by E. Baldwin, and the paper published it in full ; there was feasting' parades, music and regular toasts, and one of these patriotic ebullitions reads as follows': 11 The late war-the best diplomatic remonstrance of :ill injured people, made from the mouths of cannon." M r. Baldwin in his oration refers to the late war and its end by simply saying that 11 but lately at New Orleans did we cease, at the mouth of the cannon, to give-lessons of instruction, lasting lessons to all Europe, the moral of which was, cultivate our iendship in _peace. but dread our power in war." This is all very curious now to news paper readers. It was as though the Bradford county papers had passed over in silence the surrender of Lee and the end of the War of the Rebellion. ass a chapter in the history of our local newspapers, if nothing more, it is real history. The editors of those times were feeling for and supplying the public demands much as the editors of today are doing It is really very remarkable.

In this issue appears a wedding notice: Samuel Landrus to Miss Smith, by Burr Ridgway; followed by the announcement of the death of Anna Taylor, consort of Aziel Taylor, of Canton, June 24. The funeral sermon was preached by Elder N. IL Ripley. S. T. Barstow " offers for sale at his residence at Fenceler Castle (Wysox) and of croods." We learn that Samuel Griffin had very handsome assortment been to the Fourth of July celebration, and that he lost or was robbed of his pocket-book, " containing $5 ill cash, an order on Isaac Chapel, supervisor of Canton township, a note against Ezra Bradley, a receipt from Garrick Maller, * * * two certificates for wolf scalps, a county order in the name of Daniel Stone, another in the name of Daniel Ingram, one in favor of Hugh Holcomb and one to Julius Tozer." Then

Harry Morgan, J. P., publishes a legal notice of- in attachment in favor of heron Darling and Robert Sutton. The next is a publication, by Polly Tuttle against Henry Tuttle, of a proceeding for divorce.

The Republicans of Burlington township held a meeting at the house, of Maj. Ebenzer Kendall, Capt. Ballard, chairman, and John Dobbins secretary, and unanimously resolved to support Col. Samuel McKean for the Legislature. Married in Wysox, by Harry Morgan, Esq., William Hart and Mary Strope. Amasa Withey gives notice of divorce proceedings against Lucy Withey. Same notice Lydia P. Smith against Samuel Smith. John Norris, clerk Orphans' Court of Tioga county, gives notice of land sale, to settle estate. Sheriff Rockwell gives notice to the children and representatives of Stephen Latimer, late of


Canton, of a petition for partition of real estate. Columbia township Republicans held a meeting at the house of Capt. David Watson; Samuel Strait, chairman, and David R. Haswell, secretary, and recommended Samuel McKean for the Legislature, and pledge each to stand by the nominees of their party. Burr Ridgway, A. P. M., publishes another letter-list: Sarah Alger, Jonathan Beebe, Churchill Barnes, David Carter, -Moses Carter ` David Campbell, William Gough, Richard Gough, William Means, Levi Preston, Jonathan Scott, Elias Vaughan, Abel Wheeler, Amasa Withey.

August 8th, the "Free Republican Electors" are called to meet in Towanda, Saturday 19th, at Haslet's Inn, to choose delegates to the county meeting. The editor has an editorial announcement somewhat as follows: 11 A number of subscribers to this paper, who have a great affection for Englishmen, request the publication of extracts from well-known English writers." He says he will devote a column to that purpose occasionally. In the same connection he informs his readers that the oration delivered at Smithfield last Fourth of July had been received, and would appear next week.

A Federal-Republican meeting of Wysox and Towanda was held at the house of Col. Harry Spalding, August 10, 1815; Ebenezer B. Gregory, chairman, and Hiram Mix, secretary. A committee was appointed to call a delegate meeting of the townships, at the house of Col. Harry Spalding, to select candidates, etc. Following constituted the committee: Wysox, Col. William Allen, Ralph Martin; Wyalusing, Justus Gaylord, Justus Lewis ; Pike, Salmon Bosworth, Allen Stevens; Warren, Andrew Coburn, Amos Coburn; Windham, Levi Brainard, Daniel Hill; Orwell, Col. Theron Darling, Asahel Johnson Ulster, Ebenezer Shaw, Jared Holcomb; Athens, John F. Satterlee, Dr. Thomas Huston; Wells, Capt. Vine Baldwin ; Springfield, Samuel. Campbell, John Harkness; Smithfield, Capt. Solomon Morse, Samuel Kellogg ; Burlington, Nathaniel Allen, Capt. Ezra Long; Canton, Daniel Ingram, Horace Spalding; Towanda, Abner C. Rockwell. Jesse Woodruff. About the same time a meeting was held at the house of John M. Hicks, Wysox, George Hicks, chairman, and John M. Hicks, secretary, and it was unanimously resolved to recommend Col. William Allen as a suitable candidate for sherilf.

