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History of Bradford County by Bradsby
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History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches

By H. C. Bradsby, 1891

CHAPTER XLIX. Towanda Borough
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Towanda, the most populous town in the county, is situated on the right bank of the Susquehanna, at the eastern end of a plateau that rises about 1,400 feet above the river, and extends westward to the Armenia mountains. The Courthouse is in latitude 41' 47' north, and in longitude 250 28' east of Washington. The altitude on Main street in front of the Public Square is 732 feet above tide. We give the following apt description in the words of another : ,,The town is beautifully located, standing on the Wysox end of the bridge, it spreads itself out before the beholder like a pre-Raphaelite picture, glowing in the sunlight and shadows. The foreground of' ite picture, g is the broad blue mirror of the Susquehanna,, and the long line of stately stores and warehouses of Main street, broken by the spires of the court-house and the Presbyterian church. While rising in terraces, peeping out from the beautiful foliage which hall conceals them, the comfortable homes and neat residences on Second, Third and Fourth streets, clinging to the hilly background recall to the mind visions of the celebrated hanging gardens of ancient Babylon. It is a scene of natural beauty that is rare in its combination of natural and artificial adornments-One that is rare in any country, even in our own favored land, so beautiful by nature, so adorned by human endeavor."

Esquire Means donated from his portion of the plat two lots on the corner of "Second and Spruce" (now Bridge) streets, for church purposes; E. B. Gregory gave two lots on the corner of " Second and Beech" (now State) streets, for an academy; and a subscription of several hundred dollars was taken toward defraying the expense of building the courthouse and jail, as part of the consideration for locating the public buildings at Towanda. The original proprietors of the town were: William Means, Thomas Overton, Shepard & Dorrance, Ebenezer B. Gregory and Harry Spalding. That portion owned by Win. Means was from the square below South street-so called because it was the southernmost street of the plat-tip to the run between Pine and Spruce, now called Bridge street; Overton and Shepard and Dor-rance owned from Means's line up to Beech, now called State street; Gregory owned from their line to the western terminus of Maple street, whence his line diverged north eastward ly to a point near the corner of Tanner- and Second streets, whence it diverged still farther eastwardly to the river at the terminus of Tanner street; Overton & Spalding owned all north of Gregory's line. From the river westward the streets were five squares in length, eight lots to the square, and were called Water (a considerable strip next the river), Front, Second, Third and Fourth streets ; from south to north the y were called South, Spruce, Pine, Poplar, Beech, Maple, Lombard, Tanner, Chestnut and Walnut. As Elizabeth street (so called after Elizabeth Means) and other streets were laid out south of South street, the name of that street has been by common consent changed to Washington street. Since the bridge over the Susquehanna was located at the eastern terminus of Spruce street, that has been known as Bridge street; and as the State road passes westwardly through the borough and diagonally crosses Beech street, and was made to conform to it, it was given the name of State street.

Until the court-house was built, the courts were held at the "Red Tavern," and the jail was kept by Sheriff Rockwell at his residence in Monroeton. The deed for the Public Square was dated August 19, 1813 and arrangements were at once consummated for the erection of ail office for the commissioners and prothonotary. Joseph Elliott con- tractor. The office was completed and occupied August 4, same year. This was a wooden building, and occupied the site of the engine house, the " fireproof,'' a stone g building,, afterwards occupying the same ground A couple of rooms in the old courthouse were also used as offices for awhile. In 1857-58 the present prothonotary's and register's office was built. It is a fireproof building, and cost about $7,500.

Under the (late of September 30, 1813, the count , y commissioners give notice in the Bradford Gazette that " they are desirous of making contracts for materials for building a court-house and goal; and request those who have Subscribed sums for the public buildings to meet them at their office in Towanda on the third day of November next." The work was begun in 1814, the commissioners hiring the masonry done by the day, and contracting with Peter Egner, of Northumberland, for the building of the superstructure. The courthouse was com-pleted and occupied January 9, 1810. Among the bills audited were some for the expenses in raising the building one of which was $40.50 for whisky and $4 for cider, and another, $91.82 for meals

The building was burned down in the great fire of 1847.

The records of the commissioners contain the following entry made by the clerk: " March 12, 1847.- This-day the greatest fire occurred in Towanda that has ever been known in this section or the country. It broke out on Main street between one and two o'clock P. M. and among other buildings the court-house and jail were burned."

