Tri-Counties Genealogy & History by Joyce M. Tice
1897 Tioga County History
Chapter 63 - Biographical Sketches
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1897 Tioga County History Table of Contents
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Tioga Township and Borough — Lawrence Township and Lawrenceville Borough — Jackson Township.

Richard Mitchell, one of the first settlers of Tioga county, was born in Orange county, New Jersey, July 5, 1769, and grew to manhood in his native place. About 1791 he and his brothers, Thomas and Robert Mitchell, removed to Southport, Chemung county, New York. A year later he and Thomas came up the Tioga river in a canoe and settled at what has since been known as Mitchell’s Creek, in Tioga township, Tioga county, Pennsylvania. On August 15, 1792, he married Ruby Keeney, who was born at Hartford, Connecticut, October 4, 1771. Their eldest child, Edsell, whom his descendants claim was the first white child born in this county, was born at Mitchell’s Creek, August 27, 1793. They were also the parents of the following named children: Lovina, born August 26, 1795, who married John Inscho; Nancy, born October 2, 1797, who died in youth; Thomas K., born August 5, 1799; Richard, born July 7, 1801, and William K., born December 4, 1810. Mr. Mitchell devoted his entire attention to farming, clearing and improving a place on the Tioga river, near the mouth of Mitchell’s creek. Here he resided until his death, March 11, 1847. His wife died August 14, 1843. He was a man of strong, athletic build, a fine type of the sturdy pioneers who settled in the forests of Tioga county and by their energy and industry laid the foundations of its present prosperity. At the time of his settlement the country was a dense wilderness, with a few cabins near the junction of the Tioga and Cowanesque rivers, and perhaps one or two further up the stream; but he lived to see the county thickly settled and the forest gave way to well-improved farms and thriving towns.

Thomas K. Mitchell, second son of Richard and Ruby Mitchell, was born at Mitchell’s Creek, Tioga county, August 5, 1799. He was reared upon the homestead farm and received such education as the pioneer subscription schools afforded. In 1826 he married Elizabeth Roe, a native of Delhi, Delaware county, New York, born August 15, 1809. To this union were born the following named children: Solon, who died unmarried December 2, 1848; Mary Ette, who married G. W. Sheardown; Almira, who married E. T. Bentley; Rowena, who married Micajah De Labar; Ruby, who died December 28, 1854; Thomas B. S. who was killed by the cars at Tioga, December 2, 1893; Jefferson B., of Plainfield, Wisconsin; John I., president judge of Tioga county; Elizabeth J., wife of Leroy Gleason, of Canton, Bradford county; Emily A., wife of David Cameron, of Wellsboro, and Jane D., wife of B. B. Borden, of Plainfield, Wisconsin. Mr. Mitchell passed his whole life at Mitchell’s Creek, engaged in farming, lumbering and merchandising. There he erected in 1826, the year of his marriage, the first brick house built in Tioga county, and kept an inn in it for a number of years. He died August 28, 18861. His widow died at the home of her son, Thomas, February 15, 1887. In religion, the family are adherents of the Baptist church, and in politics, supporters of the Republican party.

Robert Mitchell, a native of Vermont, was one of the early settlers of the Tioga valley. He was born July 18, 1779, and came to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, about the year 1796, settling at Mitchell’s Creek, where his brothers, Richard and Thomas Mitchell, who came into the county in 1792, were then living. He took up and cleared a farm and made farming the occupation of his life. He married Abigail Ives, who bore him the following children: John, Thaddeus, Parmenia, Cynthia, who married Amasa Mudge; Lucy, who married Alonzo Phelps; Lavina, who married Jonathan Roe; Nancy, who married Seth Albee; Rosina, who married George Mitchell; Abby, who married William Butler; Matilda, who married Samuel Hartsock, and Ruth, the only one now living, who married Dr. Seely, of Addison, New York. Mr. Mitchell was a strong, athletic, vigorous man, and was noted for his superior ability as a wrestler. He was also industrious and hard-working, and did his share as a pioneer in clearing the wilderness in the midst of which he settled.

John Mitchell, eldest son of Robert Mitchell, was born at Mitchell’s Creek, Tioga county, December 2, 1800, and there grew to maturity. He married Elizabeth Hartsock, who was born November 19, 1810, and bore him the following children: Albert, a resident of Millerton; Margaret, wife of M. K. Retan, of the same village; John, deceased; Thaddeus, also a resident of Millerton; George W., who lives in Jackson township; Austin and Maryette, both of whom are dead. Mr. Mitchell settled on Alder run, in Jackson township, about 1836, where he passed the remaining years of his life. He cleared a farm and operated a saw-mill at that point, and died March 18, 1870. His wife died on April 6, 1885.

Albert Mitchell, eldest son of John Mitchell, and grandson of Robert Mitchell, was born at Mitchell’s Creek, Tioga county, August 20, 1829, and was about seven years old when his parents removed to Jackson township. He was reared upon the homestead farm, and received the usual education of a farmer’s son. On April 29, 1852, he married Mary Deming, a daughter of Samuel and Electa (Dickinson) Deming, early settlers of Jackson township. Five children were born to this marriage, viz: Clark R., deceased; Ross A., the present treasurer of the county; Mary E., wife of John Snyder; John S. and Bertha, both deceased. Mr. Mitchell and wife are now living in Millerton.

