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These articles about the early Teachers' Institutes and Common Schools give us insight into early educational practices. They are part of research I am compiling to write about Teaching the Teachers before colleges were available for their education. Joyce M.Tice
Tioga County School Articles 1839 - 1849
Continued From Teachers' Institutes 1855-1859 Tioga County Teachers Institutes 1860
Tioga County School Articles 1861 - 1869 Tioga County School Articles 1870 -

Tioga Eagle – April 10, 1861
Proceedings Of the Tioga County Teachers' Institute.
Tioga, Pa., April 8, 1861.

There were but a few members present at the appointed time; but a sufficient number to organize.  The President, Mr. A. R. Wightman, principle of the Osceola High School, had not yet arrived; and for the purpose of organization, Sup't. Johns called the meeting to order, and suggested the propriety of electing a Recording Secretary, as it would be impossible, under the circumstances, for him [Johns] to discharge the duties of that office.  Jno. I. Mitchell was chosen to fill the vacancy thus arising.  Prof. Bates, deputy State Sup't. and Sup't. Lewis of Potter County, were in attendance.  The following were appointed a Committee on Order of Business:  Prof. Bates, Misses Mann and Prutsman, Prof. Lewis. – Prof. Bates made a few quite pertinent remards, and by his suggestion, the following hours were appointed for the regular meetings of the Institute, viz. 8 A. M., 1 ½ and 7 P. M. S. E. Kirkendall, Esq., was chosen President pro tempore. A committee on music was appointed.  Mr. Wm. Humphrey and Miss S. M. Sayre were constituted a committee "to procure the names, and give seals to all who attend the Institute."  Adjourned to meet at 1 ½ P. M.

Tuesday Afternoon. – Prof. Wightman arrived and took his seat.  But a few teachers were in their seats at the appointed hour.  Mr. Bates urged the importance of strict punctuality.  Teachers should come provided with pencil and note book, in which to enter all important points and principles discussed and established by the Institute.  This he considered one very important item in conducting such meetings.

Mental Arithmetic was treated of by Prof. Wightman "It is ???? to make it strictly a mental experience."  He recommended the following  ??? as the best adopted "to wake up the ?????:"  The teacher reads the example once distinctly, and alls upon some member of the class to solve it; and if that pupil fail, upon some other member, without repeating the question.  The operation of performing the example is divided into three parts.  The statement, the solution, and the conclusion.  The following question will exemplify the plan:  "What will 7 lbs sugar ,at 10 cts. pr. pound, cost?"  The statement is simply repeating the question, as read by the master.  the solution is this:  "If one lb. of sugar cost 10 cts., 7 lbs. will cost 7 times as much, which are 70 cts.; therefore (the conclusion) 7 lbs. sugar at 10 cts. pr. pound, cost 70 cts."  Some teachers think that the numbers should be considered abstract, but this Institute believed that the denominations should be retained through the entire operation.

Mr. Bates thought that many scholars would fail to catch the question, though paying strict attention; and that, in such cases, the teacher should lead the pupil to an understanding of the question when possible, by representations upon the black board.  It was thought inexpedient by some, to go thought the routine of statement, solution, and conclusion; but the first, and former were deemed essential to good mental training; while the whole plan was rightly recommended for advanced classes.

Geography, by Prof. Bates:  "Children should be taught orally."  They should be provided with slate and pencil, in order "to develop the genius for drawing."  "We had rather send a child to school with a slate and pencil, than a primer or ??? reader."  "It is a child's nature to be on the move – then cultivate that nature."  The teacher should ? present the simple things he sees about him, upon the board, and require his pupils to draw from his representation, upon their slates.  "He would begin by teaching them to draw the road before the school house – then the yard – the tree, the spring or well – the little hill or turn in the road, &c., at length, he would represent the road leading far into the country – the distant mountains and the river, and teach the name with the representation."  "These are the rudiments of Geography."  "He would then put a primary Geography into their hands, and give them the divisions of land and water."  "The basis of studying Geography should be drawing."  It was thought bad policy to insert the initial and final letters in the names of towns &c., in Geography.  Mr. Lewis said it was his misfortune to study Geography with the top of the map south:  ???? south was north to him.  It was important always to have the top of the map toward the north.  About 2 o'clock, Prof. Sanders, of New York, unexpectedly arrived, over the hills from Elmira.  By this time the ranks of the teachers were well filled, and the Institute put on the appearance of a profitable session.  There was a recess of 15 minutes.

Prof. Sanders makes some remarks.  He was laboring under the effects of a bad cold, but "he wished to talk about one of the bagged subjects; though we might consider it one of the simplest, viz:  Those 26 character, their powers and uses."  Letters are the foundation of all science.  "Great fault is found with those consonants:  I apprehend the fault lies with the vowels."  there are properly five vowels; for W was originally two V's, and has the sound of U. while Y has the sounds of I.  "I is sometimes a consonant, and then has the sound heard in its name."  "I is always a vowel following an accented syllable."  "I is always a consonant after Q:  and your never fine Q without U."

The President and Secretary were empowered to reject all improper questions, inspired upon the Institute through the Item Box.  The following were appointed Critics:  Prof. Lewis, Misses Sayre and Prutsman.  Messrs. T. E. DePui and Wm. Humphrey were appointed to secure the Methodist Church for the evening.

Adjourned to meet at the Church at 7 o'clock.

Tuesday Evening. – The President called the house to order, the roll was called, and names responded to by sentiments.  Prof. Bates was introduced to the audience, and made some excellent remarks, which of course we will not attempt to report in full.  "The Teachers' Institute is not exclusively for the teacher; but also for the benefit of the people."  "If a mechanic be employed, he has the support and attention of his employer; especially should the Teacher have sympathy and support of the people."  "He is to cultivate and fashion mind."  "The first requisite to the teacher, is the ability to ably execute his office."  "He must understand what he is to teach; but all scholars do not make good teachers."  "In addition to understanding, he must have the ability to make others understand, as he does."  "That teacher will succeed the best, who possesses the best ability to please and interest the scholar."  "The pupil will learn most readily when he receives the idea through more than one of the senses."  We define a circle by saying it is a curved line, everywhere equally distant from a point within, called the centre.  But how much better to explain by example, that he may see, as well as hear what the object or thing defined, is.  "Now he can repeat the definition – he has th idea in his mind."  "How was it impressed upon him?"  "He has the language by the ear and the eye."  "The successful Teacher is constantly studying out expedients by which he can best explain and illustrate the branch he is teaching."  "The Institute as where we are engaged to learn how to present knowledge in the best form."  "Institutes give a knowledge of the art, in addition to the science."  "There is one thing in which I believe school teachers are deficient:  they ???? general information."  How many teachers make scholars learn fast, but have no faculty to please the people, "because they have no general information; and from the want of this, all their knowledge – all their ability to teach is at a very low discount."  A teacher was asked where Villa France is; but was unable to answer.  "It is a small town; but one of the great events of the times transpired there."  The emperors of France and Austria once met there and formed a treaty which will affect the states of Europe to all future time.  "It is a shame for a teacher not to be acquainted with such important events."  "Read the papers."  No; that is impossible – Geography, Grammar &c, take all the time.  "Too many go through the world with a Grammar on the left, a Dictionary on the right, spelling book in front, and a Geography behind."  "Our newspapers are the history of the times."  "We should read the reference to three things:  the when, the where, and the what."  We remember by the ????."  "Two pages read as I have described are worth ????? read without regard to these leading things."  "You not only want the ability to appear well in society; but in order to successfully teach the branches under your charge."  The ????? need the co-operation of the people.  "If you are interested in the welfare of your children, you should necessarily visit the school."  Parents ??? an anxiety – feel anxiety to see their children well taught.  Therefore, teachers, be faithful – be careful of your conduct, for example teaches even as your words."

Prof. Sanders made some remarks on Reading: and to the great amusement of the audience, read a selection from his Sp??er entitled "Reading an end."  "He astonished the ??????."

Adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock for an informal session, till the regular hour.

Wednesday Morning. – The hour was consumed by discussion of the best to that of teaching spelling.  It was generally agreed that it should be taught in writing a ??? as practicable.  "The eye is the organ which should be ????."  The plan suggested was the same, neatly, with that reported them the Institute las fall, as recommended by Prof. Reynolds.

Penmanship, by Prof. Johns:  "It should be taught scientifically; and at stated hours, the same as other branches.  Teachers might not to put beginners upon copies of words at first, but should begin with the elements, the same as in other ?????.  The teacher should also take charge of the ???? and see that they are kept neat in every particular.  The position of the ???? should be ???? and ????, but little difference which side to the desk.  The paper should be square before the right hand on whichever position the writer sits.  This is a very important particular."  The position of the pen was explained; but cannot as well be defined here.

Prof. Sanders provided the teachers with glee books, and introduced the plan of singing at the opening of each session, singing "Bright Busy Morn."

Elocution, by Prof. Sanders:  "The teacher can take care of the big things; but it is the little things which make the science, and these are to apt to be ????  do not allow your pupils to ???? beyond their comprehension.  Do not read too fast – about as fast as the person naturally talks.  Pitch upon the same boy upon the same subject.  To ????? this object, reading in concert is an excellent plan."  While speaking of the ??illing sound ??? he remarked:  "It takes some time to initiate that ?? heard out i the middle the other day.  This sound of ? is indispensable to good Elocution."  Recess.

Singing and accompaniment upon the Melodian by Misses Harriston and Prof. Mults.

Written Arithmetic, by Prof. Wightman.  Children should understand Mental, before understanding Written Arithmetic.  It was thought best  ???? by topics.

Prof. Sanders said he thought it an excellent plan to give large ?????by the class and require the ???? as a test in conversation.  It certainly cultivates and expeditious habit of operating upon numbers.

Adjourned to 1 ½ P.M.

Wednesday Afternoon. – Singing by the congregation  - "Oh come, come away."

Mr. Lewis made some remarks on professional reading.  He recommends the School Journal.  Every teacher should read it.

