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History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania

History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania, (W. W. Munsell & Co., New York : 1883), 
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Richmond Township and Mansfield.

Typed for Tri-County Site byJeanette Hulse.

Source:  History of Tioga County, Pennsylvania(W.W. Munsell & Co., NY : 1883), pp. 285-313..


By Andrew Sherwood.

Part Three (see also Part One & Part Two  & Biographies)


Organization of the First Church.--The record reads: "July 5th 1832 the following individuals were constituted a church of Christ, by Rev. David Higgins and the Rev. Elijah D. Wells, a committee appointed by the Presbytery of Bath: Amariah Robbins, Joel Harkness, Joseph Thompson, John Backer, John W. Donaldson, Timothy Orvis, John Kelley, Mary Cooley, Hannah Kelley, Thanks Webster, Delia Donaldson, Emily Sexton, Anna Finks, Roxalana Brown and Rachel Orvis. The church thus constituted was denominated the First Presbyterian Church of Richmond, and the following are their articles of faith and covenant":

[Here follow a confession in ten articles and a covenant, all of which, excepting perhaps the doctrine of infant baptism by sprinkling, would be readily accepted by any believer at the present time.]

"After the organization of the church a sermon was preached by Mr. Higgins, from John xii. 32, and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered.

"A true copy.
It would be interesting to copy the proceedings of this early church, did time and space permit. In 1835 there were 36 communicants, and up to August 17th 1848 there had been 62 names on the church book. The last record was made on the 27th of June 1857, when Lorin Butts was elected ruling elder in place of Amariah Robbins, deceased. But, owing to the decease and removal of many of the members, and to the lack of a pastor, this little church, which at one time promised so much, seems to have become entirely extinct. As a visible organization it ceased to exist many years ago.

The Baptist Church.--On the 10th of April 1840 certain Baptists residing in and about Mansfield were organized as a branch of the Sullivan Baptist church. On the 1st day of April 1843 the ten members composing this branch (Deacon Daniel Sherwood and Anna his wife, Hon. D. L. Sherwood and Caroline his wife, E. P. Clark and Fanny his wife, Oliver Elliott, Thomas Jerald, Martha Utter and Lorena Ripley), together with Rev. Abijah Sherwood and Maria his wife, were organized as an independent church, to be called the Baptist Church of Mansfield, which was consummated by the following exercises: Reading of the Scriptures, Rev. S. Bullock; introductory prayer, Rev. J. L. Coffin; sermon, Rev. T. S. Sheardown; constituting prayer, Rev. M. Rockwell; right hand of fellowship, Rev. G. Spratt; charge to the church, Rev. S. Grinnell; concluding prayer, Rev. A. Sherwood; benediction, Rev. S. Bullock.

Of the twelve constituent members seven are still living, four of whom are members of this church. Hon. D. L. Sherwood and wife are members of the Northumberland (Pa.) church, while Martha Utter belongs to a church in the west. Deacon Daniel Sherwood and wife, with their son Rev. Abijah Sherwood, and Thomas Jerald, have gone to their reward. During the first year two, Levi Cooper and Rachel his wife, were baptized into the church. The first death was that of Anna Sherwood, in the fifth year; the last, that of Thomas Jerald, in the present year. The church is now in its fortieth year, and numbers 150 members.

With the exception of the years 1852 and 1853, when the desk was filled by Rev. G. W. Stone, and 1853 and 1854, when it was filled by Rev. D. P. Maryatt, the first pastor, Rev. Abijah Sherwood, served the church until 1860; and the two or three years he preached to them while a branch of the Sullivan church made his pastorate cover a period of about twenty years. His successors were Rev. N. L. Reynolds, 1860-66; Rev. G. P. Watrous, 1866, 1867, 1869-73; Rev. J. W. Henry, 1867, 1868; J. E. Bell, 1874, 1875; Rev. H. Bray, 1875-78; Rev. G. M. Righter, 1878-81; and Rev. S. Earley, who is now the pastor.

The deacons have been: Daniel Sherwood (who took the first steps toward founding the church), 1843-59; Cornelius Putman, D. C. Crandall, S. F. Utter, Henry Hollands, Aaron Baldwin, Oliver Elliott, and the present incumbents-Albert Sherwood, Zimri Allen, S. J. Shepard and A. A. Hall. The clerk is P. Newell; the trustees are F. W. Clark, Oliver Ide, and Andrew Sherwood.

The house was built in 1848-49, in a fine location at the corner of Main and Sherwood streets. The sheds and chapel were built in 1882.

There is a very large and flourishing Sunday-school in connection with the church, of which W. H. Kinney is superintendent. Average number of pupils, 125; teachers, 14.

This is the oldest of the existing churches in Mansfield, and has seemingly, a bright future, although subjected to great trials in the past. During the civil war, politics was introduced, and the church was divided, so that its destruction seemed inevitable. An re-union was finally effected however. In 1874 and 1875 the church was again shaken to its foundation, during the pastorate of J. E. Bell, who was deposed from the ministry for his wicked conduct. At this time the world came in like a flood; while the arch enemy, through his own chosen emissary, made unparalleled efforts to overthrow the little church. But the storm is past, and the good old Baptist church still lives.

The Methodist Church.--Ministers of this denomination came through here at an early day, generally on horseback, and held meetings in dwellings and barns, and sometimes in the open air. These fiery evangelists were doubtless the pioneer preachers, found then as now on the farthest frontiers; and we cannot help thinking there is something grand in the lives of these men, who have left all and gone to the most distant outposts, there to proclaim the glad tidings.

But it was not until 1841 that stated services were held in Mansfield, and not until 1845 that a church was organized. February 10th 1845 a petition was presented, signed by S. F. Utter, H. G. Martin, P. Doud, Elijah Clark, Russell Davis, Alvin Gaylord, R. C. Shaw, Isaiah Seelye and P. M. Clark, asking to be incorporated as the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Mansfield, which petition was granted on the 20th of the same month. But two of these petitioners are now living, viz. H. G. Martin and Russell Davis. The trustees then were Elijah Clark, Simeon F. Utter, Phineas M. Clark, Rodney C. Shaw, Alvin Gaylord, John Cochran and Marvin Perry. It would no doubt be interesting to know more of the proceedings at the organization of this church, but unfortunately all record of its early history is lost, having been destroyed by fire at the burning of Rev. G. C. Jones's house in 1876.