The paper of August 22, 1815, has a notice signed by Joseph Lodge Kingsbury, W. M., and Thomas Huston, secretary of the Athens of Masons, informing the world that the lodge had expelled Dr. David Sherwood Rice "for crimes of the darkest hue," and requesting printers friendly to Masons, throughout the United States, to insert the notice. Polly Grant, executrix, gives notice of the estate of Gyp Grant, of Wysox. Charles F. Welles, prothonotary, gives notice to witnesses and jurymen of their discharge from attendance upon the next court " on account of an error in the" venires." S. T. Barstow has a new advertisement, stating that he has received a very general assortment of goods at his" store, Fenceler Castle," Wysox; among other things, nails of different sizes all is offered for sale for cash, grain or lumber. As an instance of how things were done at that time, appears a notice addressed: To the officers of the army and


navy of the united States the executives of the different States and citizens," and signed by "A citizen of Hanover county, Va.," in which he states he is collecting the materials to write a history of the of 1612 with the causes that led to it; he solicits everyone having, documents, orders or papers throwing light on the subject to forward them, not by mail as that would incur too much expense, but by Senators and Congressmen traveling to Washington City. He expected to complete the first volume by 1816, and concludes with a request to all Republican papers to copy, and he will give in return a copy of the book. September 12, 1815, both the political parties held conventions and nominated candidates. The Republican ( Democratic) convention met at Towanda; Gurdon Hewitt, chairman, and Henry Welles, secretary, and made the following ticket: For senator, Henry Welles; assembly man, 'Numiel M'Kean; sheriff, Julius Tozer ; commissioners, John Hollenback and Samuel Satterlee; coroner, Reuben Wilber; auditor, Gurdon Hewitt. Floowing this was a card from Eliphalet Mason to the public, in which he stated that he had been strongly solicited to be a candidate for sheriff. He says: 11 As it was not my fortune to be placed on the ticket, my friends will show their best respects to me by supporting the ticket nominated."

The Federal-Republican made the following nominations Senator, John Franklin; assemblyman, Joseph Kingsbury; coroner, Ebenezer B. Gregory sheriff, John Spalding, 2nd.; commissioners, Salmon Bosworth, Nathaniel Allen; auditor, Theron Darling.

The next day it seems there was a meeting, at the house of Andrew Haslett, Towanda, "of a number of respectable inhabitants of the townships of Canton, Burlington, Ulster, Wysox and Towanda, for the purpose of nominating the several persons to fill the different offices." The meeting put in nomination: For representative, Samuel M'Kean; for representative for Bradford and Tioga counties, William Allen -sheriff, John Mints; commissioners, Charles Brown and Jonathan Stevens: coroner, Reuben Mill ; auditor, John Hancock. Of this meeting Charles Brown was chairman, and Thomas ff. White, secretary. There is nothing to indicate the complexion of the politics of this meeting. They, it seems, were content to simply say they were respectable citizens," and endorsed M'Kean, and took other men for the remainder of the ticket. They might possibly be called Independents or " Kickers," but they are not.

Died, at Clanton, at the house of her son-in-law, Jesse Morse, Widow Susannah Stone, " a few years since from Sturbridge, Conn.," aged 86. Uriel Woodruff, Towanda, gives notice that a yoke of oxen had broke into his enclosure," Ezra Long, Burlington, offers for sale "the stand formerly occupied by Jeremiah Decker, on Sugar creek, near Rich's Mills, ,Is a store-four acres of land. d welling house and barn;" Ed- Herrick inspector, enrolled militia, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Brigade Ninth Division, P. AT., called a meeting of the members of that command, at the house of William Myers, Wysox, for the purpose of electing a major; Col. Samuel M' Kean gives notice to the Twenty-first Regiment to meet it the house of Capt. James Gray


Tioga, for three days drill and discipline; Harry Spalding gives the last notice but one" to delinquents; Moses B. Canfield gives notice that his wife Deborah bad left his bed and board; William Allen, Wysox, wants two journeyman boot and shoe makers.

The paper of October 2d following, however, is for the first time full of political life. It opens with a long " address to the Democratic Republicans of Bradford county." Which proceeds to counsel standing together, and every member to vote the whole ticket from top to bottom. This is followed b a "communication," which the editor says was received "too late for last week's paper." This communication proceeds to explain all about' the third convention "of respectable citizens" mentioned above. It opens by warning the electors of Bradford county against " a certain third or Merino Ticket made Lip by a few disappointed persons of both parties," and proceeds to score the whole outfit. The writer grows fierce as be proceeds, and winds up with the following outburst: "It is shameful, it is infamous!" Thomas Overton, of Ulster, gives notice, that he has placed all notes and accounts in the bands of Thomas 11. White for collection. The editor indulges in an article. It must have been something extraordinary to cause him to break the record. He prints, modestly, in a corner of his paper a parable, and tells how once upon a time gang of knaves, swindlers and horse-jockeys assembled at their rendezvous, the residence of one of the crew. - * A violent dispute arose as to who bad the most honesty. After much -wrangling one of them became a candidate for the title of honest man." etc.. etc. The writer says the application can be made to 11 a similar gang of the present day," and "the gang must not think themselves the whole world.," The Gazette Dow is getting to be quite lively.