Ross A. Mitchell, treasurer of Tioga county, was born in Millerton, Jackson township, February 12, 1856, and is the oldest living child of Albert Mitchell. He was reared on the farm and educated in the common schools. In early manhood he taught school four terms, later became a railroad employe, and was agent and operator for several years at Millerton and Covington. Mr. Mitchell was superintendent of the Covington Glass Works in 1894-95. In the fall of the latter year he was he was elected on the Republican ticket treasurer of Tioga county and is now filling that office. On March 17, 1880, he married Effie A. Hudson, a daughter of George W. and Eunice Hudson, of Jackson township, and has four children: Albert, Arthur, Bernice and Eva. Mr. Mitchell is an excellent business man, careful, methodical and reliable, and is an efficient and capable official. He is one of the popular members of his party, and is also connected with Covington Lodge, No. 274, I.O.O.F.

Nathan Niles, Sr., a descendant of Capt. John Niles, of Wales, who settled at Baintree, Massachusetts, in 1630, came to Pennsylvania from Hartford, Connecticut, and located in Tioga township, in September, 1796. This date is established by the fact that his fourth son, Augustus Niles, born February 6, 1792, was four years of age when the family settled. Mr. Niles’ father was a physician, and also, at times, performed the duties of a local preacher of the Presbyterian church. For some years previous to and during the Revolutionary War, Mr. Niles was engaged in mercantile pursuits and owned several vessels in the coastwise trade. During the struggle for independence these were mostly captured by British cruisers, thus depriving him of the bulk of his fortune. In 1796 he invested the remnant in Connecticut titles to lands in Tioga county and removed hither with his family. The land settled upon by himself and family was the most southern of the "Bartholomew and Patton tracts, including the mouth of Mill creek." In 1797 he, with many others, claiming lands under Connecticut titles, were arrested on a charge of violating the Intrusion Law, taken to Williamsport, and there tried and acquitted. A full account of the trial will be found in a preceding chapter. He finally obtained a valid title to his land through the Pennsylvania Bank. Mr. Niles married Irene Russell in Connecticut, and their children were: Irene, who married Major William Rathbone; Nathan, Aaron, Erastus, Augustus, Rodney, Clarissa, who became the wife of John Beecher; Violetta, who married John Daily, and Temperance, who married Timothy Brace. Of the sons, Nathan, moved into Charleston township; Aaron and Erastus into Delmar, and Rodney into Rutland. Augustus remained on the homestead in Tioga township until his death. Mr. Niles was commissioned a justice of the peace for the township of Tioga, January 7, 1808, while it was yet under the jurisdiction of Lycoming county, and his name frequently occurs in the early records. He served as a county commissioner from September, 1808, to October, 1811, when he was succeeded by Samuel W. Morris. He was also collector of taxes for the year 1804 under the Lycoming county control of Tioga township. When Wellsboro was founded Mr. Niles became identified with the interests of the town. The residence of his sons in Delmar also tended to bring him into closer communion with the people of the county seat. It is regretted that the Bible record of his birth and death, as also that of his wife, was lost in the destruction by fire of the house of his grandson, A. E. Niles, in October, 1878. He died about 1837, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, which shows that he was born about 1753. He left as a legacy to his descendants an honored name and an unsullied reputation. He was familiarly know as "Squire Niles." He was not the man to seek notoriety; was plain and unobtrusive, conscientious, and well disposed towards his fellowmen. He left numerous descendants, all of whom were not only honored through life, but many of them attained to high distinction in professional, political and military station.

Nathan Niles, Jr., eldest son of Nathan Niles, Sr., was born in Hebron, Connecticut, in 1782, and came to Tioga township with his parents in 1796. In 1809 he married Ruth Gitchell, a sister of Elder and Benjamin Gitchell, and his children were Col. Alanson E. Niles and Mrs. John F. Donaldson. Mr. Niles lived on his farm in Charleston, just outside the borough limits, but, as was the custom in those days, all those who lived near the lines were claimed as practically belonging to the borough. In January, 1813, he was appointed a county commissioner and served until the following October. He always took a deep interest in Wellsboro affairs, and when the Academy was incorporated in 1817, he was named as one of the trustees, and held the office until 1828, serving in the meantime as treasurer. As a citizen he was held in high esteem by the public, and was fully entitles to that best of all appellations, "a good man." He did not seek notoriety, being very much like his father, and never put himself forward. Though a man of good general information, of fair education, and capable of filling any office in the county with credit to himself and friends, he preferred the quiet of a farmer’s life, rather than the perplexities of public office. So high was he regarded, that, "as honest as Nathan Niles" was as good a recommendation as any man could desire. He died March 3, 1830, in his forty-ninth year.