Services were held at first in a building erected for a wagon shop, at the corner of Main and Sherwood streets, opposite the Baptist church, and afterward in the old white school-house at the corner of Sullivan and Academy streets. In 1849 they numbered fifty members, and with Rev. Orson Trowbridge in charge they built the edifice at the corner of Main and Elmira streets, now used by the Universalists. This building cost $1,600, and was used until the year 1872, when, on the 17th of April, the new M. E. church, at the corner of Sullivan and Academy streets, was dedicated. This last building, which is perhaps the finest church edifice in the county, was erected during the pastorate of Rev. W. D. Taylor, at a cost of $16,000. It is of brick, and was designed by Hon. S. B. Elliott. It is capable of seating six hundred persons, and is heated with a furnace. It contains, besides the auditorium, a Sunday-school room, parlors, kitchen, class rooms and coal room. The windows are of stained glass, and several of them are memorial windows. This church in all it arrangements is an ornament to the place and the pride of everybody residing in and around Mansfield.

Rev. J. T. Brownell is the pastor. It is a strong church, of 252 members, and has numbered among its ministers such able and excellent men as Cranmer, Lamkin, Parkhurst, Moyer and others.

There is a large and flourishing Sunday-school connected with the church, of which W. W. Thoburn is superintendent. The average attendance is about 100, and there are 12 teachers.

The church trustees are F. M. Shaw, E. L. Sperry, D. J. Butts, M. L. Clark, V. R. Pratt, D. H. Pitts and B. Moody. The class leaders are H. L. Johnson, E. L. Sperry, F. M. Shaw and J. W. Beach.

The following is a complete list of the pastors from first to last: 1841, I. Smith and E. H. Cranmer; 1842, E. H. Cranmer; 1843, R. M. Reach and M. Scott; 1844, J. Ashworth and S. Nichols; 1845, E. Pinder; 1846, 1847, R. L. Stilwell; 1848, 1849, O. Trowbridge; 1850, W. C. Mattison; 1851, A. H. Shurtliff; 1852, 1853, W. Manning; 1854, 1855, L. L. Rogers; 1856, J. R. Jaques; 1857, H. N. Seaver; 1858, 1859, R. L. Stilwell; 1860, R. A. Drake and W. Beach; 1861, W. Cochran and R. A. Drake; 1862, W. Cochran; 1863, 1864, W. M. Haskell; 1865-67, H. Lamkin; 1868, H. T. Giles, W. Beach, L. Beach and L. D. Watson; 1869-71, W. D. Taylor; 1872, J. T. Canfield; 1873, 1874, H. S. Parkhurst; 1875, 1876, G. C. Jones; 1877, H. Vosburgh; 1878-80, H. C. Moyer; 1881, 1882, J. T. Brownell.

St. James's Episcopal Church seems to have had its origin in a Sunday-school started by William Hollands in March 1865, and in which Mrs. James R. Wilson, Mrs. Joseph P. Morris, and others took an active part. At the same time William Hollands began lay reading in a hall, which he kept up every Sabbath until April 1866, when, largely through his efforts, a rector was secured in the person of Rev. N. Barrows. From this time on regular services were held in the Baptist church, which had been hired for the purpose. A church organization was thus effected, with William Hollands and Charlotte his wife, Mrs. Sarah E. Morris, James R. Wilson and Margaret his wife, Robert Crossley and Mary his wife, Frederic, Hart, Josephine and Irene Stewart as members.

Efforts were made to procure money with which to build a church edifice, while a charter of incorporation was obtained May 30th 1867. The necessary building funds having been secured, some here, the rest in Philadelphia and elsewhere, work was begun, and the cornerstone laid by Bishop Stevens September 12th 1868. The church was completed and opened for worship December 21st 1870, having cost, with the bell and organ, $7,500. The rector was absent in Europe during most of this year, and Mr. Hollands, having a license, again served as lay reader. On the 24th of April 1871 the church was consecrated by Bishop Stevens, and the communion was administered. The officers of the church at this time were: James R. Wilson, senior warden; William Hollands, junior warden; R. Crossley, A. J. Ross, F. A. Stewart, F. A. Allen and J. P. Morris, vestrymen. After the church was organized many valuable token were received from Mrs. Edgar of New York, Mrs. Margaret Wilson, Mrs. Sarah E. Morris, Mrs. Vesta King, Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Allen, and others. The bell, weighing 1,140 pounds and costing $500, and a fine pipe organ, costing $800, were presented by Charles E. Smith of Philadelphia. The lot was presented by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Morris, and is one of the finest locations for the purpose in the village. The interior of the church is very fine.

The whole number of communicants at the present time is about 60. The present officers are: Rev. B. F. Brown, rector; William Hollands, senior warden; Robert Crossley, junior warden; M. King, R. Crossley, F. A. Stewart, J. P. Morris, C. V. Elliott and E. Blackwell, vestrymen.

Rev. N. Barrows was rector from 1866 to 1875, following by Rev. William Marshall from 1875 to 1880, who has been succeeded by Rev. B. F. Brown, the present incumbent. This church has thus far been highly prosperous, judging from the large accessions to its membership.

There is a flourishing Sunday-school of some 50 pupils and 7 teachers, which is superintended by William Hollands, a veteran Sunday-school worker, who has been a superintendent 54 years-30 of the time in Mansfield.

The Presbyterian Church.--This church was organized on the 29th of April 1870. At a meeting of the Presbytery of Wellsboro, held at Tioga April 12th 1870, a request was presented, signed by several residents of Mansfield and vicinity, asking the presbytery to organize a church to be known as "the Presbyterian Church of Mansfield." The request was granted, and a committee consisting of Rev. Dr. J. D. Mitchell, Rev. O. Otis Thatcher and Hon. H. W. Williams was appointed to organize said church.