An act was passed by the Legislature March 15, 1847, enabling the county to make a loan for the erection of new buildings, and a con- tract was made with Col. J. F. Means. June 25, 1847, Sidney Hayden being the subcontractor, who fulfilled the contract. The new building (the present one) was occupied in September, 1850. Its approxi-mate cost, complete and finished for use, was $28,000. The prisoners in the jail, the same day of its completion, attempted to destroy it by fire, but were frustrated, the fire being discovered and extinguished before serious damage was done. An apprehension of a repetition of the attempt, which might prove successful, led to the construction of the present massive structure on Pine street, between Main and Second, which was erected in IS71-72 at a cost of $65,000. For strength and adaptation to the purposes of a county prison it is probably not excelled in the State, and is equalled by ver ' y few similar structures It is constructed of millstone brought from Mill Stone creek. It contains a, "d well in -house," basement 30x60 feet, all two stories hi-h. The main entrance on Pine street is a massively built archway, and the entire building- presents an appearance of strength and durability that gives a most pleasing sense of security to the residents of this county. it, stood where the prothonotary's wid register's office now is, extending farther north, being lengthwise with the river. The basement was " the jail," and a couple of rooms on the first floor were also used for keeping prisoners, the balance of the floor being occupied by the jailor. The court-room was on the second floor.

In 1812 there were seven families in Towanda village, and, though it was the seat of justice, in 1816 the number had only increased to twelve; in 1820 the number was about thirty, and in 1830 about fifty. In Sherman Day's account of Towanda (1842) He puts the population at 912, which had increased to 1,135 in 1850, 1571 in 1860, 2,696 in 1870, 3,813 in 1880; the number now (1890) being 4,280.

The establishment of Towanda as the county seat, bringing the officers and the official business of the county hither, alone insured a gradual growth of the place. But, besides, the town has natural advantages, and has received an impetus from time to time. It will be remembered that when the commissioners agreed upon the site for the public buildings, there was no bridge across the Susquehanna, which, especially during the spring of the year, was impassable ; and that fully two-thirds of the people to be accommodated lived on the west side of the river. Moreover, two valleys-the natural outlets, draining the greater portion of the county lying west of the river- converge gradually and, terminate with the valley of the Susquehanna, midway between which the village of Meansville was situated. Before the day of roads, such goods as were consumed by the pioneers were brought up the river in boats. Lumber and shingles were about the only articles for which money could be had. Mr. Means kept goods and trafficked with the people. Mills were early established tip the Sugar and Towanda creeks; lumber cut, and in the spring floated down these streams to the river in small rafts. Roads were also built at an early day tip these creeks, and Towanda became, as it is to-day, the business center of the county.

Andrew Irving's tannery, the erection of the bridge in 1832, Enos Tompkins' enterprises, the establishment of the bank, the building of the North Branch Canal, the foundry, the publication of wide-awake newspapers, and, lastly, the railroads each gave impetus to the growth of the town in its early history. In later years. men of enterprise have furthered the interest of the town and -(liven' it new life. Fore-most among those to whom special credit is due, is AL C. Mercur, who has been the philanthropist and most zealous worker.

In 1825 the only streets opened were : Alain, State, Pine Lombard and a portion of Second. None of these were graded, and even Main street was very uneven and hilly. At this time the greater part of the prospective town was yet wooded. no particular effort being made in public improvements until after the incorporation of the borough in 1828 In 1836 marked improvements were made in grading and in opening new streets through the persistent efforts of AL C. Mercur and William Elwell. The population gradually increased, business multiplied and improvements continued. The railroad gave a new life, and the town finally outgrew the borough limits and was enlarged. Originally the borough extended from the river to Fifth street, and from about two rods south of Elizabeth street to the ravine on " Hemlock Row."