Mr. Bates remarks:  "The lawyer, doctor, the minister have to go through a thorough course of professional reading.  ??? teaching because a profession can you become a good and efficient readers, while you are ignorant of the theory and poetry of teaching?"  He also recommends the School Journal.  Every board of School directors is entitled to a copy, and should avail itself of the opportunity of getting the information so much needed in all parts of the country.  Mr. Kirkendall thinks whispering is not inconsistent with good order in school, "Too much government in school is bag government."  Prof. Wildman of Mansfield did not concur in what had been said.  It was his opinion that whispering should be suppressed when it is possible.

Recess.  Music.

School Government, by Prof. Wildman.  "I find it a very difficult and intricate task to govern well.  The Chemist studies the nature of the substance with which he has to do, in order to combine them to produce a given result.  The teacher has some 40 or more different disposition to study, to strike a balance, and label each according to his or her nature.  I would not go into a school with a code of laws; for the dignity of the teacher depends upon their execution."  He once went into a school and after making a little speech, he asked them which of the forms of government they would have.  They were for a Republican government.  In the same way, by common consent, they agreed to a set of regulation.  Then they must have an executive; he was good enough for that, they thought, so they appointed him chief executive.  "Do not always be schooling – do not stand up like a tyrant, but convince them that you are laboring for their benefit."


Grammar, by Prof. Bates:  "In giving instruction in this branch, we should know what is the object, what the end.  The object of studying English Grammar is to speak, to write; in short, to think the English language – that language which has plundered from every foreign store – that language which cannot be surpassed.  To know the parts of speech – to parse "Paradise Lost." – is that the end?  Does that teach you to write, to speak, to think the English language?  How should Grammar be studied?  What fruit does it yield?  The learned letters is not object.  The object is to see the meaning, to se thought in the English language – in speech.  To make the speci???? is only the means to the end.  If we can get at the idea, that is the object.  If you can only discover the true meaning, it makes no difference what Grammar you study.  You see not only teach now to parse, but how to put words together - ??thesis, and analysis.  What is the object of studying language?  Is it to be able to teach?  No such mean object; does he study Latin and Greek, it is to understand his own language.  It is getting ???? in language – taking sentences apart, and putting them together."  Remarks were also made by other gentlemen.  Reports of Critics.

Adjourned to 7 ½ o'clock at the Methodist Church.

Wednesday Evening. – Music by the Choir. – Address by Prof. Sanders, on Education. – "Treat your pupils with respect:  for ?? ???? in the ???? spot is last [remainder of paragraph is unclear.]

So may you think of the children who gather around the altar of your instruction!  There may be among them some of Nature's noblemen – men who shall yet shape kingdoms.  Benjamin Franklin was once a poor boy, walking the streets of Philadelphia with a loaf of bread under his arm.  Of him it was said that "he was fit to stand before kings; and he himself declared that he had stood before a king and dined with him.  ?? get Sherman was an apprenticed ?????? boy different remarked that "he ?????? a ????? thing in his life."  Patrick ???? my ??? the tongue of the eloquent, he was ????? – not poring over his books, but studying ????.  Respect your pupils, and teach them to respect you.  The teacher should not only desire the ????, but should love the work.  I believe vocal music to be of great service in governing a school.  You ?ill had not use for the ??? except to keep time.  Music, ???? its nature, is calculated to produce harmony.  It will be said it is not practical – the teacher can't sing; then teach to sing.  The child can't read without hearing.  All can sing; and if they do not sing to morality, they will sing to immorality.  Webster said, "Let me make the ????? of a nation, and I care not who make the laws."  Some of your pupils say, "I can't get this lesson; le the whole school strike in all sing.

"[words of the song are unclear.]"

and I'll warrant there will be no more complaint.  ??? ????.  There is nothing a child can learn of more important than punctuality in time and place.  this should also be taught by example.  ???? ???? ??? ???.  it is the  ?????? of the teacher to guide the minds of youth, and not to pour in, as into a vessel. – Genius can never match it.  The f??? of  ??? to distinguish him from the best of the field.  We live in a world of beauty; the beast may graze upon the plant, and have no thought but for its nourishment.  Education constitutes the difference between ???? and the savage.  It will take all of time and eternity to estimate the good that you may do.  I ask you to assist in pulling back the tide of ignorance, and let in the light of science.  Forgotten are the millions who have lived and died; but this shall remain long after the temples of earth are demolished.

Music by the Tioga B??? Band.

Prov. Bres was introduced and presented a lecture on the subject of virtue.  The lecture was good, and should be presented in full to be appreciated.

Music by the Band and Choir.

Prof. Sanders again read extracts:  "Is it a ????y's business if a lady has a beau," and "The Frenchman and the rats."

Adjourned.  "???" by the Band.

Thursday Morning.  Roll called and responses made in Scripture texts.  Music – "I want to be and angel," &c.

Prayer by Prof. Sanders.

Penmanship, by Prof. Johns.  He would ????? his pupils upon the rudiments of writing till they secure good habits of sitting, holding paper and pen, and would not be so particular how thy write until they form such habits.  He made many other useful remarks, which it is, perhaps, not necessary to insert here.

Elocution by Prof. Sanders.  "It is very proper to talk much of Articulation.  Many read with the head down too much.  Practice upon the difficult words, singly, till a good pronunciation is required, and then in concert. – "The," before a a consonant, is pronounced th; but before a vowel, thee.  The vowel makes the word."  He dwelt much upon the sound of the vowels – they give tone and meaning to words.


Music – "There's not a tine that paints the rose," &c. The music in every case gave a better, more cheerful tone to the exercises.

Grammar, by Prof. Wildman.  He answered several questions referred to him, as having charge of the subject to which they belong.


Thursday Afternoon. – Roll called.  Prof. J. B. Hults, on Ratio and Proportion.  He treated the subject in a very systematic manner; but it would be uncalled for to repeat it here.

Orthography, by Prof. Sanders.  He spoke of the arrangement of words as synonyms. – They should be studied, for the variety they give to language.  He dwelt upon the importance of and Analysis of the English language.  A few pages of rules for spelling give the key to the orthography of over 30,000 words.


Music.  A lecture by Prof. Allen, of Wellsboro.  Subject – "Symmetrical Culture."  He clearly showed the importance of educating the faculties in due proportion.

It had previously been given out that Prof. Sanders would lecture to the children of the place at 4 o'clock in the afternoon.  The Institute adjourned to the church for that purpose.  "I came especially to talk to you children. – Do you know that this Institute is yours?  These churches, the school house and all, built for you?  And while they are doing so much for you, I want you to do something for yourselves.  I have been so wicked as to wish to be a boy in your time, because they are doing so much for the children of the country.  When I was about seven years old, I was at school one day, when the teacher pronounced the word Egg-pit (as he called it), to the class.  The whole class missed it down to me, and I was sure I could spell it, for I knew all th words in Webster's Spelling Book.  But I missed it, too.  So said I, 'Master, how do you spell egg-pit?' – E-g-y-p-t,' said he; so had pronounced egg-pit for Egypt.  That was the kind of teachers we had when I was a boy."  The lecture abounded in interesting figures which pleased the children, and from which all could earn many a good moral.  The house was quite full.  The audience maintained unusual silence, and seemed to act their part better as children than in any other ??????.  If all teachers could thus enlist the feelings and engage the attention, how different would be the next generation!

Singing – "I want to be an angel."

There was to be a meeting at the Methodist Church in the evening and by the timely offer of Rev. Mr. McCullough, the Institute was granted the use of the Presbyterian Church.

Adjourned to 7 ½ o'clock.

Thursday Evening.   Prof. Sanders made some remarks on "The Objects and Aims of a Teachers' Institute."  It is not intended for a pristine and amusement.  This is the farthest from the truth.  It is not a place for teachers to dictate the amount of wages they shall receive.  Like water, we shall find our own level.  Prepare yourself and you shall receive the wages due your profession and standing." – These remarks were preparatory.  His theme for the evening was "Thoroughness in Teaching."  The lecture was highly applauded, and came fully up the to occasion.  It would be mangling it and doing the lecturer injustice to attempt a report: for it would necessarily be translated in "bad English," from the imperfect sketch which I was able to take of any of the remarks.  However, I have reported the substance of the ?????????? matter submitted to the Institute the best I can.

After the lecture, the reports of Critics were received, and some reading by Prof. Sanders.

The following were appointed a Committee on a uniform series of text hooks, viz:  Wildman, Kirkendall, Mitchell, Misses Pitts and S. M. Sayre.  The following were appointed a Committee on Nominations, viz.:  Messrs. Soper, Leonard, Tubbs; Misses Sharp and Mann.  The following were appointed a Committee on Resolutions, viz.:  Mitchell, Kerkendall and Miss Lucinda Pitts.  The following Committee on Finance, viz: Messrs. Johns, Seucder and Humphrey.

Adjourned to meet at the school house at 8 ½ o'clock, A. M. next day.

Friday Morning. – Music.  Prayer.

Messrs. Tubbs, Soper, and Miss Mary Pitts were appointed Critics. The house then proceeded to elect and confirm members of the Council as follows:

Charleston – F. B. Wylie.
Delmar – Mr. Lewis Rodine.
Deerfield – Mr. Philip Varzile.
Farmington – M. Levi Rioh.
Jackson – Mr. Charles Searles.
Lawrenceville – Mrs. Julia M. Ruff.
Liberty – Mr. M. C. Vail.
Middlebury – G. P. Scuher.
Mansfield – Miss Lucinda Pitts.
Mainsbury – Mr. H. C. Johns.
Osceola – Mr. Charles Tubbs.
Richmond – Miss Mary Pitts.
Rutland – Miss Amanda Simpson.
Sullivan – Miss Julia Robins.
Tioga – Miss Esther Mitchell.
Tioga Boro. – Miss S. M. Sayre.