On the 29th of April 1870 this committee met in the Baptist church at Mansfield, when Rev. Dr. J. D. Mitchell was elected chairman and Hon. H. W. Williams secretary. After a sermon by Dr. Mitchell from Rev. xxii, 17, the following named persons presented letters and were enrolled: Charles H. Verrill, William Hutchinson, Mrs. Fidelia Hutchinson, Mrs. Harriett N. Hunt, Miss Nettie H. Hunt, Miss Emma R. Hunt, Ralph R. Kingsley, Mrs. Sarah Kingsley, Mrs. Eliza Kingsley, Miss Caroline Kingsley, Mrs. Lottie R. Hoyt, Mrs. C. E. Elliott, Charles Thompson, Mrs. James Hoard, Mrs. Mary E. Spencer and Mrs. Lavina Reynolds-16. The roll being completed, Charles H. Verrill and William Hutchinson were elected ruling elders. After prayer by Rev. Mr. Thatcher the meeting was addressed by Rev. Dr. Mitchell, when the organization of the Presbyterian church of Mansfield was declared completed. Immediately after these services, on the same day, the following persons were received upon profession of their faith: O. V. Elliott, Mrs. O. V. Elliott, Miss Emma A. Elliott and Miss Lelia S. Cole, making a membership of 20.

Rev. Joseph A. Rosseel became pastor, and continued as such till 1875, when he was succeeded by Rev. S. C. McElroy, who remained until April 1876. On the 1st of July 1876 Rev. George D. Meigs became pastor, and he remained until 1882. The present pastor is Rev. William S. Carter.

The present membership is 78. The trustees are Joseph Hoard, Homer Kingsley and Abram Shuart, with O. V. Elliott as clerk.

There is a flourishing Sunday-school connected with the church, having 8 teachers and an average attendance of 50. Joseph Hoard is superintendent.

In 1875 a small but neat and substantial church edifice was erected at a cost of $2,000. The ground cost $780. The church has been blessed with a good degree of prosperity, and is one of those institutions which Mansfield could not well do without. In the sisterhood of churches this one, like the rest, has its own most important sphere of usefulness, and, like them, the promise of a grand future.

In connection with this history of the Presbyterian church the reader is referred to the account of a similar organization existing in this place many years ago, which will be found on page 303.

A Universalist Church was organized in Mansfield in 1882, with Emma E. Bailey as pastor. The old Methodist church at the corner of Main and Elmira streets was bought for its use.


Prior to 1814 children had to rely on the scanty education to be obtained on winter evenings by the light of a pile of blazing logs in the great open fireplaces so conspicuous in the old-time log and plank houses. But in 1814 the first school was opened, at Canoe Camp, by Miss Sally Elliott (afterward Mrs. Daniel Rose). Two of her pupils were Oliver Elliott, now of Mansfield, and Martin Stratton, residing at Blossburg. She also taught in 1815. Then Daniel Rose took the school, followed by Gardner Simmons and a man by the name of Clark.

The second school in the township was opened in 1818, by Miss Miranda Allen, daughter of Lieutenant Allen, and was kept in a house built and used as a dwelling by Frank Truman, which stood on the knoll south from Kelleytown. Martin Stratton, of Blossburg, was one of her pupils.


In the winter of 1821-22 the first school in Mansfield borough of which we have been able to obtain any record was kept in one room of a plank house occupied by John Kelts, across the railroad from Mart King's factory. It was kept by Susanna Allen, daughter of Lieutenant Jacob Allen, and an aunt to Prof. F. A. Allen. This was undoubtedly the first school ever opened in a place since become famous for its schools. Who shall say how much we owe to this woman for our progress in this direction? Her name shall not perish, though doubtless she has been dead this many a year; but placed on the page of history she shall henceforth be known as Mansfield's first school-teacher. Two of her pupils were Daniel L. and Eliza Holden. Her sister Miranda had previously kept a school at Kelleytown, a mile and a half below Mansfield, in 1818; and afterward her sister Philena taught until 1826 in a log house built by Alpheus Button for a dwelling, in 1815, which stood a few rods north from the park entrance.

In 1826 the first school-house was built. It was a plank house, and stood where the railroad now runs, a few rods south of the railroad bridge on Wellsboro street. In 1827 and 1828 William C. Ripley taught the first school there. One of his pupils was the late Professor F. A. Allen.

In 1837 the old white school-house on the hill, at the corner of Academy and Sullivan streets, was built, and it has served its purpose well, having been in continuous use more than 40 years. At the time of its erection and for many years afterward it was the best school-house in the county. It has but recently given place to the new graded school building and been turned into a dwelling. There are many to whom, as to the writer, the old white school-house on the hill is freighted with pleasant school memories. It was there we played "mumble-peg," and it was there we threw the ball over the school-house and yelled "Ante-over!"


[By Simon H. Elliott and Andrew Sherwood.(1)]

The project of erecting an institution of learning in Mansfield was first mentioned by J. S. Hoard to Dr. J. P. Morris, Rev. H. N. Seaver, Alvin Gaylord, and perhaps one or two others, some time in the month of May or June 1854. Receiving no encouragement except from Dr. Morris, who joined heartily in the enterprise, Mr. Hoard, it seems, let the matter rest until about the 4th of July following, when he made known to quite a number of gentlemen the project he had in view. This was at a camp meeting held on L. D. Seeley's farm in the township of Sullivan. An agent of the seminary at Lima, N.Y., had been canvassing this section of the country; in fact was at this very camp meeting soliciting aid and selling scholarships for that institution. Mr. Hoard deemed it an error to send money out of the country which might as well be expended here, and to send our youth away to be educated when facilities might be afforded them at home. Determined in his efforts, he brought the matter before the quarterly conference of Mansfield charge of the M. E. church. This meeting was held in Colonel R. C. Shaw's tent, on Saturday the 9th of July 1854. Present at this meeting were Rev. H. N. Seaver, presiding elder; Rev. W. Manning, minister in charge; R. C. Shaw, P. M. Clark, J. B. Clark, L. Beach jr., L. Cruttenden, Joseph Hubbell, Alvin Gaylord, and J. S. Hoard. The suggestion was not very favorably received by the gentlemen present, and, the legitimate business of the conference occupying nearly the entire time, it was concluded to meet again at the church in Mansfield on the following Monday. This adjourned meeting was held, but no new members were present and not all of those who had attended at the camp ground. Gentlemen having had time to reflect and think upon the matter viewed it in a more favorable light, and it was resolved to hold a public meeting at the M. E. church in Mansfield on the 26th day of July 1854. Here was the beginning. Of course it will be seen that credit is given to Mr. Hoard for first originating the enterprise. All honor, then, to him who first saw, and dared, and did!