William Keeler, of Wysox, has a new advertisement of his store a few doors below Fenceler Castle, and on the south of Pond Lane, and west side of Squabble-Hill street, where I have just received, by the fast sailing boat, Rose-in-Bloom, Capt. Griffin, in a short passage of seven days from Wilkes-Barre, a big assortment," etc. These things till the first page of the paper, and it must have disconcerted the 'weekly patrons when they looked for the regular "foreign news," always from two to three months old, and found fresh home affairs so extensively discussed. The average newspaper reader always prefers to read his own paper--one in which be knows just where to look for things. Looking further, it is apparent the editor is getting rather reckless. For instance The Gazette in future will be issued on Monday evening., Then the following: The news from the westward is such that it appears an Indian war is inevitable." We can now, after seventy five years have come and gone, and all these men of affairs at that time are now in the " silent city.'' hardly realize what a senation this issue of the paper caused the whole county. The soberest sires, no doubt, read their paper, went to bed and dreamed dreams of Indian wars, bolting tickets and an advance one (lay forward in the week of the next paper. Think, even now, of that dreadful Merino Ticket, that a writer had said of the whole proceeding that it was a shame, it was infamous." The war was all over, and now came


stirring times to old Bradford county. The two regular tickets are published each week in the paper, and there is not a word of comment as to either. This certainly will enable the editor to say, after the election is over, " nothing unpleasant was said by either of the other." It was the " bolter, " or what we now sometimes call the "third party feller," the "kicker," etc., that called forth the wrath and indignation of the editor. It is a fine specimen of the old-time political ethics. In the next paper appears an editorial in which it is stated that Mr. M'Meens has declined being considered a candidate for Senator, and determined to throw his support to Gen. Welles, " as a measure most conducive to the success of the Republican cause." This left the contest between Welles and Mr. Stewart, and of the latter the paper proceeds to say he is "one whom every sense of propriety would prompt the exclusion, being a man of neither political party, and equally to be shunned by both." Burr Ridgway publishes another 11 list of letters" in the Towanda postoffice, although the paper is still dated Monmouth. This list is curious because it designates the places in the county where the parties reside, and where there were not postoffices, as follows: Burlington, Canton, Columbia, Orwell, Pike, Smithfield, Sugar Creek and Ulster. A notice is given to the enrolled militia by Lemuel Streator, major. John E. Kent, it seems, was then in business in Towanda. and he gives notice to delinquent debtors.

The paper of October 16, 1815, publishes the election returns for Bradford county. A footnote says, have not received correct returns for Representative from Tioga county, but believe Samuel McKean to have a majority of about 115. Those elected in the county are sheriff, John Spalding, 2d, majority 22; coroner, Reuben Wilber. majority 113; commissioners, Solomon Bosworth, three years, and Nathaniel Allen, two years; auditor, Ethan Baldwin, majority 33. Then this explanatory paragraph is given It appears by the above that, had it not been for the reduction which they suffered by the

Merino Ticket," the Democratic Republicans would have carried every candidate by considerable majority.'' The highest total vote polled was a representative. 891 in the county, Gregory leading McKean three votes, but as Tioga county was in the district that elected McKean. The vote on senator by townships was as follows: Ulster, and Athens township-Welles, 112, Stewart, 79; Cliffsburg-Welles, 104, Stewart, I I : Burlington-Welles, 46, Stewart, 20; Canton Welles, 36 Stewart ")I : Towanda-Welles, 69, Stewart, 39 Wysox Welles, 27. Stewart, 69 - Orwell-Welles, 60, Stewart, 7 ; Pike Welles, :38, Stewart, 10: Wyalusing--Welles, $0. Total, Welles, 572, Stewart, 266. This vote would indicate a population of about 4,400.

It may he proper to explain at this point that, when the returns from Tioga county were in, Welles' majority in that county was 588. The total vote of Tioga county was: Welles, 2,231 Stewart, 1,643.

Aaron Chubbuck, of Orwell, indulges in a somewhat facetious notice of his, new 'goods, wagons, etc.: "Just received from old Connecticut, by the fast running carriage (wagon), and for sale at my house in Orwell, about seven miles north of' Squabble Hill street, a handsome assortment of cotton goods, etc."