The above were all the townships and boro's represented at the time the Committee was chosen.  The following was the report of the nominating committee which was adopted without amendment:

President – Prof. E. Wildman.
Vice Presidents – Messrs. C. Tubbs, U. P. Stebbins; Misses H. A. Mann, Sophia Briggs and H. M. Prutsman.
Corresponding Sec'y – H. C. Johns.
Recording Sec'y – A. R. Wightman.
Treasurer – Miss Lucinda Pitts.

The following is the report of the Committee on a uniform series of text books, as presented by the Chairman, Mr. Wightman, viz:

Whereas, we, as teachers, have learned by most troublesome experience that there is a great want of uniformity in the text-books used in our schools; and whereas, we are thoroughly convinced that such want greatly retards the progress of the pupils, in that it entirely prohibits that classification that experience has proved so beneficial to the best interests of the school; therefore

Resolved, That we, the teachers of Tioga County, recommend to the directors of the several townships the following text-books for these considerations and adopts a ??? Readers Sanders' New Series, Spellers Sanders New Arithmetic Stoddard's Series and Schuyler's Higher Geography.  Mitchells Analysis, Sanders' Grammar, Kenyon's Penmanship, Spencerman System.

Resolved, That we deem immediate action on the part of teachers and directors ????? this uniformity all important to the best outer sets of the schools.

The report was received and the following amendment offered.

"That "Stoddard's Series and Schuyler's Higher be stricken out, and Davis Series New," inserted.

An amendment to the amendment was lost upon the question of inserting General ??? instead of Davies.  The amendment was then adopted and the Report, as amended.

Prof. Johns was invited to lecture for the evening but declined, as he thought it best to get all we could out of Prof. Sanders.

Phonetics and Orthography were taken up by Mr. Sanders.  In teaching ??? he thought it a bad plan to being phonetically – They should be instructed in the meaning of words as soon as they are able to spell.  In spell, the syllable should be ?? ???? to pronounced as you ??? and much attention paid to proper syllabation since the meaning of words is then preserved.  This will make accurate spelling.  He recommended an old fashioned spelling school bee.  Small children must ???? ???? ??? of their comprehension. They must stop the subject – get the ??? ??? ????  ??? it the thought in the ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? dwell on the ?????.

Misses Pitts and Sayre and Mr. Mitchell were ??? ??? ??? [remainder of paragraph is unclear].

Adjourned to 1 ½ P. M.

Friday Afternoon.  [entire paragraph is unclear]

Mr. Wildman offered the following resolution:

Resolved, That no person shall ???? as a teacher of a ????? text ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? the bible to ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??

R. R. Soper ??? ?? ??? the word resolved be stricken out ??? ??? ?? ?? amended and passed as follows:

?????? ???? ??? ??? cultivate good moral ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? regard to the religious opinion of others.

Recess.  Music.

After recess Prof. Sanders had the floor and gave much useful instruction ??? on Orthography.

Adjourned to the Presbyterian Church at 7 ½ o'clock.

Friday Evening – Prof. Johns on the ????.  The following is the Report of the Institution Resolution ?? ??? ??? ??? Jno. I. Mitchell and ?? ??? ???? ?led by the Institute.

Resolved, That we ???? ??? ??? estimation the ??/ ??? ??? ??? from Prof. Sanders that ??? we have had ????? ???? ??? to ?? ??? ?? have [remainder of paragraph is unclear]

Resolved, That we ???? Prof. Bates much regard and great ???? fruits of his successful ??? ??? ?? that in him our State has ??? ??? ??? fort ??? ??? ??? ???

Resolved, That we express ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? all citizens and other not something by ?? ??? ?? our own cause ??? ??? ??? ??? That we thank the citizens of Tioga and the kind hospitality they have ??? ??? ?? the Directors of the Church ?? ??? ??? ??? for the uses which they have served ??? ??? ?? Institute.  We also thank Prof. H?????? report he has given us.

Resolved, That we ???? the highest respect to the Tioga ??? ??? ?? ?with which they have ?? ??? ??? ?? was ordered ??? ?? ??? ??? resumes of Prof. Sanders and ?? ?? ??  Recording Secretary ?? ??? ??? of the Institute of the County ????

Prof. Sanders addresses the Institute in a ???? ??? ??? Rev. Mr. McCollough makes some ?????? remarks to the Institute.  ??? ??? ??? ?? of Bradford.  Prof. Sanders reads more extracts to the great amusement of the audience.  Wellsboro is determined as the place of holding the next session.

Adjourned to meet as above, at the call of the County Sup't.

There were seventy seven members in attendance.  The weather was very ??? down to Friday evening and all things passed off in harmony with the wants of the occasion.  The most of the instruction imparted was given in lectures – a practice differing from the usual forum – so that few names appear but to ????? not be inferred from that, that less had been done.

A. ?. Wildman, Pres't
John I. Mitchell, Sec'y
Tioga , April 15, 1861

The Agitator
September 25, 1861
Common Schools
Examination of Teachers
Examinations will take place as follows:
Tioga Oct. 9
Farmington, [Gee School House] Oct. 10
Chatham, [Treat School House] Oct. 11
Middlebury [Hollidaysburg] Oct. 12
Dartt Settlement Oct. 14
Covington Oct. 15
Bloss Oct. 16
Block House Oct. 17
Union, [Swamp School House] Oct. 19
Ward, [Brumark's(?) School House] Oct. 19
Roseville Oct. 22
Jackson, [Millerton] Oct. 23
Lawrenceville Oct. 24
Nelson Oct. 25
Elkland & Osceola, [Osceola] Oct. 26
Knoxville, [School House] Oct. 28
Brookfield, [Red School House] Oct. 29
Westfield Oct. 30
Clymer, [Sabinsville] Oct. 31
Shippen, Gaines & Elk, [Vermilyea's] Nov. 1
Wellsboro Nov. 2
Delmar, [Butler School House] Nov. 4
Mansfield Nov. 6
Mainesburg Nov. 7

Tioga County Teachers’ Institute at Wellsboro the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th of November. Prof. Stoddard of New York City and others will be present.

1.  There will be no examination at the County Institute.
2. Examinations will commence precisely at 9 o’clock A.M. and no candidate for a certificate will be admitted to the class after 9:30 o’clock. Teachers are requested to present themselves for examination as far as possible in the District where they intend to teach. Each Teacher should bring a book of a half dozen sheets of ordinary size note paper; also pen and ink.
3. By the instructions of the State Superintendent, applicants for a certificate must present testimonials of good moral character, of be known to possess such, or no certificate will be granted.
4. The State Supt. Has held that no certificate shall be granted in the County hereafter with a lower average than 3, nor with a lower figure than 4, - also that no certificate shall be granted when the figure in Orthography, Reading, Writing, or Written Arithmetic, is poorer then 3. [See Pa. School Journal, June No. pages 363, 365; and Sept. No. page 72]
5. Teachers will be examined in the science of teaching in addition to the branches of former years.
6. In conformity to the practice in most counties of the State, the State Sup’t. has authorized me to hold but one series of examinations for this school year. No examinations, therefore, will be held next spring. The standard for certificates will he hereafter that prescribed for a winter school, and none given for less than a year.
7. Teachers intending to teach in the Common Schools of this County the coming winter or summer, must attend these public examinations, for the labors of the Superintendent are so numerous and arduous that he cannot stop to examine teachers during the time for school visitations. Should any individuals intending to teach, willfully stay away from these examinations, they will be debarred by the very act itself from a private examination; for the School Law is explicit that “Superintendents should refuse to make private examinations, except in cases of sickness, or other equally satisfactory cause; and not then, unless applicants bring a written request from at least three members of the board of directors who desire to employ them.” Private examinations have sunk into disrepute in this county, greatly to the benefit of the schools and the system generally. I feel very grateful to the teachers of the county for the promptness with which they have responded to the calls for public examinations.
8. The School Law is explicit and imperative that teachers shall be examined before commencing school, or forfeit their wages. The School Directors will require a certificate to be produced before any contract is consummated with applicants for schools.
9. Candidates for a certificate must take seats(?) to the class, the first examination they attend. The practice of following up the examination for a week, as has been attempted in a few instances, before coming forward for examination, will not be tolerated.
10. It is recommended to School Directors; First, to grade the wages of teachers according to the grade of the certificate they hold. This is but equal justice to all parties. The practice has produced excellent results in all districts where adopted. Secondly, to organize a district or township Institute, and allow each teacher one day in two weeks to attend it; and in case of absence, require the delinquent to teach an additional day. Let at least one member of the Board be present at each session, to keep a record of attendance. Such an organization in each district in the county, would have a decidedly good effect upon the schools, and subsequently would be a wise outlay of time. (?) hold teachers strictly responsible for the (?) keeping, and return of the “Monthly (?) in book form”

School Directors and the public generals are cordially invited to attend these exercises.
Hiram C. Jones, County Sup’t.
Mainesburg, Sept. 23, 1861

The Agitator
October 10, 1860
Common Schools.

 [Teachers"] Examinations will take place as follows:
  Roseville  Oct. 10.
  Jackson (Daggett’s Mills)  Oct. 11.
  Sullivan (Mainsburg) Oct. 12.
  Tioga  Oct. 16.
  Middlesbury (Brigg’s School house) Oct. 16.
  Charleston (Dartt Settlement) Oct. 17.
  Wellsboro (Academy)  Oct.18.
  Chatham (Trent School house)  Oct. 19.
  Farmington (Gee School house) Oct. 20.
  Delmar (Stony Fork)  Oct. 22.
  Morris (Babb’s)  Oct. 23.
  Shippen (Big Meadows) Oct. 24.
  Gaines and Elk (Vermilyen’s)  Oct. 25.
  Clymer (Sabinsville)  Oct. 25.
  Westfield  Oct. 27.
  Mansfield  Oct.29.
  Covington  Oct. 30.
  Bloss  Oct. 31.
  Blockhouse  Nov. 1.
  Union (Swamp School house) Nov. 2.
  Lawrenceville  Nov. 5.
  Nelson  Nov. 7.
  Elkland and Osceola (Elkland) Nov. 8.
  Deerfield (Union Academy) Nov. 9.
  Brookfield (Red School house)  Nov. 10.