The meeting appointed for the 26th of July was held, and a large number of our citizens were present. Active in soliciting subscriptions for the school were J. S. Hoard, William Manning, Alvin Gaylord, R. C. Shaw, D. L. Sherwood, R. P. Buttles, B. M. Bailey, W. C. Ripley, L. Beach jr., and others. On the 28th of November a committee was appointed to procure plans for the building. A committee was also appointed to draft articles of association and procure a charter of incorporation. A resolution was passed to expend $12,000 in the erection of suitable brick buildings, and to commence operations as soon as practicable, and that a meeting be held December 1st 1854 to elect permanent officers of the institution. The following is the list of officers elected at that date: J. S. Hoard, president; C. V. Elliott and R. P. Buttles, vice-presidents; J. P. Morris, recording secretary; S. B. Elliott and B. M. Bailey, corresponding secretaries; L. Beach jr., treasurer; William M. Johnson, librarian; William Manning, T. L. Baldwin, J. R. Wilson, Rev. Abijah Sherwood, Rev. Richard Videan jr., Joseph Hubbell, Lyman Reynolds, D. L. Sherwood, J. S. Hoard, J. P. Morris, W. K. Mitchell, J. B. Clark, B. M. Bailey and L. Beach jr., trustees.

The first meeting of the board of trustees was held February 15th 1855, and the plan of a building was adopted. This building was 100 feet in front, with wings 78 feet deep, and four stories high. It was built of brick. At this meeting a building committee was appointed, whose members were each to receive the sum of $1.25 per day for time actually spent in the duties of their office. The committee consisted of J. S. Hoard, D. L. Sherwood and Amos Bixby. The enterprise was now fairly commenced, and its machinery in operation. Work was begun in early spring, and prosecuted as vigorously as circumstances would allow.

On the 11th of December 1855 the second annual meeting of the stockholders was held, and the following officers were chosen: J. S. Hoard, president; C. V. Elliott and R. P. Buttles, vice-presidents; L. Beach jr., treasurer; W. C. Ripley, recording secretary; S. B. Elliott and A. Gaylord, corresponding secretaries; D. L. Sherwood, Joseph Hubbell, P. M. Clark, P. S. Ripley and B. M. Bailey, trustees.

April 17th 1856 the trustees chose the following teachers: Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Jaques in the classical department and mathematics-salary for both $900; T. B. Barker, higher mathematics and English department-salary $400; Mrs. Ellen E. Seaver, assistant preceptress and teacher of music-salary $300; Miss Kinsey, assistant teacher in music, $200; Miss E. B. Ryman, drawing and painting-salary, proceeds of the department. Prof. Jaques was made acting principal, and Mrs. Jaques preceptress.

November 18th 1856 was held the next annual meeting of stockholders. J. S. Hoard was elected president; W. C. Ripley and B. M. Bailey, vice-presidents; William Manning, treasurer; W. C. Ripley, recording secretary; S. B. Elliott and R. P. Buttles corresponding secretaries; J. S. Hoard, William Hollands, E. Burley, R. Videan jr. and S. B. Elliott trustees. At a meeting of the trustees held the same day the building committee were ordered to complete the building and have it in readiness for a school by the 7th of January 1857. On this 7th of January 105 students presented themselves for admission. Here was the full fruition of our hopes. Here were the material results of our labor.

The building had cost far more than expected; including furnishing about $20,000 had been expended. Not far from $17,000 had been subscribed, and from $2,000 to $3,000 of this was unpaid. It is safe to estimate the indebtedness at $6,000; but none were disheartened. That could have been paid, and would have been speedily, had not disaster soon followed. This term of school passed off pleasantly and profitably. A jubilee was held at the close of the term; Rev. W. H. Goodwin delivered the address. The attendance was large and a pleasant evening was spent.

The second term opened April 16th 1857, with about 150 students. On the 22nd of that month, at about 10 o'clock in the forenoon, large volumes of smoke were seen issuing from the observatory. The Mansfield Classical Seminary was on fire! All efforts to save the building were useless, and in a few hours it was a mass of smoking, tumbling ruins. The consternation and confusion attending the catastrophe were terrible. One hundred and fifty students were turned out into snow over a foot deep; but no one was injured. Providence has watched over those who have ever had aught to do with this institution.

While the walls were yet falling, and the fire was yet lighting up the night, the citizens interested assembled in the Methodist church and resolved to rebuild, and to that end subscribed then and there $4,000. The building was insured for $12,000. With this and the old subscription, and what the people would do, it was resolved to proceed, and they did proceed.

On the 25th of April the trustees made arrangements to rebuild. On the 5th of June they contracted with William Hollands for the brick, and on the 10th the plan of the present building was adopted. On the 25th the proposal of Picking & Terry of Elmira to erect the present building for $15,380, the trustees to furnish brick delivered and doors and windows, was accepted. Work progressed until the 29th of September, when, owing to the financial crash of 1857, operations were suspended. One of the insurance companies, from which was due $3,000, had failed, and another owing the same amount resisted payment. Here began the long gloomy night in the history of this institution, and as we look back upon it we are surprised at the final success and astonished at the shocks the enterprise endured. From this time on until 1863 its history is much mixed up with judgments, sheriff's sales and orders of court.

On the 17th of November 1857 the following officers were elected: J. S. Hoard, president; W. C. Ripley and W. Hollands, vice-presidents; H. N. Seaver, treasurer; W. C. Ripley, recording secretary; R. P. Buttles and B. M. Bailey, corresponding secretaries; J. P. Morris, W. D. Kelley, A. J. Ross, H. N. Seaver, and Whiting Beach, trustees. On the 25th of November the trustees passed a resolution to circulate petitions asking the Legislature to pass an act authorizing a tax to be levied in Tioga county to complete the institution. This enterprise failed, as it ought. It was reserved for this people to complete the sacrifice already begun.

In the month of August 1858 the M. E. conference was to meet at Corning, and it was thought best to make a grand effort at that time, hold a meeting on the island, have a free dinner, and invite the members of the conference to attend. Arrangements were made, and a special train was engaged to bring up the members of the conference free. The 14th of August was the day appointed. It was a lovely day. An ample dinner was provided, and our people turned out en masse. The special train from Corning arrived and brought three gentlemen. Universal disappointment was the result. Yet it might have been expected. The conference had enough of its own work to do. Professor Jaques, former acting principal, and a man of powerful mental faculties, filled with the ideal, yet hardly enough of the practical, that day came down to solid earth and told us we must not rely on aid from abroad, but if the contemplated structure was ever built it must be built by this people. A plainer truth could not have been uttered, not in a more opportune time. His declaration came like a dash of cold water after the disappointment of the day. Yet he did us real service, and so intended it. After our three visitors had left us a determination was expressed by all to put the walls of the building up and the roof on-the first story having been nearly completed when the work was stopped. Never in our history have we seen another day like this. The entire afternoon was spent in the effort, and the sun was low down in the west when the meeting broke up. Men and women, boys and girls, vied with each other in their efforts. Sums in all conceivable amounts from 25 cents up to $100 were subscribed; but few of the latter, however, only three if we remember correctly. But Mansfield Seminary was saved that day. Over $4,000 was raised.