The Gazette of October 30, 1815, has the first, second and third pages filled almost exclusively with news of the surrender of Napoleon and his banishment to St. Helena. The editor deems this so important that he indulges in another editorial calling attention to it. It is plainly evident that American sympathy all runs to Napoleon. This was the great plebian, and the allies were the born emperors and inheritors of the divine right to rule and oppress. Then, too, that most thoroughly hated England was one of the chief forces of the allied nations. The question had in some way shaped itself that the universal coalition of the crown beads of Europe were against Napoleon, in order to maintain the legitimacy of princes. This issue of the Gazelle, if reprinted, in the hands of a skillful teacher would bring to the pupils many valuable hints concerning one of the greatest events of European history. Legitimacy in all the royal families despised Napoleon: he was a bold and rash intruder who came of the common herd, and they combined to crush him. Napoleon was a Democrat-king, but was no more a Republican or Democrat than were those of the oldest strain or the most regal houses. He not only had himself crowned emperor, but conferred crowns and dynasties on his family and friends. To marry one of his sisters was the easy road to a crown. He was a soldier- and would inflict upon the world his iron despotism, even to the sacrifice of his Josephine. His boundless ambition was checked by no shadow of a scruple-worse, because of his genius, than the enfee- legitimates in the royal nurseries. His military genius flamed across --the sky in blinding splendor; he bad destroyed more men on the battle-field than had any man in all history, and was the teacher of his race in the arts of modern warfare, and was the dangerous enemy of his people, because a man to him was nothing but a soldier, and he -a moral outlaw, supreme in the genius of was the friend of royalty war. If he was of any permanent good to his fellow-man, it was not intentional on his part. He ruthlessly struck down royalty, and trampled upon the nation's idols. With equal contempt he spat upon the world's ignorant and deep-seated superstitions, but was careful in all cases, when he toppled either, to replace it with perhaps a far worse one, If consistent in anything, it -was only one thing-h I s boundless and overwhelming ambition; to this there was nothing that be was not eager to sacrifice.

The Americans of that time saw only the Corsican contending single banded in a death-struggle against the combine(, crowned beads of the Old World, and their deepest sympathies went out to the man who had risen from their own ranks. Soon a hundred years will have come and gone since his day and time. The partakers of the tremendous events of which he was the central figure have all joined the great majority and are with the silent multitude. We may now soon pause and properly estimate the advantages of the disadvantages to the race of the life and career of this man. The philosophy of his life, the permanent good or evil it left in the effects that have come, intentional or incidental, are all questions for the true historian to hunt out and give to the world. Extravagant eulogy or unreasoning condemnation


have now had their day so far as the history of Napoleon is concerned. The philosophy of history should now give us its true lesson.

When Napoleon was ;out to St. Helena there was but one thing thatwas most painfully apparent. The immediate outcome of this ambitious, turbulent man's career was that sunny, beautiful France was in the very dust, and the people were menaced with annihilation or the most slavery and suffering. The French have been designated the degraded volcanic people." They have called down upon their own heads unparalleled calamities; single-handed, in war or in peace, for many centuries they had no equal; in literature, science, law, war, finance, polite culture and luxurious wealth, France was for centuries the central figure in the world's greatest eras. She has been overrun and despoiled by foreign enemies more than has any other people. Her invaders have despoiled her territory and levied tribute without limit. and when Napoleon became a prisoner the allies proclaimed that Europe can never be safe while one particle of freedom is left in France; while anything but misery and slavery are left in that populous and extensive country." This sentiment should have shocked all mankind; it, was not only barbarous, but was brutal in the extreme. Infernal as it was, it came of a healthy fear that the French people would again rally and endanger the crowns of the other nations. The people of other nations had little to fear from France, it was simply the crowned heads. This was tile shocking conditions of Europe less than a century ago, within the memory of many now living. To the good people of Bradford county, it is evident from the files of the Gazzette Napoleon was France. Americans were not then so close to the idea that the people are everything, the rulers nothing, as we are now; they had far more faith in the idea that "there is a divinity that doth hedge about a King" than are now entertained; in that day more than" now there was a blind worship of rulers, and government

paternalism was but little questioned. Our fathers were too fresh from the thrall of the King's yoke to realize as fully as we can that a ruler is human and full of frailty; that none are either all-wise or perfect, and that many are so far from being wise that they are vile and utterly bad through and through. The progress of this idea that the people are always wiser and better than the ruler or rulers, has made the slowest progress in the world; yet, when we compare centuries, then it can be seen that it is progressive. Teach your children, that they may teach their children, to speed the day when this idea of freedom will be a practical reality to all men, the humblest equally with the highest.

November 6, 1815, Joseph D. Woodworth, of Athens, announces that he has opened an 11 axe factory " at the shop of John Redington, "where people wishing can be furnished with axes equal, if not superior, to any of the Hyde stamp, as the subscriber got his information, Mr. Hyde."