 Tioga Teachers’ Institute, at Mansfield, Nov. 13, 14, 15, 16.  One (perhaps two) of the first educators of the day will be employed for the benefit of the Institute.  County Superintendents of adjoining Counties will be invited to attend.

 Examinations will commence at 9 o’clock, and no candidate for a certificate will be admitted to the class after 10 o’clock.  Pen, ink and paper required on the part of each.

 Teachers are requested to present themselves for examination in the district where they intend to teach, unless otherwise excused.

 The examinations are so arranged as to avoid the necessity for private or special examinations.  None, therefore, will be granted.

 Those who got “No. 1" throughout, upon preparing and depositing with the County Superintendent a dissertation of at least five pages of ordinary letter paper, on some topic connected with teaching or education, (if approved) will be entitled to a “County” or “professional” certificate.

 The friends of education generally are invited to attend these examinations.  It is especially desirable that the School Directors should be present and receive their quota of Reports, Blanks, &c.
   Hiram C. Johns,
 Mainsburg; Sept. 27 ‘60      Co. Sup’t.

Wellsboro Agitator, December 6, 1916, p.2
Jackson Teachers' Institute
Local Institute Held in the M.E. Church at Jackson Center, Nov. 25
The meeting was called to order at 10:45 by the president, R.L. Culver; prayer by Rev. Mr. Shelley. The first paper was read by Miss Mildred Smith, on "Opportunities of the Rural Teachers." They are the spirit of the community, a good opportunity to build a reputation as a teacher. Also there are many more natural aids in building up the moral lives of pupils in the rural schools.
Discussion was open by Miss Mable Sheive. She brought out the fact that teachers are now hired for moral as well as intellectual training and that the teacher is the child's ideal. Discussion was continued by Prof. Culver, County Superintendent E.A. Retan. Prof. VanNorman and Harry Everitt. Other points presented were: "Play Grounds." The rural community is the best place in which to live. Several organizations were suggested to make rural life more attractive, such as spelling clubs, mothers' clubs and singing schools. Vocal solo by Miss Yolanda Garrison.
The afternoon session was opened by a paper on "School Hygiene and Sanitation," by Wayne Webster. Too much physiology and not enough hygiene is now taught. We should pay more attention to care of teeth and body in general, as they are more important to our health. Discussion by E.B. Gaige, E.A. Retan and others. Duet by Miss Valma Smith and Rena Smith; monologue by Miss Dorothy Cummings.
The next paper was presented by Miss Edith Inscho, the subject being, " Teaching Pupils How to Study." The main points presented were: Make lessons more interesting; read one-third of the time and think two-thirds of the time. Thinking and reasoning are more beneficial than study. If the child is taught to read correctly he will study correctly. Study a lesson the day before and review it just before recitation. Some of these points were presented during the discussion in which several visitors and teachers took part. Duet by Messrs. Edson and Davis Gaige.
Rev. Mr. Shelly discussed the schools of Europe, especially those in England. Their main trouble at present is teaching languages, for so many foreign pupils have been transferred to England from the war zone. In England a pupil who had finished the grades has had French and shorthand in addition to our regular subjects. Languages are taught in the lower grades. At present German is not very popular in the English schools.
Another paper, entitles, "Conducting a Class Recitation," was read by Miss Savilla Lutz. The discussion was opened by Harry Everitt. The paper and discussion brought out the points that the better the recitation the more real gain for the pupils. Concert reading aids reading, as it slows the fast ones. In arithmetic, for example, have one class working problems at the board while another is reciting. Vocal solo by Miss Edith Crumb.
The next subject was "Consolidation of Schools," by Robert J. Gaige. Schools should be consolidated for the following reasons: Larger classes and less number of teachers; teachers can specialize in subjects and thus do more efficient work; promotes competition; apparatus can be purchased that small schools cannot afford; uniformity in subject matter taught and in grading; enough pupils are thus brought together to organize athletic teams. The expenses are greater but benefits derived far more than balance the increased expense. One objection to consolidation is the greater distance pupils must be taken but the warm lunch at noon is very beneficial to pupils who must leave home early and arrive home late. This paper was ably discussed by Geo. Trowbridge.
The institute was well attended; many parents and pupils were in attendance. A delicious chicken dinner was served by the seniors of the Millerton High School. The teachers of the district were all present with the exception of four. There were many teachers there who are not teaching at present. County Superintendent E.A. Retan and Prof. VanNorman, of the faculty of the MSNS, greatly aided in the discussions of the several papers.

The Agitator
March 13, 1961
Teachers’ Institute

 The next session of the Tioga County Teachers’ Institute, will be held in Tioga, the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th of April next.

 Prof. Chas. W. Sanders, of New York City and Samuel P. Bates, Deputy State Superintendent of Common Schools, will be in attendance at the Institute.  Prof. Sanders and Mr. Bates are gentlemen of much experience and eminently successful in conducting Institutes.

[Photo of Hiram Johns from Joyce's collection]

 Our Institutes are emphatically for the benefit of the Teachers.  And inasmuch as this session bids fair to be one of the most beneficial yet held, it is desirable that the Teachers should turn out en masse.  Heretofore, only the more advanced and experienced Teachers have generally attended the Institutes, while the younger and more inexperienced, who needed the aid and advice of the Institute, have through an ill founded timidity, absented themselves.  It is especially the duty of this class of Teachers to attend the Institutes and “post” themselves in the improved methods of teaching.

      Hiram C. Johns, Co. Sup’t.

The Agitator
November 26, 1862
Vol. IX. No. 16
Wellsboro, Tioga County, PA., Wednesday Morning, November 26, 1862.

Proceedings Of The Tioga Co. Teachers’ Institute:
Held at Mansfield, Commencing Nov. 11, 1862, And Continuing Four Days.

 Tuesday, 9 o’clock A.M.  Convened at the Seminary chapel, and in the absence of President or Vice-President, organized by electing W. S. Boggs, to the chair.  The following persons were appointed a committee of arrangements:  Misses M. A. Beardsley, Anna Kelsey, Carrie Gaylord, and Messrs. E. D. Lewis and John Farr.  Messrs. George W. Kingsley, I. A. Horning, and Miss Lacy W. Canfield, were appointed a committee to report names for membership.  Misses Owen, Emily Garrison, and Mr. D. Cameron, were appointed Critics for the day.  On motion, Prof. Johns takes up Phonetics.  Illustrates on the black-board.  Divides letters into two classes, vowels and consonants.  Dwells at length upon the sounds of the letters.  Committee of arrangements report.  A motion was made that Prof. Reynolds make a short speech.  Agreed too.  He believes in a man’s doing what he is appointed to do.  The great fault of mankind is want of energy – go-a-headitiveness.  Man is naturally a lazy animal.  If there is one thing that makes a good school, it is being on time.  Sup’t. Coburn, from Bradford County, conducts a drill, in written arithmetic.  Adjourned all half past one.

 Afternoon Session.  The roll called by secretary.  The treasurer being absent, Miss Clara Clark was appointed.  On motion, the following persons were appointed a committee to audit the account of the treasurer:  Prof. H. C. Johns, Misses Helen Inscho and Sarah L. Beach.  Mr. D. Cameron reports on penmanship.  The thing is to get a good position at the desk; secondly, making straight marks; thirdly, making the oval.  Mr. Delos Angel takes the class where Mr. Cameron leaves it.  Would drill on the forearm movement, and the Kirographic curve.  Would teach the class to analyze all the letters by the principles he would give them.

Miss D. M. Drew reports on Primary Geography.  Would have scholars commence studying primary geography as soon they can read.  Would excite an interest by the pictures and maps.  Mr. E. D. Davis reports on advanced Geography.  Would impress upon the mind of the pupil the situation of places, by requiring him to draw out the maps.  Prof. Coburn concurs entirely with the methods given by Miss Drew and Mr. Lewis.  Drills the class at length, by asking questions, after which a general discussion took place in reference to the meridian circles.

The Item Box was here passed; after which we were favored with singing by the choir.  Miss Tremaine presents primary written arithmetic together.  Lucy Canfield reports on advanced mental arithmetic.  Would have one student analyze, and the remainder of the class criticize.   Sup’t. Johns says the correct analysis of an example is of more importance than the correct result.  Continues the exercise by giving the class problems to solve.  On motion, the following persons were appointed a committee to draft resolutions:  Profs. Johns and Wildman, and Anna Kelsey.  They report the following resolutions:

“Whereas, The State has provided the means for the education of all her children; heretofore,

“Resolved, That it is the duty of parents and guardians to afford those under their charge the opportunity of obtaining such an education, as shall qualify them for the duties of citizens.

“Resolved, That if parents and guardians neglect this obvious duty, they should be compelled to the performance, by legislative enactments.”  Adjourned till 7 o’clock.

 Tuesday Evening.  Roll called, and response by sentiments.  This exercise was very interesting and amusing, causing frequent outbursts of laughter.  A Quartette was here sung; after which the resolutions presented, in the afternoon, was moved for adoption.  Prof. Coburn favors the resolutions.  Says it will save many jail birds.  Tax-payers ought to control the schools.  It will be a benefit to the mass of the people; it will be a financial saving to the Commonwealth.  Henry Hollands favors the first resolution, but not the second.  When you say, that a man shall do so and so, you are depriving him of his rights and liberties – it is unconstitutional – a dangerous doctrine.  Prof. Wildman supports the resolutions.  The ignorance of the people ought to be remedied some way.  Refers to Prussia, to show the advantages gained by compulsory education.  Every man ought to have interest enough in educational matters to say to his neighbors that they should send their children to school.  Prof. Reynolds thought if his children belonged to Prof. Wildman or the State, they educate them.  Compares countries that adopt compulsory measures to those that do not, and draws the conclusion that where they are not adopted, there the most energetic and most intelligent people are.  Those that are educated by compulsion are perfect mummies.  On motion, further discussion was deferred.  Recess for ten minutes.