Encouraged by this, the trustees met on the 25th of August and resolved to proceed with the building. P. M. Clark, W. Hollands and S. B. Elliott were appointed a building committee. Rev. H. N. Seaver resigned as treasurer, and P. M. Clark was appointed to fill the vacancy. Work was immediately commenced. One of the building committee took with him three or four young men, who had had but little experience at bricklaying, and went to work on the walls. With so little help, and so large a building, you could hardly see at a week's end what had been done. The subscriptions had not been made payable in cash. How many turns and trades the treasurer made will never be known. Without money to do with, most men would have failed, but he was just fitted for it. We will state one feat he accomplished. A portion of the first story, the entire second story, and nearly all the third were put up that fall and only fifty cents in cash paid out for labor, nor was any debt contracted. A stranger came along and represented himself a bricklayer, but proved not to be and was discharged before noon and paid fifty cents in cash! At the approach of cold weather the work was necessarily suspended and the walls were secured from damage.

On the 11th of November 1858 the following officers were elected: J. S. Hoard, president; A. Bixby and J. P. Morris, vice-presidents; P. M. Clark, treasurer; W. C. Ripley, recording secretary; B. M. Bailey and R. P. Buttles, corresponding secretaries; John Voorhees, P. M. Clark, A. Bixby, P. S. Ripley, J. B. Clark and B. M. Bailey, trustees. On the 10th of March 1859 the trustees ordered the building committee to proceed with the work, but to incur no new indebtedness. None had been made since the meeting of the 14th of August on the island.

About the 30th of March $1,150 were received from one of the insurance companies. This was paid on a mortgage given on the old building. Old debts were paid as well as progress made on the new edifice. We will here state that but $7,500 were ever received out of the $12,000 for which the first building was insured. A. J. Ross resigned as trustee and C. W. Bailey was appointed to fill the vacancy. Work was commenced on the 25th of April and carried on as well as means would allow. On the 4th of August 1859 Rev. James Landreth was elected principal, and at this request a resolution was passed on the 8th to complete enough of the building to open school by the 23rd of November following. Prof. Landreth's salary was $800 and house rent. On the 20th of October Miss Julia A. Hosmer was chosen preceptress, salary $400, and Miss Mary Bowen assistant teacher, with a salary of $300.

On the 15th of November the annual meeting of the stockholders was held and the following officers were elected: S. B. Elliott, president; J. P. Morris and E. Burley, vice-presidents; P. M. Clark, treasurer; W. C. Ripley, recording secretary; A. J. Ross and R. P. Buttles, corresponding secretaries; C. W. Bailey, S. B. Elliott, W. C. Ripley, E. Burley, R. C. Shaw and R. Videan, trustees.

School opened November 23rd and barely 30 students. It was kept up until the close of the spring term with somewhat increased numbers. On the 3rd of July 1860 Prof. Landreth tendered his resignation, which was accepted. On the 13th of July a festival was held, and an address was delivered by T. K. Beecher, of Elmira. That was the first gathering ever held in the chapel, which was then on the second floor, over the present chapel. It was not lathed and plastered, and was without glass in the windows.

On the 20th of November 1860 the annual meeting of stockholders was held and the following officers were elected: Rev. N. Fellows, president; W. C. Ripley and J. A. Fellows, vice presidents; R. A. Drake, treasurer; A. J. Ross, recording secretary; C. W. Nesbitt and Abram Young, corresponding secretaries; J. P. Morris, J. C. Howe, N. Fellows, A. Pitts, I. P. Bennett and T. J. Berry, trustees. Only four of these officers had ever been connected with the institution before. It was the old fault over again of getting those connected with it who were not among us as citizens. The next evening Prof. Holt was elected principal, Prof. Wildman, who had been promised the place and cheated out of it, then made arrangements with Mr. Holt to carry on the school himself. He was to conduct it on his own account and have its avails for his compensation. January 19th 1861 Prof. Holt resigned as principal, and Prof. Wildman was elected in his stead. Wildman had opened school some time in December previous. Mrs. H. P. R. Wildman was made preceptress, and Miss Anna E. Chase music teacher. In June of this year Rev. R. A. Drake attempted to sell the institution at sheriff's sale, but was prevented. On the 24th of July he secured the passage of a resolution waiving stay of execution on a judgment he had purchased at 50 per cent. discount. He attempted to sell it again in September following, but was prevented through Judge Williams, the attorney for the seminary. Rev. N. Fellows resigned as president, and A. J. Ross was chosen to fill the vacancy. In September school was opened by Prof. Wildman and a good number were in attendance.

November 19th 1861 the next annual meeting of the stockholders was held, and the following officers were elected: Rev. W. Cochran, president; W. C. Ripley and C. W. Bailey, vice-presidents; E. Wildman, treasurer; R. Videan, recording secretary; W. Cochran and W. Hollands, corresponding secretaries; L. Beach jr., W. Cochran, C. W. Bailey, E. Wildman and J. B. Clark, trustees. Under this organization a new era dawned. It was "the beginning of the end." Much of the indebtedness had been bought up by Rev. R. A. Drake, Rev. R. Videan jr., and J. C. Howe. Various futile efforts were made to settle with these men, while Mr. Cochran set himself vigorously at work to save the seminary from sale. It was Mr. Cochran who first approached Hon. John Magee, and in a long letter addressed to him laid the foundation of future arrangements whereby the seminary was finally saved from the grasp of those who were seeking it. In the spring Prof. Wildman associated with him H. C. Johns. On the 28th of June 1862 a resolution was passed authorizing Wildman and Johns to complete the seminary building.

Previous to this, however, the propriety of changing the seminary to a State normal school had been discussed. Hardly a term of court passed without the property being advertised for sale by the sheriff. Could the people pay the $10,000 indebtedness? Plainly and frankly they could not. What then was to be done? On the 2nd of July 1862 L. Beach jr. moved in the board of trustees the adoption of the following:

"Resolved, That the trustees of the Mansfield Classical Seminary now initiate measures to offer the said seminary to the State, to become a State normal school."