In the next week's issue the paper opens With a four-column extract from Corbett's Register, concerning the actions, doings and sayings of the Hartford Convention. The article attacks the Federalists, that is, some of the leaders, with much intensity of feeling. He


refers to a paper then published called " The Times," and explains that a quotation is taken from that paper, published immediately after the adjournment of the Hartford Convention, and among other things is the following: "What!" said the Times newspaper, "is THAT ALL! We expected a division of the Union to be declared at once, or at least the impeachment of Madison and his associates." The Gazette contents itself with the extract, and does not indulge in a word of editorial, either about politics or anything else. But, after all, the' issue is an instructive lesson for our young men who are on the threshhold of their political lives.

The next week's issue, following, is also suggestive of some of the ideas of that time on political economy The paper opens on the first page with a long extract from the New York National Advocate, under the caption of 11 Specie." It proceeds to tell how a million dollars had just been sent from New York, and it is darkly hinted that it is to go to Canada. The writer says it was shipped by * * and * [he puts the names thus, he says, because, not having complete personal knowledge, he declines the risk of becoming responsible for the publication of names], and then be proceeds to say that it is surmised that this money is to be used "for the purpose of building fortifications on Lake Champlain, and building men-of-war on Lake Ontario. * * The sum wanted for Canada, for which sterling bills on London have been sold, is perhaps but a part; three or four millions more may yet remain to be purchased. Guard well your hard dollars-watch the enemy, and beware of the foul fiend!"

This was a serious matter, evidently, at that time. Our fathers then, like all the world, supposed it a most vital matter of government to' watch the going and coming of " your hard dollars." But little more than a century ago, a nation thought it quite the proper thing to declare war against its neighbor in order to bring back the gold of the country; the government thought it was responsible for keeping "the bard dollars " in its own country. All wealth was the miser's idea of 11 the bard dollars." They could not understand that money is riot wealth that it is but a measure of wealth, that there is no more wealth in the coin itself than in the yard sticks or the surveyor's chains. The yard stick neither adds to nor takes from the value of the cloth ; no more does the surveyor's chain add to the acres of land it measures off. This instance of alarm of our fathers is a double lesson to us: first, it is plain that they were mistaken as to the purview of government second, that the going and coming of money among peoples is simply like that of water flowing down hill, or the wind blowing always toward the point of least obstruction, or the vacuum. Then follows another extract quite as interesting: 11 We have been put in possession of a copy of the petition of the cotton manufacturers of Providence to Congress, for the prohibition, by law, of the importation of all cotton goods (nankeens excepted), the product of places beyond 'the Cape of Good Hope, and for additional duties on other coarse cottons. They state that in a circle of thirty miles from Providence, there are no less than one hundred and forty manufactories, containing 130,000 spindles; that they consume 29,000 bales of cotton annually,


which produce 27,840,000 yards of cloth. The persons employed are compted at 26,000." The intelligent student of American political history can perhaps trace the footsteps of that petition of the good people of Providence, in 1815, to the celebrated McKinley tariff bill of 1890-seventy-five years intervening -and yet the little leaven leavened the whole lump, and after all this time it is a problem as to whether the question is approaching final settlement or receding from 'it.

The issue of November 27, 1815, gives an account of a dreadful accident at Towanda, which occurred on Saturday at the ferry. Mrs. Minthorne, wife of Walter S. Minthorne, and two of her children, aged one and two years, were drowned while crossing in the ferry boat. The boat sprung a leak and quickly sunk. Mr. Minthorne and three passengers, it is said, escaped-one carried ashore by a horse and cart, another on a horse, and another by having a paddle that enabled him to reach the shore. The woman and one of the children were soon recovered, but the other child was not found tilt the next morning. This paper also announces the marriage of William Means, Jr., with Miss Eunice Hewitt, by Burr Ridgway. It also gives the "state of parties in the Pennsylvania Legislature, as follows: Senate-Republicans,20; Federalists, 11; Representatives-Republicans, 74; Federalists, 23 (one seat in dispute)."

The week following, it gives an account of a fatal accident, causing the death of Benjamin Martin, of Wysox. He had fallen from his horse, and after lingering 21 hours, died. He left a widow and four small children. William Means, treasurer, gives notice to delinqent collectors. Walter Wheeler publishes the 11 Third and Last 'all " to all those who are in debt for blacksmithing. He says,"I all work and no pay makes the purse light and empties the meal barrel." The rhythm is lost, but the truth is strictly preserved.