 Music by the choir.  Lecture by Prof. Coburn, on mathematics.  Says this science is most assuredly ancient; notwithstanding it is very intimately connected with our business.  It is needed by men of every profession; it aids the mariner to tell his position; by it the astronomer can measure the heavenly bodies, and the mechanic can estimate his raw material.  Gives his method of teaching mathematics.  Intellectual Algebra is one of the best studies to develope the mathematical abilities: it should follow mental arithmetic.   The mathematical alphabet should be thoroughly understood.  Decimal fractions should be well understood, because our currency is established upon it.  Students should understand space before taking up geometry; students should understand principles instead of rules merely.  Relates incidents to show the utility of mathematics.

 Report of Critics.  A motion was made to authorize critics to personify.  Quite a spirited discussion took place, after which a vote was taken, and the question lost.  Adj.

 Wednesday, A.M.  Chapel exercises as usual, after which Prof. Johns presents penmanship.  Enumerates the different steps to be taken in teaching penmanship.  1st, position at desk.  2nd, position of paper.  3rd, holding pen.  4th, finger movement.  5th, fore-arm movement.  Prof. Johns also conducts a drill in mental arithmetic, by giving questions to class, and requiring their solutions.  Recess of ten minutes, after which different methods of teaching the Alphabet were presented by Misses Amanda Mann and Emma Stone.  Mr. W. S. Briggs gave his method of teaching the elementary sounds.

 A general discussion took place about the sounds of letter A, which was amusing in the extreme.

 Miss Martha Youmans reports on Primary Arithmetic.  Would have the class thoro’ly drilled before giving out the lesson.  Capt. V. A. Elliott made a few brief remarks on the method of teaching advanced Arithmetic, after which Prof. Coburn demonstrates Ratio and Proportion to the satisfaction of all.  Committee of Arrangements present programme for afternoon.  Adjourned till 1 1-2 o’clock.

 Afternoon Session.  Met agreeable to adjournment.  Miss Sophia Tremaine reports on primary geography.  Would have scholars commence studying geography as soon as they can read.  Made the exercise very interesting by her ready and sarcastic replies to questions.  Miss Sarah J. M? reports on advanced geography.  Would require her pupils to draw outline maps.  Mr. Mowrie would impose upon the mind the situation of places by mapping.  Would have topical recitations.  Prof. Coburn follows in the wake of his predecessors.  Illustrates on the board.  Gives his preference to McNalias.  Geo. W. Kingsley reports on primary reading.  Is questioned extensively, and answers very readily and sarcastically.  Miss Clara Clark reports on second reader.  Would have students study their lessons before reading.  Miss Sarah Beach reports on third reader.  Reports in substance, what Miss Clark said.  Miss Emma Maine reports on fourth reader.  Would drill class thoroughly on articulation.  Miss F. A. Bixby reports on fifth reader.  Would have one scholar read and the remainder of the class criticize.  Getting up an interest is the main thing.  Capt. V. A. Elliott reports on composition and declamation.  – Would confine this exercise to the grammar class.  Would have the class write out sentences and criticize each other.   Would get up a competition.  Many questions are asked him, which he answers promptly, frequently causing laughter.  Mrs. Wildman gives her method of teaching reading.  She would first teach them orthography and then drill on difficult sentences.

 Recess of 10 minutes, after which music by choir.  Prof. Coburn give his method of government.  Teacher should keep the school- room neat and clean.  This has a great influence over scholars.  Be very particular how you conduct yourself the first day.  Be agreeable with all your scholars.   Take part in all their plays.  Let them know that you are interested in their welfare.  – Don’t believe in corporal punishment generally.  It is necessary sometimes.  Committee of arrangements report.  On motion adjourned till 7 o’clock.

 Evening Session.  Answering of items.  A spirited discussion took place about the following question:  “How many times does the sun rise directly each of Mansfield?”  Hon. S. B. Elliott illustrated it on the board, clearly.  On motion, the further answering of items were deferred.  Recess of ten minutes, after which, Dr. Bliss of Bradford county, lectured upon Government.  Inasmuch as the manuscript from which he read was prepared for publication, it would be doing injustice to the author to attempt to give the details.  Suffice it to say, that the ideas were good, and expressed in the most lucid manner.  Capt. Elliott, Misses M. Van Dusen, and Fannie A. Bixby, were appointed critics for the next day.

 Thursday, A.M.; prayer by Prof. Coburn.  Prof. Wightman was called for on mental arithmetic – commenced the exercises with a few prompting remarks – said mental arithmetic is one of the modern improvements.  It cultivates fixedness of attention.  A person’s memory is the result of attention – it cultivates accuracy.  It is not only solving a question, but giving the reasons – books should not be used in class.  Prof. Reynolds gave his method of teaching the alphabet – said the black-board and slate are indispensable – would teach them to make parallel, horizontal and oblique lines, and from thence to form letters.  This practice will impress upon the child’s memory the shape of the letters.  Recess.

 The following persons were appointed a committee to select items, viz.:  Miss L. H. Pitts, Caroline Gaylord, Messrs. V. A. Elliott, and Jas. Morris.  Prof. Coburn demonstrated allegation, and gave its use, after which he lectured upon the qualifications of teachers.  – Teachers should understand reading and spelling, well.  Our teachers are wonderfully deficient in reading.  Teachers should understand Physical Geography and History – should not only understand the hows, but the whys and wherefores – should understand the philosophy of the language – Should understand physiology – should study the science of teaching.  The science is the great thing – should have a general knowledge of the general topics of conversation – must be a gentleman, and must possess personal qualifications – Must be neat in his attire – must preserve order, and be punctual.  A good school teacher must possess the qualities of government, and must be apt in all the qualities pertaining to school teaching – must possess a large share of common sense – has great responsibility, and must consider it as such.  On motion of Prof. Reynolds, the Institute voted their thanks to Prof. Coburn, for his services.  Prof. Johns moved that the Institute vote their thanks to Dr. Bliss for his able and instructive lecture.  Agreed to.  Adjourned till 1-1/2 o’clock.

 Afternoon Session – met according to adjournment, after which the items were distributed.  Prof. Reynolds advances geography – says every teacher should have a globe –says the axis of the earth is enclined 23-1/2 degrees to the place of its orbit, and demonstrates it clearly, showing at the same time the effects of it – expatiates at length, causing great merriment by his pert remarks.  Recess of ten minutes.

 Prof. Wildman says that the study of grammar enables us to use language correctly – gives his method of teaching grammar – several knotty sentences were given him to parse, which he did unhesitatingly.  A motion was made to take up the resolution discussed the previous evening.  Lost.  Answering of items, after which Capt. Elliott offered the following resolutions.  Resolved that school teachers ought not to be exempt from military duty.  An amendment was offered to include Ministers and County Superintendents.  Another amendment was offered, including all able-bodied men.  Prof. Wildman made a speech on the last amendment, showing conclusively that it would be detrimental to the progress of the war.  Adjourned.

 Evening Session – singing by choir, after which the roll was called, and responded to by sentiment.  The resolution discussed the previous evening was called up.  Capt. V. A. Elliott, upon the negative, spoke at length – compares education by compulsion, to forcing people to seek religion.  A motion was passed to limit the speakers to five minutes each.  Hon. S. B. Elliott followed upon the affirmative – Firmly believing in the doctrine – Referred to a petition sent from Lancaster County, to the Legislature, not to have schools to show the natural tendency of some men.  Capt. Elliott replied to him followed Prof. Wightman, on the affirmative.  Prof. Reynolds says he is upon both sides – thinks minors ought to be educated by compulsion – is not allowed time to finish his remarks.  Frank W. Clark made a few remarks upon the negative.  Mr. Hollis makes a short speech upon the affirmative, and is allowed by Prof. Johns, who reads from Blackstone.  Henry Allen, Esq. upon the negative, says if we make one infringement upon the rights of the people, we will make another, and another, as did England with the colonies.  A contest here arose between Hon. S. B. Elliott, Prof. H. C. Johns, and Capt. V. A. Elliott, which was amusing in the extreme.  The manner in which Capt. Elliott extricated himself from the mire into which they were trying to sink him, reflected credit upon his abilities, and showed him perfectly capable to repel the attacks of invaders from any source.  Henry Hollands was called for who spoke eloquently and with telling effect upon the negative.  The discussion was here interrupted by an announcement that an oyster supper prepared by the “Ladies’ Aid Society,” was ready.  The resolutions were “tabled.”  Adjourned to repair to the Dining Hall.

 Friday, 9 o’clock A.M. – Prof. Wightman conducted a drill in Mental Arithmetic.  A motion was made to do miscellaneous business at 11 o’clock; agreed to.  Committee of arrangements report.  A motion was made to authorize Prof. Johns to arrange a programme for the next Institute, and to notify the persons whose names shall appear thereon, one month before the Institute is called.  Carried.  Recess, after which Mrs. Wildman took up reading – says it is necessary to understand articulation – adopts Worcester as authority for pronunciation.

 The following persons were appointed to nominate officers, viz:  Messrs. A. R. Wightman, V. A. Elliott, E. D. Lewis and Misses Taylor, Carrie Gaylord, Mary Van Dusen, and Hattie Bixby.

 On motion the Institute proceeded to elect counselors.  Brookfield, Miss M. A. Beardsley; Bloss, O; Charleston.  Miss Eva Bailey; Chatham, Mr. Benj. Van Dusen; Clymer, O; Covington Boro, Mrs. Lucy Royce; Covington Township, D. Cameron; Deerfield, Miss Maria Toles; Delmar, Miss Anna R. Kelsey; Elk, Mr. G. R. Winkler; Elkland, Mr. II. G. Hollis; Farmington, John Mowrie; Guines, O; Jackson, Miss E. A. Stone; Knoxville, Delos Angel; Lawrenceville, O; Lawrence Township, Miss Helen Inscho; Liberty, Miss Lucy W. Canfield; Mainsburg, Miss Emma Peck; Mansfield, Prof. E. Wildman; Middlebury, Jacob Briggs; Morris, O; Nelson, Miss Sophia Tremaine; Osceola, Jas. Busard; Richmond, Miss F. A. Bixby; Rutland, Miss Amanda Simpson; Shippen, O; Sullivan, Miss Augusta Owen; Tioga Boro, Mr. J. E. Willard; Tioga Township, Miss Anna Keeney; Union, O; Ward, Miss Lucy Stratton; Wellsboro, Miss Elizabeth Williams; Westfield; Miss Amelia Cloos.