The purpose of this resolution was carried out. Application was made to court for an amendment of the charter to make it comply with the act of Assembly. On the 2nd of July R. Videan jr. resigned as secretary, and W. C. Ripley was appointed in his stead. Mr. Cochran was chosen principal in July, but declined, and Prof. Wildman was continued. Mr. Cochran was appointed to present to the M. E. conference the condition of affairs and ask its agreement to the separation, which he did, and reported that the conference regretted the occurrence of circumstances which impelled us to take the step, but bid us "God speed." Rev. N. L. Reynolds was chosen a professor in the institution in July of that year.

We have neglected to state that in June of this year the seminary was sold at sheriff's sale by Messrs. Wildman & Johns. These gentlemen had purchased the judgments against it which Messrs. Drake, Videan and Howe did not. It was bid off by them June 4th 1862, for $2,000. June 5th the sale was set aside by the court, mainly on technical grounds. A narrow escape, truly. The fall term of school was opened in September. About 200 pupils were in attendance.

On the 18th of November 1862 an annual meeting of the stockholders was held, and Mr. Cochran was chosen president; W. Hollands and S. B. Elliott, vice-presidents; W. C. Ripley, recording secretary; J. P. Morris and S. B. Elliott, corresponding secretaries; Philip Williams, treasurer; S. B. Elliott, W. Hollands, W. C. Ripley, R. Videan jr., and Rev. N. L. Reynolds, trustees. On the 11th of December the examiners appointed by the governor and State superintendent met at the building and examined the same, and made report that it conformed with the requirements of the law. Whereupon Dr. Burrowes, State superintendent, officially declared it the State normal school of the fifth district of Pennsylvania. Here it began a new life. Its object was now broader and in new fields. Its mission was to prepare teachers.

But though it now had a State flag as its head it was by no means out of danger. Although recognized by the State it received at that time no aid. That was reserved for the future. Its debts were still pressing. Sheriffs' tracks were visible approaching it from all directions. But let us right here state a fact that should be known, to the everlasting credit of the original creditors, those with whom the debts were contracted. They never pressed or made trouble. It was done by those who bought up their claims, persons who bought them, or nearly all of them, at fifty cents on the dollar. In the winter of 1863 the Legislature appropriated $5,000. This was paid in June, and the worthy H. C. Johns attempted to attach this money. He succeeded with only $150, however, thanks to Philip Williams, treasurer. This appropriation went at once to liquidate debts.

Professor Wildman ceased to be principal March 19th 1863, by resolution of the board of trustees.

Professor W. D. Taylor succeeded Mr. Wildman as acting principal, April 10th 1863. Miss Farnsworth was chosen preceptress, L. A. Ridgway professor of languages, Miss Clarissa Clark principal of the model school, and Miss Frank Cochran music teacher. They were to have the receipts of the school for compensation.

May 24th 1863 was held the first annual meeting of the stockholders of the normal school. The following officers were elected: W. Cochran, president; W. C. Ripley, vice-president; W. Hollands, recording secretary; J. P. Morris, corresponding secretary; P. Williams, treasurer; W. C. Ripley, J. P. Morris, W. Hollands, W. Cochran, S. B. Elliott, N. L. Reynolds, P. M. Clark, A. M. Spencer, A. J. Ross, C. V. Elliott, J. B. Clark, C. W. Bailey, A. Clark, H. Davis, and H. Allen, trustees. Prior to this the trustees were elected for three years, and consequently only five were elected each year. These and all subsequent trustees were elected to serve one year only.

July 13th 1863 a contract was entered into with Professor Taylor, by which he was to be principal one year, have all the proceeds of the school, and pay $100 rent. Rev. W. Cochran, having removed from the place, tendered his resignation as president October 31st 1863. W. C. Ripley, vice-president, filled the chair the remainder of the year. The Legislature in April 1864 appropriated $5,000. This was mainly used in liquidating debts. Previous to this, however, a loan of $6,500 had been secured of Hon. John Magee. Looking back it seems that this loan came just in time to save the school. Mr. Magee saw the necessity, and sympathized. He asked no personal guarantees as others had done. All honor to John Magee! A portion of the appropriation of 1863 was paid Mr. Magee, and there was something paid him out of the appropriation of 1864, so that there was left $3,000 due. This had run to $3,332.50 when, on the 1st day of January 1867, he sent a receipt in full as a New Year's present.

At a meeting held April 6th 1864 the corresponding secretary was directed to correspond with Professor F. A. Allen with a view to his becoming principal. The stockholders' annual meeting occurred May 2nd 1864, but as the officers chosen then and all subsequent officers are recorded in the catalogues we shall here omit them. The time for which Professor Taylor was elected principal having expired, Professor Allen was chosen to that position May 2nd 1864. Under him the school prospered. He brought furniture here with him, and the building committee had means for the first time at their command to make improvements.

Professor Allen remained principal the five years for which he was elected, building the school up and making it a success. Some of the other members of the faculty were: J. T. Streit, A. M., professor of Latin and Greek; Charles H. Verrill, A. M., professor of mathematics; and Miss Adelaide Ladley, preceptress.

In 1869 Prof. J. T. Streit, A. M., a graduate of Allegheny College, was chosen principal, but in consequence of ill health, which resulted in his lamented death soon after, never performed the duties of that position. It would not be too much to say that as a teacher and a Christian gentleman Prof. Streit never had his superior in Mansfield.

Prof. Charles H. Verrill, A. M., a graduate of Bowdoin College, who had been acting principal during Prof. Streit's illness, was elected principal upon the latter's death, during the fall term of 1869, from which position he resigned four years later, in June 1873. Some of the faculty at this time were H. W. Jones, M. S., professor of mathematics; Lemuel Amerman, A. B., professor of ancient languages; Miss Frankie Cochran, preceptress; and Isaac G. Hoyt, professor of music.

We should have stated that in April 1865 the Legislature again appropriated $5,000, while in the spring of 1872 it appropriated $10,000. This latter sum the State superintendent demanded should be expended mainly in the erection of new buildings, as the old one was no longer large enough to accommodate the school. So the new one was built and completed in time for dedication September 1st 1874.