From the various assessments is made the following synopsis The merchants in Towanda in 1812 were: William Means and Harr y Spalding; in 1820 three were doing business, Gurdon Hewett having been added to the list; in 1825 the number of merchants and grocers were six; in 1831, eleven ; in 1838, nineteen; in 1850, twenty-one ; in 1860, twenty ; in 1870, forty-nine. The principal merchants that have done business in Towanda since 1860, but now out, have been: Thomas Elliott; H. S. Mercur; M. C. Mercur; J. D. Montayne; Burton Kingsbury; Joseph Kingsbury, including books and stationary ; E. D. Montanye ; E. T. Fox; Hiram Mix ; 11. C. Porter, drugs; Nathaniel N. Betts, Sidney Bailey, afterward Bailey & Nevins, g groceries; 0. D. Bartlett; Hugh O'Hara, boots and shoes ; George Bunting, ready-made clothing ; Tracy & Moore, general; Stephen Hathaway, boots and shoes;

John Wilcox, boots and shoes; E. W. Baird; Job Kirby, boots and shoes; M. E. Solomon, clothing; John Beidelman; Taylor & Co., dry goods; Patch Bros., groceries; Collins & Powell; A. Al. Warner, jeweler; Isaac Post, hardware; William A. Rockwell; J. D. Humphrey, boots and shoes; Col. J. F. Means; Wickman & Black; Ford & Ward, dry goods, George Ridgeway, grocer; Patton &Payne, drugs; Bramhall &Cowell, groceries, S. Benedict, clothing; Hall & Russell, afterward Codding & Russell, hardware; A. M. Coe, boots and shoes; Capt. James M. Gillson, jeweler; Charles Reed, drugs; Lord & Co., hardware; Joseph Hines, furniture; L. L. Moody, boots and shoes; Kent & Bliss, dry goods. Those prominent in other business have been : John Carman, foundryman and dealer in hardware; James Mackinson, manufacturer of furniture, dealer and undertaking ; Russell Pratt, coopering; Mark C. Arnout, tanner; Andrew and Philip Seebich, wagon-makers and blacksmiths; Henry and Adam Essenwine, blacksmithing and carriage ironing; Elkanah Smith. harness-making and saddlery; Miles Carter, confectionery.

The Towanda Bridge. By an act of the Legislature, March 24, 1831, the Governor was authorized to incorporate a company for erecting a bridge over the Susquehanna at Towanda. An appropriation was made, and the balance of the money necessary to complete the bridge was raised by individual subscriptions as stock. Johh -Bottom, a practical bridge builder, contracted for the job, and performed the work on the same in 1832, the structure consisting of three spans. A new appropriation was made by the State, and in 1837-38 the original bridge was taken down, the piers raised, the bridge extended on the east side one span, and a towing-path added. Bottom & Scott were the contractors.

October 24, 1849, the east span of the bridge was burned, and immediately rebuilt. Again, in 1854, the same span was destroyed by fire. The river having cut around the east end of the bridge, it was again raised seven feet in 1854-55, C. M. Mercur and Th omas Elliott being the contractors. Toll was taken until September 16, 1879 since which time the bridge has been free. The county wishing to purchase the bridge. viewers were appointed, who, in their report, which was confirmed by the court, estimated the property worth $20,000. The price was not satisfactory to the stockholders, and litigation over the matter is still pending. The spans of the bridge average 225 feet each, making the length 900 feet, the roof projecting ten feet farther.

The first borough officers were elected March 20, 1829: Burgess, Hiram Mix; high constable, William Kelley ; council, J. D. Goodenough, Warren Brown, Warren Jenkins, John N. Weston, Stephen Haytt. The burgesses from 1830 to 1891 have been David F. Barstow, Samuel Huston, D. F. Barstow, Burton Kingsbury, E. S. Goodrich, Simon Kinney, D. F. Barstow, Silas Noble, W. 13. Storm (three terms), Sam- uel Huston, Geo. A. -Mix, Ira 11. Stephens, E. D. Montanye, D. F. Barstow, Adonijah Moody., David AL bull (two terms), Hiram Mix, William Elwell, W. A. Chamberlin, William Elwell ( ' three terms), N. N. Betts, U. Mercur (three terms), William Elwell (two terms), C. L. Ward, B. F. Powell, James McCabe, C. S. Russell (six terms), Alex. Diven, 1. B. Humphre ' y, A. G. Mason, Jas. Bryant (two terms), Jas. McCabe, E. T. Fox, N. N. Betts (two terms), W. 11. Dodge W. H. Jones, W. G. Alger (two terms), J. J. Spalding, F. J. Krom, C. B. Porter, Edward Frost, Isaiah McPherson, Edward Frost, W. Maxwell, C. P. Welles, I. B. Humphrey.

The present officers are. Burgess, 1. B. Humphrey Secretary, Jos. Kingsbury; treasurer, W. 11. Dodge; council, Calvin Cranska, Edward Frost, 1. 11. Humphrey, John McGovern, William Maxwell, John Rahm, W. H. Smith, Geo. Decker, C. P. Welles. Chief of Police, Daniel Wilcox.