December 25 (Christmas), 1815, the paper opens with the message of Gov, Simon Snyder to the Legislature-filling seven columns. This is followed by part first (11 continued next week, ") of the President's message Both announce an 11 honorable peace with England." [Peace was concluded in February preceding.] The Governor gives a brief resume of affairs in France, from the triumphant return of Napoleon from Elba, and then the invasion, and the overthrow of this remarkable man by the allied powers, and pictures the horror and sufferings of France, and gives expression to the profoundest sympathies for the people of that country. He attributes much of its calamities to the division among her people, and from this-draws a lesson for Americans. Shall those awful dispensations of Providence pass before us without our being deeply impressed with the baleful consequences of being a divided people? We must unite upon. National oil grounds-We must cherish a national spirit and become a united people, or the day may come when we, like the people of France, in sack cloth and ashes, may weep over the ruins of our unhappy and dismembered country. Let us be wise, and profit by the experience of ages." This was very timely and good doctrine from the wise and good Governor of the State. It was pregnant with the


broadest statesmanship, and the Gazette did well in publishing it, laying it before the Bradford county readers in significant contrast with the Times newspaper's discordant utterings about the Hartford Convention. The same paper has a proclamation signed by John B. Gibson, President Judge, addressed to the public, reciting that Joseph Tyler, of Athens township, had made complaint to the court that he bad been disturbed in the lawful employment of his estate, etc.; and commanding all trespassers to desist under pain of severe punishment from the court. . . . In the next column is a remarkable editorial in large job type, and is under the head:

"Property-two thousand six hundred and twenty-nine bales of cotton, says the Savannah] Republican, arrived by water yesterday from Augusta, the value of which, allowing 26-1 cents a pound (current price to-day) and 270 pounds to the bale, amounts to $188,104.95." Then, in brackets, 11 [Imported into England this cotton would contribute to the English revenue 8s. per 100 lbs., or 2501. 12s.- While the nation that produced it would not profit one cent.]"

The paper of January 1, 1816, has this very interesting scrap of history, which parties contemplating a visit to Washington City soon would do well to copy and take along and by reading it on the spot and examining our capitol, it would give one a bird's-eye view of the growth of America since that time: 11 The house on Capitol Hill, commonly called the New Capitol, which was built by a company for the use of Congress, if the honorable body should think proper to accept it, until the capitol is finished (and it appears they have) stands at the corner of First street and Maryland avenue. The chamber for the Senate is on the first floor; it is fifteen feet high, twenty-five feet six inches wide, and forty-five feet long. A gallery is attached to this chamber which takes up no room. On the second floor is the chamber intended for the House of Representatives; it is seventy-seven feet long, fortyfive feet wide and twenty feet high, and also has a gallery. The spot on which this spacious building stands was a cabbage garden on the morning of the 4th of July-in the afternoon of that day the digging was commenced. At that time the stone employed in the structure was not quarried; the clay of which the bricks are made was in its native state, and all the principal timbers were then standing in the woods." Then is found a communication addressed To Mr. Printer, and signed 11 T." - It fills about half a column, and purports to be from some man who was 11 passing through your village, traveling for amusement," and in the bar-room of the hotel heard the natives talking over affairs, particularly some 11 strange animals that had recently made their appearance in the county." These old fellows were " la in g bates " to catch some of these animals, if possible. The traveler gathered something like the following description of these animals," mentioned as being either from Ireland or Irish extract, some Dutch and some mongrel. Some of them had no mouth, and some were all mouth, some without a head, and others were all head, and what is most remarkable they are said to have the power of emiting something having the appearance of paper currency, 'tis Said they burrough in the ground or live in the cliffs of


rocks." Was this sarcasm ? . . . The announcement is made that the Governor has appointed Lemuel Streator Justice of the Peace for the district of Orwell. Burr Ridgway opens the new year with another 11 letter-list in which are named six parties in Towanda, two in Canton, one in Windham, one in Sugar creek, one in Smithfield and one in Bradford county, to whom letters are addressed. . . .Darius Bullock, of Smithfield, administrator of Nehemiah Tracy, gives notice concerning the estate.

The issue of January 15, 1816, has this one editorial: "No mail was received from the southward last week, in consequence of which it is out of our power to present to the readers of the Gazette any of the recent proceedings of Congress or the State Legislature."

Simon Kinney, treasurer, gives notice to those collectors who have not settled up their duplicates, etc. Paul Beck, Jr., R. A. Cald- William Poyntell, executors of the estate of William Poyntell, deceased, of Philadelphia, give notice. Jacob Bowman advertises about a "red heifer." Burr Ridgway, Nathaniel Allen, Salmon Bosworth, commissioners, give notice of "days of appeal:" In Ulster, at the house of Obadiah Gore; Athens, at the house of D'Alanson Saltmarsh; Smithfield, at the house of James Gerould; Springfield, at the house of Samuel Campbell; Wells, at the house of Vine Baldwin; Columbia, at the house of Charles Taylor; Burlington, at the house of Ebenezer Kendall; Canton, at -the house of Benjamin Stone; Wyalusing, at Justus Gaylord's; Pike, at Josiah Bosorth's; Warren, at James Brown's; Windham, at Jeptha Brainard's;Orw (,11, at Lemuel Streator's; Wysox, at William Myers'; Asylum, at Bartholomew Laporte's. . . Thomas B. Beebe & Co., of Orwell, advertise saddles and bridles for sale. . . . , S. & B. McKean, of Burlington, give notice to pay up. . .So does Augustus Pearce, of Wysox. John Spalding 2d, has a proclamation as sheriff, calling a session of the court, that of course winds up with " God save the Commonwealth."