Prof. Verrill was succeeded by Rev. J. N. Fradenburg, A. M., who filled the place successfully two years. Francis M. Smith, M. E., was professor of mathematics, and Joseph C. Doane, M. E., was professor of natural science and English grammar. After Prof. Fradenburg came Prof. Verrill again, in September 1875, who remained this time two years, making six years in all as principal, besides four years as professor of mathematics-a longer term than any other professor has been connected with the school. He made a most excellent principal, and under this administration the school was always a success. His name is one which is intimately connected with the rise and progress of the State normal school; while in ability, as a first-class man in every respect, he has been excelled by few if any.

In 1877 Prof. Fordyce A. Allen was again called to take charge of the school, having been elected for a period of five years. He associated with him as principal during the first year John H. French, LL.D. His assistants were Joseph C. Doane, B. S., natural sciences; W. C. Bartol, A. M., mathematics; Dora N. Woodruff, preceptress; W. S. Hulslander, B. S., vocal music; and others, whose names we have forgotten. Prof. Allen was serving his third year when he died, in the height of his usefulness, February 11, 1880. This unfortunate event was the worst that could have happened for the normal school, as well as for every interest pertaining to Mansfield. He was the head and front of everything in the line of progress, both as regards the school and the town. He had done more for both than any other man, and at the time of his death had built the school up to an unprecedented degree of prosperity. For a fuller account of this eminent man the reader is referred to the sketch of his life appearing on page 294.

Upon the decease of Mr. Allen Prof. D. C. Thomas, A. M., a graduate of Adrian College, was elected principal, with J. C. Doane, B. S., as teacher of natural sciences; W. C. Bartol, A. M., of mathematics; W. L. Penny, A. M., of languages; Miss Frances M. Wright, M. D., of physiology; W. S. Hulslander, M. S., of vocal music and principal of the training school; Miss Dora N. Woodruff, preceptress.

Prof. Thomas, having been re-elected, is now (1882) at the head of the school, which, under his able management, is fully maintaining its great reputation as one of the best schools in the State. The following is a full list of the faculty at the present time: D. C. Thomas, principal, science and art of teaching, and mental and moral philosophy; W. W. Thoburn, natural sciences; J. T. Ewing, mathematics; Dora N. Woodruff, preceptress, history and civil government; H. Jean Johnston, literature and reading; Della J. Broadwell, languages; Frances M. Wright, geography and physiology; Mrs. W. S. Hulslander, English grammar and Latin; W. S. Hulslander, vocal music, and principal of training school; William Cramer, instrumental music.

The whole number of pupils now in attendance, including the training school, is 262. In the senior class there are 42. The first class graduated in 1866. The graduates now number 405. During the past year steam heating apparatus has been put in. The cabinet numbers over 6,000 specimens. The buildings, grounds and furniture cost over $100,000.

Here we must close the long history of this enterprise, regretting that for want of space many things must remain unsaid in regard to an institution which has not only made Mansfield a great educational center, but which is at once the pride and glory of our village, as well as the entire county.


This institution was opened October 1st 1867, by the proprietor, Professor F. A. Allen, who had made application to the superintendent of soldiers' orphans for 25 boys and 25 girls. At the end of the first year the number in attendance was 63. The school was at first kept in an old store, which had been fitted up the purpose, but afterward other and larger buildings were purchased and erected, till there were accommodations for over 200 pupils. In 1872 a farm of 150 acres near the village was purchased, in order to give employment and instruction to the boys; while the girls were taught to do all kinds of housework and plain sewing. Upon the death of Professor Allen, in 1880, his wife became proprietress-a position for which she was admirably qualified. Vine R. Pratt has had charge of the school under Mr. and Mrs. Allen almost from its beginning, and made an efficient manager. The teachers are Josephine Stewart, W. S. Hulslander, Mary Lincoln, and Sadie Davis. There are now 200 pupils in attendance. Many hundreds of soldiers' orphans have been educated here at the expense of the State. It is one of those institutions which have given to Mansfield its wide reputation as a center of intelligence and education.


building was erected in 1881, at a cost, including grounds, furniture, etc., of nearly $13,000. It is an elegant brick structure, heated by steam, with all the modern improvements, and occupies a beautiful location adjoining the park on the north. It is an ornament and a blessing to Mansfield-of which the people are justly proud; the number of pupils now in attendance is 246. The teachers are: N. S. Stone, principal; Laura E. Johnson, Olive Elliott, Ella Shaw, Fanny Davis, and Leda Hall.


the youngest of our schools, was opened in the spring of 1882, and promises to become an important factor in the educational interests of Mansfield. Many young men are here receiving a practical, business education, and the school is daily increasing in numbers and importance. It occupies a floor in the Pitts block, at the corner of Main and Wellsboro streets, and is the only school of the kind in the county. The officers are: Rev. J. T. Brownell, president; C. S. Ross, secretary; E. D. Westbrook, principal of the business department; C. V. Ireton, principal of the penmanship department; J. A. McCurdy, principal of the department of telegraphy; Hugh Ross, principal of the department of phonography.



Dyer J. Butts was born August 22nd 1829, at Norwich, Conn. His father, Lorin Butts, was born October 28th 1796, in Connecticut. His mother, Harriet Hyde, was born April 18th 1880, in Connecticut. They were married May 5th 1819.

Lorin Butts first came to Tioga county in 1820, prospecting, with a view of removing to this region. He returned to Connecticut, and in 1829 moved his family to Lawrenceville, Pa. He remained there about three years. He was the architect and builder of the Presbyterian church in Lawrenceville, supposed to be the first regular church edifice in Tioga county.

In 1833 he removed to Richmond township, selecting as his home a farm now in the borough of Mansfield, upon which were a small house and a log barn. In 1835 he built a frame barn. In 1854 he erected a house on the site of the old one, which is still occupied as "the homestead" of the family. He was engaged in religious, educational and social enterprises, being a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church, teacher in schools, and inspector of teachers, as it used to be termed. He held various offices in the town, and was elected justice of the peace February 16th 1869. In the meantime he was clearing and tilling his farm. He died August 16th 1874.

His wife was a devoted Christian, gentle and charitable, a member of the Presbyterian church. Her house was open for social meetings, and her heart and hand responded to the needs of others. She died when in the prime of life, being 37 years of age, leaving six children: Byrissa B., still living at the homestead; Harriet H., who died October 4th 1847; Jean M., now Mrs. Henry Allen, of Mansfield; Lucy A., now Mrs. McIntyre, of Blossburg; Dyer J., of Mansfield, and Lorin H., of Wilkes-Barre.