Towanda Fire Department.-Until 1837 there was no protection from fire in the borough. But in that year, a bucket brigade was organized and 100 buckets were purchased with the necessary hooks and ladders. The first engine of the village was a " rotary" Named the "Alley," this was used until 1849 when it was declared useless and thrown into the river. "Franklin, No. I," was organized April 11, 1854, and had an engine. In 186S they purchased a steam fire eno-ine which they still use. " INalad Engine and Hose Company, No. 2," was instituted April 24, 1855 reorganized April 15, 1870, and incorporated July 8, 1881. " Lin-ta Steam Fire Company, No. 3," was instituted September 28, 18.57. and incorporated in 1871. The company owns a, handsome three-story brick engine house on Poplar street, which, together with hose carriage, is worth $8,000. The Members of this company being elderly men, they allowed a few young men to have charge of it; so it was reorganized in 1887, and in 1890 they purchased an elegant new hose-cart, the old one proving too heavy. Mantua Hook and Ladder Company, No. 4," was organized in March, 1871, and reorganized in 1884. The company have rooms in the Lin-ta engine-house.

From 1853 to 1873 the total number of fires was sixty-three, and the total number of buildings destroyed, 156; from August, 1873, to April, 1886, the number of buildings burned in rowanda was eightyone. The most disastrous fire the town ever had was March 12, 1847.

Towanda Gas Company was organized in 1870, and is a stock company. It has ten miles of laid pipe. The officers are: Henry Streeter, president and treasurer; N. N. Betts, secretary. The capital stock is $45,000

Die Towanda Electric -Light Company was organized in February, 1890, and electricit was first run through the wires April 1. Same year. There are thirty-six are lights on the streets, and 500 incandescent lamps in operation in stores and houses. The dynamos have a capacity of running sixty are lights. Has two 11 Rice " engines, each of 105 horsepower; runs three dynamos which are independent of each other. The officers are: Stanley Little, president; Charles Welles, secretary.

The Towanda Water Works were chartered in 1879. In 1879-SO the iron pipe was laid from Patton's run to Towanda, receiving the water in a reservoir from. which it is distributed throughout the town, as far back as Mechanic street, by distributing pipes. Fifty hydrants were placed at proper points. to protect the entire borough in case of fires. The water Supply from Patton's run not being sufficient for the whole year, a pumping station was put in in 1881, which forces the water from the Susquehanna to the receiving reservoir at the rate of 1,200 gallons per minute. E. T. Fox was president of the company, and C. S. Scannell, superintendent.

New water works are being rapidly built for Towanda, and this will prove one of the most important of the modern additions to the borough. The water then will come through ten-inch iron pipes a distance of sixteen miles. The Eilenberger springs, which will supply the water, gush out from under a small mountain. The spring never rises or falls winter or summer, and is a very pure crystal, soft water, said to be the best in the country. It flows a steady stream of 750,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, at least enough to supply a town with several times the population of Towanda. The water is so pure that it will not even rust t n, and the section of country is free from all drainage. The spring is located in Albany, a short distance from Laddsburg. J. J. Griffiths is superintendent. The cost of these, the finest water privileges in northern Pennsylvania, it is estimated when completed will reach nearly $200,000. Officers: J. J. Griffiths, Pres. and Supt.; N. N. Betts, Treas.; F. E. Beers, See.

The Towanda Bank.-This was established in 1834-35, the officers being Thomas Elliott, president; William B. Storm, cashier; directors, Joseph Kingsbury, Edward Overton, Hiram Mix, H. S. Mercur, L. S. Ellsworth, Judge Harry Mor gan. The bank at one time, it is said, was able to command over $700,000. In 1837 Mr. Elliott resigned, and Joseph Kingsbury became president. The bank failed in 1843. C. L. Ward and Thomas Dyer were the last president and cashier.

In 1850, Hon. John Laporte, Col. G. F . Mason and B. S. Russell began a private banking business under the firm name of Laporte, Mason & Co. Mr. Russell sold out his interest about 18.59, and the business was continued under the firm name of Laporte, Mason & Co. About the year 1860 Mr. Russell and J. K. Vallance began banking under the firm name of B. S. Russell & Co., and in IS63 increased their business by buying out Laporte & Mason. After Air. Vallance's death the "company, " was at different times R. S. Mercur, Ulysses Mercur and M. C. Mercur, who in 1865 succeeded to the sole proprietorship of the business, which he continued till 1873, when meeting with a loss of $1,050,000, closed his bank, after his depositors had drawn out their moneys. In 1866 G. F. Mason & Co. be-an doing a private banking business, which was continued until 1871 when the firm failed.