 Election of officers was taken up.  Moved and carried that the election be visa voce.  Frank W. Clark was elected President; Misses Fannie A. Bixby, Mary A. Beardsley, Louisa Rockwell, and Messrs. R. C. Bailey, and D. Cameron, were elected Vice Presidents; Mr. J. S. Briggs was elected Recording Secretary; and Miss M. J. Toles Corresponding Secretary; and Miss Clara Clark, Treasurer.

 Counsellors report Tioga as the next place for holding the Institute.  Adjourned till 1-1/2 o’clock P.M.

 Afternoon Session. – Prof. Johns conducts a drill on Penmanship.  Prof. Wildman presents Grammar – conducts the drill by asking questions and parsing difficult sentences.  Recess, after which Prof. Reynolds makes a few remarks about school arrangement – would have every thing in its time and place – would have the teachers read the Bible every morning and pray if a Christian – would have every class recite exactly at the time assigned them.  Miss D. M. Drew, demonstrates Cube Root lucidly and satisfactorily.  Capt. Elliott demonstrates Arithmetical and Geometrical Progression, and gives its use.  Adjourned till 6-1/2 o’clock in the evening.

 Evening Session. – Singing by choir, after which an order of $5.00 on the Treasurer was authorized in favor of Secretary; also an order of $2.00 to defray the expenses of lighting room.  The roll was called and responded to by sentiments, after which a motion was made to dispense with the order of business.  Carried.  Prof. Reynolds offered the following Resolutions:

 Resolved, That we recognize in the death of O. M. Stebbins, at the battle before Richmond, the loss of one of the most able and efficient teachers in the County; of one of the most faithful and earnest members of the Institute, a worthy friend and true patriot; that we tender to his aged mother and lamenting friends, our heartfelt sympathies in their bereavement.

 Resolved, That while we thus especially remember O. M. Stebbins, we by no means forget others who have in like manner fallen in the defense of their country; neither indeed those who are still periling their lives in the same noble cause.  May God shield them in the hour of battle.  The resolutions were adopted unanimously.  Prof. N. L. Reynolds, Hon. S. B. Elliott, Capt. V. A. Elliott, Mr. M. P. Elliott, Prof. E. Wildman, Prof. H. C. Johns, and Mr. Hollis eulogized Mr. Stebbins.  A motion was made that Prof. Johns be authorized to engage the services of some popular educator at the next Institute.  It was carried with an amendment that Messrs. Wildman and Wightman act as assistants.  Adjourned subject to the call of the County Superintendent.

       Frank W. Clark, Secretary.

Reading and Writing.

These accomplishments are the most excellent and most worthy of cultivation which contribute most largely to the happiness of others.  I place that of reading well, before every one of the arts which usually are so designated; and certainly, had I the fairy’s power to bestow on those I loved the gift which should most endear them to others – not of course including good principle, good sense and good temper – I would give them the power of delighting their own family circle by reading and talking well.  The former art especially is cultivated far too little for the health as well as the happiness of young women; so much is neglected, that probably twenty can sing pleasingly for every one that can read agreeably.  Yet we cannot doubt that a voice for singing is comparatively rare, and that almost any one who chooses to do so, can read so as to give pleasure.  Perhaps there are two reasons for the general neglect of this charming accomplishment.  In the first place, we are far too apt to cultivate most carefully that which is to please to society, and to neglect those acts which can contribute to domestic happiness; we sing for our acquaintances to excite the ?  be, it may be, the envy of people who see us but seldom, and would not greatly care if they never saw us again.  But in being able to read well a good book, or paper, we are only likely to give pleasure to an invalid father or brother, or perhaps a group of younger brothers and sisters.  But to increase the happiness of but one of our home circle ought to be a source of far more satisfaction to us, than the applause of any stranger whatever.  To while away the dreary hours of pain and sickness – to charm a group of young listeners into forgetfulness of the rain or snow that is preventing them from enjoying their usual sports – these are objects we can easily attain, and from which we shall derive such real happiness, that they are well worth a little effort.  – New York Ledger.---

1863 Provisional Certificate issued after examination to Miss Sophia E. Brewster. Signed by Hiram Johns
The Agitator
April 01, 1863

Mansfield Classical Seminary and State Normal School

 Mr. Editor  I am requested to announce, through your paper, that the trustees of the Mansfield Classical Seminary and State School, at their meeting yesterday, passed a resolution expressing their intention to open school with an entire new Faculty, to commence on or about the 29th of April next.

 Negotiations are in progress to secure teachers.  We ask patrons and friends of the institution and of the Normal School enterprise, to hold students in readiness for the Spring term, and to look for an announcement soon, through the papers and by circulars, precisely when and under whose tuition, the Spring term will open.  When it opens it will of course be as a Normal School, with a graduating course for School Teachers.

 Stockholders in the Mansfield Classical Seminary will please bear in mind that their responsibility to meet annually for the election of trustees, &c., continues.  Their annual meeting under the revised charter, is to held the first Monday in May.  See official notice in the papers.   W. Cochran,
      Pres’t of the Board of Trustees.
 Mansfield; March 24, 1863.