Dyer J. Butts was brought from Connecticut to Lawrenceville in his mother's arms when about two months old. He remained with the family, enjoying such educational privileges as a new country affords, until 1851, when he went to what was then the west-Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin-to see if change of locality would suit him better. He soon returned.

When about 25 years old he connected himself with the Methodist Episcopal church. He at once became a zealous worker in church and Sunday-school, serving as superintendent until the summer of 1861. On receiving the news of the defeat of the Union army in the first Bull Run fight he said, "I must go down and attend to that myself." He immediately arranged his business, leaving church and Sunday-school, and enlisted October 14th 1861 in Company B 101st regiment Pennsylvania volunteers. He enlisted as a private, but soon afterward was made sergeant; re-enlisted while in the field, January 1st 1864; was examined and recommended for a commission, but was taken prisoner April 20th at the surrender of Plymouth, N. C., with the rest of the troops under General Wessels. He was taken to Andersonville prison, Ga., where he remained till September 11th, when he was removed to Charleston, S. C. After about two weeks he was taken to Florence, S. C., where he remained till February 1865. While in this prison the prisoners were without a ration of meat for 95 days and the daily ration of cow-peas and cornmeal could be put into a pint cup. The Union forces under Sherman crowding the rebels, he with others was taken from the stockade to Goldsboro, and marched off into the woods, where they remained a few days. They were then taken on the cars to Wilmington, N. C., and remained a few days; then were taken north and marched off into the woods. After a few days Wilmington was captured by our forces, when the prisoners were paroled and taken from the woods to near Wilmington. There they were met by Union troops. As they marched toward camp they were greeted with a view of an evergreen arch with the motto "WELCOME, BROTHERS," under which they were marched into camp, where they had the first full meal for over ten months. Remaining there over night some were taken on boats and others marched to Wilmington. Mr. Butts started with those who were to march, but being unable to make the march was taken up by an ambulance and carried to a deserted house in Wilmington used as a hospital. It being announced one morning that any who could get the boats might go home, he with others started and got on the boat; but, it being overloaded, he and a few others were driven off at the point of the bayonet. He then went to a hospital, but was driven away. After lying in a deserted house two or three days he was taken on board a boat and brought to Annapolis and put in the hospital. He remained there about two weeks, and was then removed to the hospital at Baltimore. After a time he was granted a furlough of thirty days and came home. He returned to Baltimore and was transferred to Summit Hospital, Philadelphia, where he was discharged. On the mustering out of the regiment he was commissioned captain of Company B by Governor Curtin.

On returning home he resumed his business, engaged again in church work, and was re-elected Sunday-school superintendent. He remained at the homestead till December 17th 1877, when he was married to Miss Frances A. Cochran, youngest daughter of Rev. Wesley Cochran of the Central New York conference of the M. E. church. They established a home upon a farm which he had previously bought, being part of the homestead farm with adjoining lands. There they now live, with their daughters Alice M. and Mary B.


Captain Backer is a native of Rutland township, this county, and was born January 6th 1840. Early in the civil war he raised a company of Union volunteers (Company D 16th Pa. cavalry) and himself enlisted for three years' service. After his discharge he raised Company A 207th Pa. volunteers, of which he was captain until the close of the war. He married Miss Emeline Watkins, of Sullivan, Pa. He is a merchant at Mansfield, and also railroad ticket agent.


This gentleman, one of the leading representatives of the agricultural interest in Richmond township, is a native of the State of Rhode Island. He was born in the year 1806, and in 1834 married Matilda Lake, of Tiverton, Rhode Island. In 1839 he came from his native State to Pennsylvania, locating in Rutland township, Tioga county, where he bought a tract of 100 acres. There he remained until 1872, when he removed to Richmond township. During his long residence in the county he has enjoyed the confidence and respect of his fellow citizens, who kept him in the office of magistrate during ten years and also entrusted him with the duties of other local offices.


Mr. Hodges has made farming his business, and still owns a farm of 137 acres in Sullivan township, though now living retired on a place of eight acres at Mansfield. He was born in Rensselaer county, N.Y., in 1810. In 1829 his father removed his family to the township of Sullivan, in this county; and there our subject remained until his removal to Mansfield, in 1874. He has been trice married, first in 1838, to Miss Orilla Crippen, who bore him one child, and died in 1874. His second wife, who was Miss Sarah Kingsley, died in 1878. The present Mrs. Hodges was Ellen Buckbee. She was married to Mr. Hodges in 1878, and they have one child, a daughter.


Mr. Sherwood is a geologist of ability and repute, and one of the literary men of Tioga county. The quality of his prose composition may be judged from Chapter XII of this volume (pages 83-88) and the history of Richmond township and Mansfield borough, which were contributed by him; and he is not a stranger to the "poetic impulse," though he has published no collection of his poems.

Mansfield is not only his present home but his native place. He was born July 16th 1848, and has resided here all his life. He is a son of Albert Sherwood, of whom a sketch appears on page 297. He was educated at the State normal school and in Chicago University, and has been assistant geologist in the geological surveys of New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania.

Mr. Sherwood married Miss Jennie L. Knapp, of Lawrenceville. They have made their elegant cottage--"The Knot o'Kontent"--a home in the fullest sense of the word, a place to leave with regret and to return to with joy. The grounds, comprising about fourteen acres, are among the finest in the county.

Mr. Sherwood is a member of the New Era Manufacturing Company, which is building a flouring-mill and wood-working factory at Mansfield.


Thomas Jerald was born in Orleans county, Vt., in 1799. In 1830 he came from New York state to this county, and located on Corey Creek, in Richmond township, where he bought the farm of one hundred acres on which he now resides. He married Miss Matilda Wilson, a native of Connecticut, by whom he had seven children. Three of these are now living. One of the sons of Thomas Jerald is William B. Jerald, who is one of the leading farmers of Richmond township, owning 260 acres. He was born in this township, in 1834, and married Miss Eleanor Howe, also of Richmond.

1. I desire that the credit shall be given to my friend Mr. Elliott for the greater and more valuable part of this history (nearly all of it in fact), which is taken from an important address delivered by him on the 7th of January 1868, and to which I have simply added enough to give a complete outline history down to the present time.--A.S.]

2. These sketches were not written by Mr. Sherwood, the author of the foregoing history of Richmond and Mansfield. 

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