The First National -Rank of Towanda. -Th is bank was chartered July 19, 1863, with a capital of $100,000, which in 1865 was increased to $125,000. The officers were : Gordon 11'. Mason, president; N. N. Betts, cashier; directors, Joseph Powell, C. S. Russell, 0. D. Bartlett, E. 11. Smith, Geo. Stevens, E. W. Hale, At. E. Solomon and J. 0. Frost. On Jan. 13, 1865, Mr. Mason was succeeded by E. 11. Smith as president, who in turn was followed by Joseph Powell, who assumed the duties of that office January 13, 1870. Mr. C. L. Tracy succeeded Mr. Powell as president, and has held that office ever since. The new bank, erected in 1874, occupies the site of the old banking-house on Alain street. The capital stock of the First National Bank is $125,000; surplus and undivided profits, $126,064.39; circulation, $28,125; deposits $761,451.08. The present board of directors are : Chas. L. Tracy, R. A. Mercur, Henry Streeter. Officers: ("has. L. Tracy, president; N. N. Betts, cashier.

The National Bank of Towanda. -This institution was chartered J une 29, 1876, and was organized with the following officers and directors; J. P. Kirby, president ; Geo. A. Guernsey, cashier N. C. Elsbree, M. 11. Laning, J. 1'. Kirby, J. F. Means, P. D. Morrow, B. AL Peck, Henry Streeter, J. L. Kent, M. 13. Wright, N. L. Lenheim, 1'. It. Ackley, directors. J. P. Kirby was succeeded by E. T. Fox as president, Dec. 18. 1876, and Mr. Guernsey by G. W. Buck, as cashier, Oct. 3, 1880. The Citizens National Bank was formerly in the Mercur block, but now occupies a building of its own situated on the corner of Alain and Bridge streets. The capital stock of the Citizens' National Bank is $150,000 ; surplus and undivided profits, $58,244.20 ; circulation, $45,000; deposits, $460,481.27. The present officers are : E. 0. Macfarlane, president ; J. K. Newell, cashier; directors, E. 0. Macfarlane, W. Dettrich and S. W. Little.

The Towanda Library. -This is the result of a young ladies' musical society, which collected a few books for their own use, and afterward decided to benefit the town by starting a public library. The library has grown from a few hundred volumes to nearly six thousand. It was established during the winter of I 879-80.

Humphrey Bros. & -Tracy, Moe Factory. -First occupied a small building-near where the new one now stands. In 1882, they commenced building the one they now occupy. It is a three-story brick building, and has all the modern improvements. The firm employ about 125 hands, and turn out over 2,000 pairs of shoes weekly. The proprietors are I. B. Humphrey, Chas. Humphrey and Chas. L. Tracy.

Dayton's Steam Gristmill is one of the most important in 'the county. It was first built in 1870 by G. F. Mason & Co.; he failed, and it was purchased by G. A. Dayton. It is situated on South Alain street ; has three run of stone and seventeen rolls, and a daily capacity of 250 bushels of buckwheat, which is its chief output about six months in the year; from sixteen to twenty hands are employed.

Hale's -Planing Mill is situated on South Alain street. It was completed in building in 1888, and makes doors, sash, blinds and general mill work ; has six saws, three planers and n inety-three horsepower engine main building 60x128; boiler, engine and dry houses; employs about twent -three men. It is the largest industry of the kind in the county. First started by L. B. Rodgers, was burned and he rebuilt in 1882, and run it until 1887, when it was burned again. Proprietors are E. W. and B. T. Hale.

Humphrey Manufacturing Company. -Building erected in 1888. The firm was composed of J. 1). Humphrey, C. D. Humphrey, E. Overton and J. 0. Blight. Twenty-five horsepower engine, twenty employes; make sawmill machinery, coal breakers, etc.