The next issue of the paper gives notice that Simon Kinney has been appointed treasurer by the commissioners. . . Col. Harry Spalding gives notice of a contested election in the seventh company, militia, concerning the election of Samuel Gilbert, as captain. Rhoda Saltmarsh, administrator, gives notice concerning the estate of John Saltmarsh, deceased, of Athens. . . Darius Bullock gives notice concerning estate of Stephen Titus. . . The collector of revenue, of the Twentieth District, gives notice that he will attend at the prothonotary's office, Towanda, for the purpose of "receiving the entry of carriages, etc., agreeably to an act of Congress'' One of the political questions of that day was -old and silver vs. paper currency. In time, Benton was called 11 Old Bullion," and men talked about Mint Drops," meaning the hard money that came from the Mint. This will explain a notice in the Gazette at this time, taken. from the United States Gazette, commencing, 11 Two Whole Families Lost!-Mr. Eagle and Mr. Dollar, who, a few years ago, were much seen in the United States, supposed to be Dative Americans. A generous reward is offered, payable at Treasury Department, Wash


ington, or at any of the Forty Banks," etc. More sarcasm, it is supposed. This, too, sounds a little like the modern political discussion in the papers about demonetizing silver.

After the issue of February 12, 1816, there is no other paper until March 4, following. In fact there were frequent irregularities in getting out the weekly issues about this time. The explanation of this is made in the paper, of the latter date owing to the young man that I had in the office having left me very unexpectedly, at a time when it was necessary I should be absent from home, I have not been able to issue the paper regularly." The editor dates this paper, Williamston," having now dropped 11 Monmouth." Then follows an extract referring to Virginia's House of Delegates formulating, a plan to establish free schools in that State, and punches up the Pennsylvania Assembly for its neglect on this subject.

The issue of March 4, 1816, is an unusually lively one. It has an editorial, a very short one, some catching communications, as well as interesting advertisements. For instance:

Nuptials-The affluent leap year Vincent quick without tears."

Then follows the announcement of the marriage at Asylum, by Charles Brown, of James P. Quick to the accomplished Miss Maria Vincent. And then is given the marriage at Warren, by Burr Ridgway, of Arunah Case and Mrs. Sally Wate. The Baltimore Gazette addresses Col. Samuel Satterlee, through its columns, which is copied in the Gazette of Towanda, a communication containing' so -me curious subjects. It opens with the sentence that when great men die much is said about it; in Virginia they are talking of building a Pyramid, but the writer suggests these are of no use since the arts and Sciences have been cultivated. He then proceeds to inform Col. Satterlee that many of the Virginia revolutionary volunteers. could not read nor write, and concludes that he wants the Colonel to give him information " of the exact number of Republicans and their names our [the] county lost in the various battles and skirmishes in which the brave army of the North were engaged."

An article is copied from a Washington paper which contains the information that the Legislature of Virginia had proposed to request permission to- remove the remains of Gen. Washington to Richmond, and the State, by private subscription, would erect a suitable monument. . . . A three-line item announces that 11 we learn that postage on letters and newspapers will be reduced to the old standard, from and after the 31st. Adam Conly addresses all printers in the United States, making anxious inquiries for Joseph Conly, a young man two years since departed from this place" (Towanda). "He had some knowledge of the printing business. The parents of the aforesaid Joseph have a keen sensation for their son" Then any person having any knowledge of the youth is implored to furnish it to the afflicted family.

Andrew Irwin, of Towanda, advertises for an apprentice Ic to the tanning and currying business." Billings Clerk notifies the world that " my wife, Charlotte, without any provocation," has left the ranch.

Alphonso C. Stuart has a notice that the accounts of Andrew


Haslett are in his hands for collection. . . August Pearce, of Wysox, Then follows has a like notice to all persons indebted to him. a statement of the balances due from collectors, January 1, 1815, of the different townships in the county. The list of collectors is given as follows: Wyalusing, Simeon Marsh, Uriah Terry, John Hollenback; Josiah Bosworth, Salmon Bradshaw; Orwell, Orcut Grant, Lemuel Streator; Wysox, Hiram Mix, W. F. Dinninger; Ulster, George Kinney, Samuel Mershall, Elisha Satterlee; Athens, John Spalding (2d), Stephen Hopkins, Conklin Baker; Smithfield, James Gerould, Darius Bullock; Burlington, Nathaniel Ballard, James Colkins- Canton, Isaac Wooster, Samuel Griffin, William Means; Towanda, John Mints, Jacob Bowman; Warren, Parley Coburn, James Bower; Windham, Darius Brainard, Levi Brainard ; Columbia, Rufus Pratt, Samuel Ballard; Murraysfield, Joseph Grace; Springfield, John Barber; Wells, Jonathan Kent, Joseph Parker. [It should be stated that these included those collectors who owed a balance for either of the years 1813-'14-'15.-Ed.] There is an extract from a New York paper, stating that the Legislature of that State had incorporated a company "to open water communication between Seneca lake and the Chemung, branch of the Susquehanna river by ,means of a canal."' The article is beaded, "Seneca and Susquehanna 'lock navigation'' Thus opening " water communication from Lake Ontario to the Chesapeake, through the heart of Pennsylvania." This must have been a stupendous piece of news to the good people of Bradford, but the editor is content to make the simple extract from his exchange without a display head-line or a word of comment.