The Agitator
March 30, 1864
Tioga County Teachers’ Institute

The fourteenth session of the Tioga County Institute was held at Osceola, commencing on the 15th instant, and continuing four days.
Tuesday, 15th, A.M., convened in the Osceola High School chapel, and in the absence of proper officers, G.H. Hollis was called to chair, and Miss G. Simpson was elected Secretary.
The Rev. P. Reynolds was invited to open the session by devotional exercises; which he did.
A.R. Wightman moved that the morning sessions be opened by devotional exercises – reading the Scriptures, singing and prayer. -- Agreed to.
Victor A. Elliott, A.R Wightman, G.H. Shipman, Misses M.A. Stanton and Mary Van Dusen were appointed a committee to prepare programmes for the different sessions of the Institute.
J.H. Bosard and Miss S.M. Atherton were appointed a committee of reception.
J.A. Briggs and Miss L.W. Cameron were appointed critics of the day.
Committee to prepare programmes report, and conformably there to, V.A. Elliott takes up the subject of elocution.  He wishes to impress on the minds of teachers the importance of a thorough understanding of the elementary principles.
J.H. Bosard thinks , in teaching written arithmetic, teachers should be careful to not only teach the how, but the why.  Adjourned
Tuesday afternoon.  G.H. Hollis in the chair.  J.H. Bosard was elected to prepare a report of the proceedings of the Institute for publication.
G.H. Hollis, on school government, deemed it a subject of great importance; and as he was unable to govern himself as he desired, he felt very much embarrassed in presenting the subject.  The great secret in government is firmness and not fierceness.  He would not lay down a ???? of laws with penalties affixed, but would give them to understand what was right and what was wrong.  He would keep their minds occupied with something useful, which would prevent their getting into mischief, as “idleness was the mother of crime.”
Mrs. Wightman then brought forward a class of little boys and girls, who had never studied grammar, and illustrated her method of teaching beginners in this branch.  After a few moments spent instructing her class, she called out, respectively, Messrs. Briggs, Shipman, Elliott and the Rev. C.L. Howe, to review the class.  The answers of the class in these reviews were prompt and correct, thus showing her method to be of great importance and value to teachers.
J.H. Bosard thinks mental arithmetic of more importance than most other studies.  The great secret was to keep up an interest in the class.  He would not allow the use of books in the class; would read the question but once, and call on those paying the least attention.—He thinks the solution should be “brief, clear, and to the point, but would not require the scholars to use the forms of any author.”
A.R. Wightman and Rev. Howe prefer to use the forms, because they are more concise, and express exactly what we wish to say, and in better language than most pupils can command.
V.A. Elliott thinks the pupil should use his own language.
Recess to get acquainted.
A.R. Wightman takes up the subject of astronomy.  He thinks teachers should understand something more than they are required to teach, for the reason that many branches of instruction depended on others for demonstration.  He gave the opinions of many ancient astronomers and the discoveries of those of modern times.  His remarks were very interesting and beneficial.
Items were then collected and distributed among the teachers.  Adjourned.
Tuesday evening.  Institute called to order by J.R. Wightman. J.A. Briggs called to the chair.  Roll called; and responses by sentiment.  The items were then answered and were the source of much merriment.
V.A. Elliott read a letter from Hon. C.R. Coburn, explaining the cause of his absence.
Miss N.C. Eastman then read a very interesting essay, subject “Progression.”  The essay was well prepared, and reflects much credit on the writer.
The following resolution was presented for discussion:
Resolved, That punishment should not be inflicted in the presence of the school, nor in school hours.
G.H. Hollis is opposed to the resolution; thinks an example should be made of the guilty, that the innocent may be warned of the dangers of sin.  Punishment might about as well be done away entirely, - which should not be for “a rod and reproof giveth wisdom; but child left to himself, bringeth his mother to shame.”  Besides, in case of difficulty, the teacher needs witness.
Benj. Van Dusen thinks if he were to punish large boys, he should want a little assistance near at hand; but if large girls, he should keep them till after school.
A.R. Wightman thinks some teachers would do better to keep their scholars till after school, but others would utterly fail; therefore, it depends on the teacher.  He says the feelings of the most stubborn and depraved are often softened by a kind work in private conversation, when if spoken in public, they would have been intensely inflamed.
V.A. Elliot thinks it impossible to entirely avoid punishment in school; for is it nt punishment to tell a scholar to remain till after school?
G.H. Hollis think keeping scholars is apt to end them in to the habit of lying; for the pupil detained, is always questioned about the matter, and generally tells “his side of the story.”
A.R. Wightman move the resolution be amended to read as follows:
Resolved, That, in many cases, punishment of students can be more effectually performed in the absence than in presence of the school.
The resolution as amended was adopted.
Critics’ report was then received.  Adjourned.
Wednesday, A.M.  President Van Dusen in the chair.  Roll called. Responses selected from the Bible.  Devotional exercises by the Rev. C.L.F. Howe.
It being necessary to elect a Treasurer, in the absence of the Treasurer elect, Miss Mary Van Dusen was chosen.
Miss Ann Casbeer and Mr. G.H. Hollis were appointed critics for the day.
J.H. Bosard again takes up the subject of elocution.  He says we of this county are faulty in elocution.  The organs of articulation should be cultivated the same as the muscles of the arm – by use.
Miss Stanton calls up geography.  After speaking of the great importance of this study she illustrates teaching it by taking charge of a class of little scholars who had never studied geography.  She deems the blackboard of great use in teaching geography.
Mrs. Whittaker, on moral training, says she would teach morality by example.  She would be familiar with her pupils and talk with them upon the subject.
Wednesday afternoon.  Benj. Van Dusen in the chair.  Rev. C.L.F. How made a few remarks upon the subject of school teaching in general.  Says the teacher’s calling is second to none; and that they who teach merely for pecuniary gain, will never become first class teachers.  They should love their scholars, and be confidant in their ability to teach.
A.R. Wightman differs from the opinion promulgated by a celebrated foreign teacher (T.K. Beecher) at a previous Institute, who gave as a general rule:  “The maximum of talk from the scholars, the minimum from the teacher.” He (Wightman) thought much more of the opinion shortly after advanced by the same gentleman, that “many kept school, but few taught.”  Teachers are placed in school to teach, and how can teaching be done without talking!.
Written arithmetic is called up by J.A. Briggs.  He would commence at the beginning, and teach it thoroughly as he passed through.
Mr. G.H. Shipman attempted to demonstrate subtraction, and being severely criticized, Mr. Briggs proceeded with the demonstration, by means of borrowing.
Mr. Hollis thought small children would not be able to understand the latter demonstration and was dissatisfied with both.
J.H. Bosard was called for and proceeded with the demonstration by means of adding ten. No criticisms.
Benj. Van Dusen clearly demonstrates longitude and time.
Miss Esther Cloos demonstrates multiplication of common fractions. Miss M. Van Dusen division of common fractions.  J.H. Bosard demonstrates the process of reducing common fractions to decimals.  A.R. Wightman demonstrates ratio and proportion.
A.F. Ryon, on algebra, thinks it should be taught in common schools, and proceeded with a lengthy argument in support of his position, and closed by saying he hoped no none would think he had made a speech.  He proceeded to illustrate his method of teaching algebra, by considering the Institute as a class,and by his ready wit and good humor caused great levity.
Miss N.C. Eastman gave her method of teaching primary reading.  Mrs. Wightman being called upon,  gave  her method.  She would combine letters to form words as soon as they had learned one or two letters; and by this means amuse and interest her scholars.
G.H. Hollis, on spelling, considers it to be the most important branch of an education, since it is the foundation upon which the superstructure is to be raised.  He would have scholars spell but once upon a word, and advised teachers to never pronounce a word but once.  He gave several methods of conducting a spelling class, and recommends teachers to change their methods when the scholars become inattentive or tired, and try another which will have a tendency to excite an interest in the class.  He thinks the method the best that secures the best attention, and recommends teaching by sight as well as sound.
Mrs. Wightman, on grammar, again called out her “invincible grammar class,” and proved that young children can understand grammar.
Items were then collected and distributed.
Wednesday evening.  Roll called. Responses of a patriotic nature.  The items were then answered, some of which were the cause of considerable discussion.  The following resolution was discussed:
Resolved, That female teachers are equal to male teachers in capacity to teach and power to govern.
Mr. Hollis would favor the resolution because he believes women to be peculiarly adapted to teaching, especially small children.  He believes it to be her proper sphere and that she was designed by the Creator for teaching.—While he knew men to be superior in many respects, he acknowledged women to be superior in many others; so that upon the whole they were equal.
Mr. Ryon opposes the resolution.  Says the gentleman a position looks a little suspicious, as he had met him before in debate upon the same question when he entertained different views.  Thinks he has changed his position, “to pet some favorite a little.”
Mr. Hollis replied that he had never met Mr. Ryon in debate ???? this question, as he had never before debated it; therefore the assertion was absolutely false.
A.R. Wightman was surprised that anyone should oppose the resolution.  He knew female teachers who could teach small scholars better than he and he believed they had more influence upon children than men.  He believed them socially and morally equal to man.
L.L. Kimball does not wonder that boys’ heads are caused to swim, but is surprised to see his friend of more experience so easily fascinated. The great Jefferson said, all men are created equal, but it has been left to his friend on the other side to first discover that one woman at least is equal to himself.  It must be admitted that male teachers are more successful throughout the State.
Mr. Elliott followed with a very lengthy speech upon both sides of the question.
Mr. Bosard opposed the resolution in a brief speech.  Mr. Briggs followed with a few remarks upon the affirmative.  Miss Stanton spoke in favor of the resolution, and defended her sex and herself with ability; and in a manner that reflected credit upon herself.
The last part of the discussion was very amusing and interesting, and beyond my ability to describe.  The resolution finally passed by an overwhelming majority.  Adjourned.
Thursday, A.M. Roll called. Devotional exercises by the Rev. E. Kennedy.
Messrs. V.A. Elliott, L.L. Kimball and Misses N.C. Eastman and G. Simpson were appointed a committee to report resolutions expressing the feeling of the Institute.
Miss Mary Van Dusen and J.A. Briggs were appointed critics of the day.
J.H. Bosard conducted a drill in mental arithmetic.
L.L. Kimball takes up the subject of written arithmetic.  He thinks pupils should not be required to learn the rules “verbatim” but they should give a clear rule in their own language.  The following demonstrations were then given: long division, by V.A. Elliott, true remainder, by C.L. Peck, least common multiple, by J.A. Briggs – division of fractions by A.C. Kimball, arithmetical progression by Benj. Van Dusen, geometrical progression by J.H. Bosard.
Mr. Wightman thinks there are no demonstrations in arithmetic, but they are illustrations.  Miss G. Simpson illustrates all??????? And Miss Ann ???beer the difference between interest and discount.  Adjourned.
Thursday afternoon.  Mr. Elliott resumes the subject of elocution.  Would teach the use of the book, and would require pupils to pronounce words readily before permitting them to read.
Miss Stanton resumes the subject of geography.  She would require the pupils to recite without questions, and would use the blackboard for any class in geography.
Mrs. Wightman , on advanced grammar, would have the scholars understand everything they pass over.  She called for volunteers to recite grammar.  The quota was immediately filled.  She then illustrated her manner of teaching.  Would have her students recite without questions, and learn only such definitions as they can understand.
Mrs. Clark Kimball showed the method of teaching primary reading the “old way.”  Mr. Wightman the “new way.”  Adjourned.
Evening session.  Roll called.  Miss M.A. Stanton then read a very interesting essay, after which Rev. P. Reynolds honored the Institute with a en??? Lecture subject, Energy essential to Success.”
Moved to have a committee appointed to request the lecture for publication.  Carried.
Mr. Bosard moved the adoption of the following resolution:
Resolved, That no professed c?????head outh to receive a school teachers’ certificate.
Agreed to.  Adjourned.
Friday, A.M. Roll called.  Devotional exercises by Rev. C.D. Kinney.
Mr. Briggs resumes the subject of written arithmetic.  Mr. Wightman illustrates division of duodecimals.
The question was then asked, “Can you multiply one denominator by another?”  A difference of opinion was here manifested.  But the majority thought not.
Mr. Hollis solves and clearly illustrates the following question:  If a wagon, whose reach is eight feet long, whose axeltires are five feet long, and whose fore and after wheels are fourteen feet and eighteen feet in circumference, respectively be drawn so that the outside after wheel should move in the same track as the inside fore wheel, what are the diameters of the circles described by each wheel?
Miss Stanton resumes the subject of geography, and gives an exercise in map drawing.
The question of the use to be made of the maps furnished by many towns was then brought up.  They were thought to do no harm by ???? of the teachers.
Mr. Wightman offered the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That while we appreciate the kind motives of the School Directors, in furnishing maps for the district schools, we still think the money would have been more profitably expended in purchasing outline maps and blackboards.
On motion, the following counselors were chosen:  Brookfield, Miss N. T???bs; Charleston, Rev. P. Reynolds; Chatham, Mr. G.A. Kinney; Covington township, Mr. J.H. Bosard; Elkland borough, Miss E. Benedict; Farmington, Mr. C.L. Peck; Knoxville borough, Mrs.?. A. ??????er; Lawrenceville. Mr. A.F. Ryon; Lawrence township, Mr. A.C. Kimball; Mansfield, Sup’t V.A. Elliott; Nelson, Mr. G.H. Hollis; Osceola, Miss L.W. Cameron; Tioga, Mr. Benj. Van Dusen; Westfield, Miss N. C. Eastman.
Messrs. Wightman and Briggs and Miss N.C. Eastman were appointed a committee on officers. Adjourned.