Nail Works. - Proprietor, W. H. Godcharles; superintendent, Simon Kendall. Originally it was the Towanda Iron and Nail Works; founded in 1870 by a joint-stock company. Col. J. F. Meanspresi-dent; H. L. Scott, secretary and treasurer. First cost of plant, $100,000. These parties ran it three years; it was then idle until 1879, when it was leased to R. A. Bostley three y years, and at expira- tion of lease they purchased the property and ran it until February 1, 1888. These three companies, combined, came into the ownership, and at once they turned it over to R. A. Bostley and W. H. Godcharles, and, since the death of Mr. Bostley, it has been in possession of Mr. Godcharles. February 4, 1891, it was destroyed by fire, being a total loss, on which, however, was a large insurance. Immediate steps to rebuild were taken, an(] the work was pushed to completion in the early part of August following when it was enlarged and greatly improved and in full operation, with a capacity of about 10,000 kegs of nails per month; employs about one hundred and fifty men.

Towanda Foundry Company. -Was first started about 1875 by John Carman; from him it passed to Col. John F. Means, who after- ward assoc ated in the concern his son ; they ran it until 1881, when it became as now named, the company being Edward Frost, L. R. Frost and Al. A. Rockwell. It has 1.50 1 horse -power engine four lathes, two planes, two drills, etc., foundry and machine shop combined. Output is saw-lath mills, and shingle 'mills, gangedgers, etc. lion and brass output about 20,000 pounds annualy employs twelve hands.

Frost's Factory. -This is on Pine and River streets ; uses the same power as the foundry. It was established in 187 ton Charles street, burned in 1,881, and rebuilt where it stands; employs ninety to one hundred men. Firm owns two sawmills, one in Sullivan county, at Lake Reese, the other at South Branch. in th is county ; latter built. i n 1880, a steam mill, capacity 20,000 feet per day sawing only for themselves. Their stock is exclusively wholesale.

oy Factory. -Originated thirty years ago in Newark. N. J., and then moved to Monroeton, this county, and --round broke for present p ]ant in July, 1887. Has two hundred operatives ; output about $150.000 annually. Building three stories, including the main, the ware-house, paint and boiler house; 250 horse-power engine. It is joint-stock company, and the following are the officers: President and superintendent, William E. Hawes; treasurer, N. N. Betts

secretary, John W. Mix; directors, J. 0. Blight. Charles L. Tracy, E. 0. Macfarlane, C. 13. Porter, E. W. Hale and R. A. Mercur.

In the borough are the following business concerns: One agricultural implements, four banks, four bakeries, seven barbers, three billiard parlors, eight blacksmiths, four boarding houses, one book-binder, three books and stationery, seven boot and shoe dealers, seven boot and shoe makers, one boot and shoe manufacturer, two bottling works, one brick manufacturer, one brewery, two butter and egg dealers, one carpet-cleaning company, four carpet dealers, two carriage dealers, four carriage and wagon manufacturers, six carpenters and builders, one Chicago dressed beef business, three cigar manufacturers, six clothiers, one coach maker, seven coal dealers, twelve confectioneries, two coopers, three crockery and glassware, three dentists, three draymen, twenty dressmakers, four druggists, ten dry-goods stores, one express agent, two dealers in flagging and building stone, two flouring mills, one florist, two foundries and machine shops, three furniture dealers, one furniture manufacturer, one gas company, six gents' furnishing stores, twenty grocers, two gunsmiths, one dealer in hair g ods, four hardware merchants, two harness manufacturers, six dealers in hats and caps, two hay and straw dealers, two dealers in hides and pelts, one horse improvement company, two ice dealers, six insurance agents, five Jewelers, four job printers, one junk dealer, forty lawyers, two laundries, one dealer in leather and findings one library, three liquor dealers, five livery and boarding, stables, seven lumber dealers, four masons, five meat markets, four merchant tailors, seven millinery establishments, four dealers in music and musical instruments, five music teachers, six dealers in paints and oils, three painters, two pawnbrokers, three photographers, twelve physicians, three planing mills, three plumbers and gas-fitters, one produce dealer, two real estate agents, five restaurants, two dealers in sewing machines, two surveyors, four dealers in trunks and valises, two undertakers, two veterinary surgeons, two dealers in wall paper, one wood dealer, four upholsterers, one tea company, one toy manufacturer, one telegraph company, One telephone company.

Hotels. -American House, Aurora House, Barrett's Hotel, Bolan's Hotel, Bradford House, Elwell House, Griffin's Hotel, Hotel Ochs, Junction House Seeley's Hotel, Tidd's Hotel, Walbridge Hotel. Ward House.

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