In the news coming from Harrisburg is given an account of the proceedings in reference to the building Of the Susquehanna and Tioga turnpike road. This was merely a petition to incorporate the compatiy, and asking the State to subscribe for $10,000 of the stock thereof.

In the Legislature one very important move was made by Mr. McKean of Bradford county. The resolution recited that " great inconvenciences has [have] arisen in consequence of individuals holding large tracts of unimproved lands within this commonwealth, and the titles thereto been kept so secret as to render it very difficult to ascertain correctly what lands were vacant or what were not." It proceeded .to recite that in many cases people were deceived into making valuable improvements on such lands, supposing they were public lands, etc. It concluded with a resolve asking that a committee be appointed to investigate and ascertain to what indemnification such people were entitled. . . . Another act introduced was 11 to authorize the Governor to incorporate a company for making an artificial road from Henry Hews', in Lycoming county, to Aaron Bloss', in the county of Tioga." From Washington there is a report that 11 the question is at length settled in the popular branch of, the National Legislature that the Direct Tax shall. be continued for one year at least; at the end of which time the question will again return to them."

This paper concludes on the fourth page with some interesting items from unhappy and dismembered France. Among others is a letter from Murat to his wife and children on the day he was executed


It is dated Pizzo, October 15, 1815. This is followed by a long letter from Marshal Moncey to Louis XVIII., pleading eloquently for a courtmartial to try Ney, and not simply to execute him without trial, at the request of the allies. Moncey wrote in the face of danger of death that. his act might bring himself, but he spoke bravely, and concludes with the statement that if his plea for justice to a great soldier brings disgrace and death upon himself, he will go to his grave content, and he says to his King: "I may say, sire, with one of your ancestorsall is lost, except honor."'

The next issue of the paper has a communication from a "New En gland "correspondent addressed to a Boston paper, in which the writer calls upon the Congressional caucus of the Republicans to put in nomination James Monroe for President, and Simon Snyder for Vice-president.

The issue of March 25th following has the first and second pages filled with news from France. The opening article is a communication from a Bradfordite of five and a quarter columns, signed "B * *n " [Who could the writer have been?-Ed.], devoted entirely to the execution of Marshal Ney. The writer calls it 11 Ney's soliloquy before death, with his farewell to his family." This is followed by five more columns all about the doings of !he allies in France.

Then is given the new postage law passed by Congress, February 1, 1816: Single letters composed of one piece of paper, not exceeding 40 miles, 8 cents; over 90 miles, 10 cents; over 150 miles, 12 1/2 cents; over 300 miles, 20 cents; over 500 miles, 25 cents. Double letters, that is, two sheets, double rates. . . . Elias Needham, Jr., of Smithfield, offers his farm of 78 acres of valuable land for sale; has a public road good orchard with hewed-log house, etc. It is on the from Tioga Point to Tioga river James Arnold, administrator of the estate of William Arnold, deceased, gives notice. The editor says: 14 Maple sugar wanted." . . A communication says that "there are now living in Ulster township, Mr. Eligh Horton, and Jemima his wife, who have living 12 children, 74 grandchildren, 23 great-grandchildren-total, 109. Mr. and Mrs. Horton are in good health-he takes care of his stock of horses and cattle, breaks his own colts, cuts his own wood; while Mrs. Horton performs the household duties without assistance. Their eldest child has 9 children and 12 grandchildren. The article is signed The death of Electy " Newell is announced. . . Burr Ridgway and Nathaniel Allen, commissioners, publish their annual financial statement of county affairs. Total expenditures for the county for the year 1815, $1,365.28.

March 11. 1816, a meeting was convened in Harrisburg of the members of the Assembly, for the purpose of nominating a ticket of Democratic Republicans of the State as electors in the then approaching National election. Two of the candidates chosen were from Bradford county, namely: Col. Samuel Satterlee and Charles F. Welles. And a committee of correspondence was chosen, and the members for Bradford were Satterlee and Welles, and also John Hollenback. Instead of this now being done by the members of the Legislature, there is called a State Convention ; delegates are sent from each county, and


this State Convention, after putting electors in the field, sends its delegates to the National Convention. Political machinery has grown to be vast, complicated and expensive, and it is not certain that this has materially bettered it

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