Friday afternoon.  Mr. Elliott resumes the subject of elocution.  Gives teachers a short drill in articulation.  Would advise teachers to require their scholars to spend at least half of their time for reading on exercises in articulation.
Mr. Wightman, on means of interesting small scholars in school, would let them have slates and draw profiles if they wished.
Messrs. Briggs and Elliott and Misses Cloos and Eastman gave their methods of interesting small scholars.
Mr. Hollis offered the following:
Whereas, the pay of most classes of persons in both public and private employment, has been increased since the breaking out of the present war, while that of teachers has decreased, therefore
Resolved, That it is the duty of every teacher to demand higher wages, and refuse to teach unless their pay be increased in proportion to that of other laborers.  Adopted.
The committee on officers report Mr. G.H. Hollis for President, Messrs. Ac. Kimball and G.A. Kinney, and Miss N.C. Eastman and Mrs. M.F. Whitaker for Vice Presidents; Miss Ann Cas???? for Recording Secretary, V.A. Elliott for Corresponding Secretary, and Miss mary Van Dusen for Treasurer.  The report was unanimously adopted.
It was moved and carried to pay the Secretary the sum of $5.
Messrs. Wightman and Bosard were appointed a committee to purchase a book in which to record the proceedings of the Institute.
Friday evening.  Roll called.
Miscellaneous remarks being in order.  Messrs. Wightman, Kimball, Elliott, Hollis and Ryan, being called for, made remarks which did credit to themselves and the cause for which they spoke.
The committee on resolutions reported as follows:
Resolved, That our earnest heartfelt thanks are due to an ever kind Providence for the privileges and pleasures of this fourteenth Institute.
Resolved, That while we are permitted to enjoy the blessings of peace, we would not forget those of our number who long have been and are still battling and bleeding for the cause of our common country: and as an evidence of our patriotism, we pledge ourselves to the extent of our ability, to support the government and the administration in the necessary measures to crush the rebellion, root and branch, and to return the unity and integrity of our government, by establishing it on a basis of universal freedom.
Whereas, we fully believe that a thorough education, moral, physical, intellectual and religious, can alone give and preserve our happiness and prosperity, both national and individual, therefore
Resolved, that we, as teachers, pledge ourselves with all our energies, to defend, support, and carry into effect, all measures calculated to promote such education in our midst.
Resolved, That in our judgment, county and district teachers’ Institutes afford most convenient and excellent advantages for teachers to prepare themselves for the ???? of the professor.
Resolved, That we, as teachers, shall improve every opportunity of increasing our own education, by more thorough and expansive reading, by attending high school and academies and by giving earnest, thoughtful attention to the true theory of teaching.
Resolved.  That our thanks are due to the citizens of Osceola and vicinity, for the material and they have given to the cause of education, by entertaining all teachers who have come from abroad free of charge.
Resolved, That we tender our sincere thanks to Reverends Reynolds, Howe, Kenedy and ??????, for their kindness in opening our sessions with devotional exercises.
This report was unanimously adopted.
Mr. Wightman offered the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That we oppose the practice of making charge for room, fuel, light, and care of room used at the sessions of the Institute.
Resolved, That we respectfully suggest the propriety of boarding female teachers free of charge during the sessions of the Institute.
Adjourned, to meet at Covington, at the call of the county Superintendent.
J.H. BOSARD, Reporter.

Tioga Agitator -  March 02, 1865
A Card.--The trustees, teachers, and pupils of the Mansfield State Normal School, take this opportunity of tendering to the Hon. T. Dyer, of Covington, their sincere and heartfelt thanks for the valuable collection of Geological specimens presented to this institution.
“State Normal School,” Mansfield

Handsome Compliment.—The patients and officers of ward  1, Finley Hospital, Washington, made their surgeon, Dr. Wm. B. Rich, of this county, a handsome present on the occasion of his retiring from duty in that ward.—The present consisted of a beautiful case of operating instruments costing upwards of fifty dollars. It was a testimonial to be proud of, and may considered a strong expression of the esteem, which his fidelity, kindness and skill won for him. Dr. Rich took with him the respect of the medical staff of the hospital, as well as that of his patients. It gives us pleasure to record this decided triumph of a Tioga Man.

Mansfield State Normal School. ---The third and last term of the school year of this institution commences on Monday, the 13th of March. The attendance so far, during the year has been greater than ever before. Everything appears to be in a prosperous condition. From all quarters we hear the most favorable accounts of the school. Some forty of Prof. Allen’s former pupils from Chester and Delaware counties and from Philadelphia have been in attendance during the year. We begin to feel now that we have a Normal School in our county; one worthy of, and deserving the patronage of our citizens. The great question now is ----- for pupils.

Tioga Agitator
August 23, 1865

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 5th District, Mansfield, Tioga County, Prof. F.A. ALLEN, A.M., Principal.  Three terms of 14 weeks each, commencing 1st Wednesday in September, and continuing without any recess except one week at Christmas.  Expenses during school year about $150.  Number of students last year,24.  Though the last recognized of the State Normal Schools, all the rooms in the Normal building are already taken for the next term  but boarding can still be had in the village. Additional buildings for students will be erected next year.

The Agitator
April 18, 1966

To The School Directors Of Tioga County – Gentlemen:  -- In pursuance of the 43d section of the act of 8th May, 1854, you are hereby notified to meet in convention, at the Court House in Wellsboro, on the first Tuesday in May, A.D. 1866, being the first day of the month, at one o’clock in the afternoon, and select directors, by a majority of the whole number of Directors present, one person of literary and scientific acquirements, and of skill and experience in the art of teaching, a County Superintendent for the three years succeeding; determine the amount of compensation for the same; and certify the result to the State Superintendent, at Harrisburg, as required by the 30th and 40th sections of said act.
       V. A. Elliott,
      County Superintendent of Tioga County
     Mansfield, April 18, 1866 – 3t

TIOGA AGITATOR - Knoxville, September 22, 1866
Common Schools
Teachers' examinations will be held as follows:
Oceola...October  1
Brookfield, (red school house)...October 2
Westfield...October 3
Clymer (Sabinsville)...October 4
Gaines (Vermilyea's)...October 5
Farmington (House school house)...October 8
Chatham (Close school house)...October 10
Delmar (Butler school house)...October 12
Wellsboro (Academy)...October 13
Union (Swamp school house)...October 16
Liberty (Blockhouse)...October 17
Bloss ...October 18
Covington...October 19
Nelson...October 22
Lawrenceville...October 23
Tioga...October 24
Middlebury (Hollidaytown)...October 25
Charleston (Dartt Settlement)...October 26
Mansfield (Normal School)...October 27
Sullivan (Gray's Valley)...October 30
Rutland (Roseville)...October 31
Jackson (Millertown)...November 1
Deerfield (Union Academy)...November 3
Tioga County Teachers' Institute at Tioga on November 20, 21, 22, 23
Examinations will be principally written.
School Directors and the friends of education in general are invited to attend these examinations.  It is especially desirable that the Secretary of the School Board in each district should be present.
S. B. Price, Co. Sup't.
TIOGA AGITATOR,  Wellsboro, August 15, 1866
The full term of the 44th year of this institution will commence on the 6th of September, 1866, under the following Faculty, to wit:
Rev. D. D. Van Allen, A. B., Principal, Professor of German, Natural Science, and Helles Letters.
Miss S. A. Van Allen, Preceptress, teacher of Higher English and Mathematics.
Miss Fannie J. Holland, Vice Preceptress, teacher of French, Latin and Mathematics.
Miss Alice A. Landis (Alumna) assistant in Common English and Mathematics.
Mrs. Juliette Sherwood and Miss Hatie Truman, teachers in the music department
Mrs. Blyden, teacher of Painting and ???.
Captain J. H. Shaw, teacher of Vocal Music
Tuition--From $4 to $10, with no incidentals.
For further particulars see catalogue.
The former well known and eminent success of this school, under the conduct of Mr. Van Allen and his able associates, precludes the necessity of any extended notice here.
The Trustees take this opportunity, however, to say that the management of the school have met their entire approbation, and they can confidently recommend the Wellsboro Academy to all who desire a thorough education.
J. Emery, President
H. W. Williams, Secretary

Tri-Counties Page 16337

Bradford County PA
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Published On Tri-Counties Site On 23 SEP 2008
By Joyce M. Tice
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Gazette & Bulletin, Williamsport, PA, Saturday morning, 30 Oct. 1937

Annual Sessions Held by Teachers and Directors of Tioga County Schools
WELLSBORO - Addresses by prominent educators were highlights of the 70th annual Tioga County teachers’ meeting and the annual school directors’ convention. Both were held here Thursday and Friday.
 Officers of the School Directors Association of Tioga County were elected as follows: President, Mrs. Mae Smith of Elkland; first vice president, Frank Snyder of Liberty; second vice president, A.H. Vosburg, Mansfield; secretary, Mrs. Clara MacIntosh of Covington; treasurer, Fay Furman of Wellsboro.
 Salom Rizk, lecturer, spoke on “Americanization of an American” at a meeting of the teachers in the high school Thursday morning.
 Sectional meetings, followed by panel discussions were led by the following: Irving T. Chatterton, on English; Dr. Paul J. Steele, science; Miss May M. Mattson, home economics; George S. Howard, music, all of the Mansfield State Teachers College faculty.
 The afternoon addresses were given by Dr. Joseph F. Noonan, president, Mansfield Teachers College, and Florence Hale, lecturer and editor.
 Preston O. VanNess, executive secretary of the state directors’ association, E.A. Quackenbush, of the department of public instructions, and Mr. Rizk, addressed the school directors.
 Music was furnished by the Mansfield Girls’ Glee Club, directed by Miss Eleanor Barnard; the Wellsboro High School Band, and instrumental quintet and pupils of the Charleston grade school. Mrs. Catherine McClintock, Wellsboro, led group singing.
 Dr. Hilton Ira Jones, scientist and lecturer, was the only new speaker at yesterday’s meeting of teachers.
 Entertainment was provided by the Wellsboro High School Orchestra; a baritone solo by Ronald Walter of Tioga; dances by Wellsboro High School girls in charge of Miss Jane Farwell; selections by Sophomore Girls’ Glee Club of Wellsboro, and vocal solo by Lane Webster, Wellsboro.
 Approximately 300 persons attended the two-day sessions, at the close of which the following officers were elected by the Tioga County Tuberculosis Society: President, Rock L. Butler, Wellsboro; vice president, Walter G. Clark, Westfield; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. C.E. Bennett, Wellsboro; auditors, Edgar Brandt, Wellsboro, and R.D. English, Antrim; delegates to P.S.E.A. convention, Warren L. Miller, Mansfield, Miss Josephine Squires and J.G. March, Wellsboro. Officers of the county unit were elected as follows: President, Rock L. Butler; secretary-treasurer, Miss Eleanor Donovan, Elkland.