Aaron Niles, the second son of Nathan Niles, Sr., was born in Hebron, Connecticut, June 27, 1784, and came with his parents to Tioga when it was comparatively a wilderness. He endured all the trials and sufferings incident to the lives of pioneers, and gave his full share of labor toward reclaiming the country from its wilderness condition. In June, 1807, he married Deborah Ives, a daughter of Cornelius Ives, of Tioga. About 1810 he purchased wild land in Delmar and cleared a farm, which he occupied for ten years. In 1820 he sold out and removed to Middlebury township, settling at what is now known as Niles Valley, where he cleared a valuable farm. Mr. Niles and wife had issue: Clarinda, born June 12, 1808; Philander, March 13, 1811; Erastus, April 17, 1814; Lucinda, August 28, 1816; Sylpha, August 29, 1818; Irena, August 28, 1820; Betsey, March 13, 1822, and Russell, August 20, 1826. The majority are now deceased. Mrs. Deborah Niles died in 1830, and March 4, 1833, he married Mrs. Betsey Kilbourne, born May 5, 1798. She was a daughter of Rufus Butler, who came from Vermont about the beginning of this century, and the widow of John Kilbourne. The issue of this marriage was one son, Jerome B., born September 25, 1834, who has attained distinction as a lawyer and politician, and a sketch of whose life will be found in the chapter on "The Bench and Bar." The last wife of Mr. Niles died at the homestead in Niles Valley, June 3, 1863, aged a little over sixty-five years. In 1865 Mr. Niles went to live with his youngest son, Hon. Jerome B. Niles, at whose home in Wellsboro he died, February 22, 1872, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. Like his honored father, he was a man of inflexible integrity and undaunted courage , and was widely known as an energetic, industrious and public-spirited citizen.

Augustus Niles, fourth son of Nathan Niles, Sr., was born in Hartford, Connecticut, February 6, 1792, and was between four and five years old when his parents came to Tioga county. He was reared a farmer, and spent his life on the old homestead in Tioga township, where he died October 27, 1841, in his fiftieth year. He married Anna Adams, a daughter of Capt. Lyman Adams, also an early settler of Tioga township. She died in December, 1886, in the eighty-ninth year of her age. Their children were as follows: Augustus E., a resident of Tioga township; Byron B., a grain dealer of Topeka, Kansas, and Julia A., who married Whiting Miller, and died at the home of her brother, Augustus E., March 16, 1894.

Augustus E. Niles, eldest child of Augustus Niles, and grandson of Nathan Niles, Sr., was born on the homestead farm in Tioga township, March 26, 1819, and upon the death of his father took charge of the same. He has spent his entire life thereon, devoting his attention to agricultural pursuits. On January 18, 1853, he married Belinda Bridgeman, and has two sons, viz: Augustus, a physician of Wellsboro, and Henry C. The latter was born on the home farm January 23, 1857; was educated in the common schools of his district; was married on November 16, 1892, to Nellie Cochran, a daughter of John and Ellen (Beam) Cochran, and has charge of the old homestead. In politics, Mr. Niles was originally a Whig, but has been a Republican since the organization of that party. He has filled the offices of collector and supervisor of the township, the latter for twenty-nine years. Mr. Niles is a member of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I.O.O.F., and is one of the leading farmers of his native township.

Uriah Spencer was a man of considerable note in early days. He first came into the Tioga valley in 1794, having purchased under the Connecticut title the township of Hamilton, now embraced within the boundaries of Lawrence and Tioga townships. He also bought the improvements of William Holden, and continued to sell his lands under the Connecticut title until the spring of 1797, when he and twenty-one other pioneers of the Tioga and Cowanesque valleys were arrested under the Intrusion Law and taken to Williamsport, where they were subsequently tried and acquitted. A few years later Mr. Spencer removed to the village of Tioga, where he opened the first blacksmith shop at that point, and afterwards operated a sawmill. His first wife, who was Deborah Elliott, of Guilford, Connecticut, died in November, 1802, and was buried in the Lawrenceville cemetery. She left four children, two daughters and two sons. As early as 1804 he was married again, his second wife being Eleanor Boher. By her he had seven children, three sons and four daughters. On the establishment of the postoffice at Tioga, January 1, 1805, he was appointed postmaster, it being the first in the county. In 1810 he was elected a county commissioner; was prothonotary from 1818 to 1821, and again from 1824 to 1830. During his last two terms he also served as register and recorder. Through his influence his son-in-law, Levi Vail, was appointed county treasurer in 1827.

On account of his many years of public life he became one of the leading politicians of the county. In 1826 he was a candidate for Congress, and John Ryon, Jr., and Asa Mann were his conferees. The nominating convention met at Muncy, Lycoming being one of the counties composing the IXth Congressional district, but he failed to secure the nomination.

Mr. Spencer was also one of the committee chosen in 1826 to draft an address to the governor of New York in furtherance of a canal from the head of Seneca lake to the Pennsylvania line, to be continued whence by Pennsylvania authority to the coal mines at Blossburg. He and Judge Morris were chosen a committee to present the petition to the legislature of New York, and Mr. Spencer visited Albany for that purpose in the month of February, 1827. He was also one of the original incorporators of the Tioga Navigation Company. He was one of the most influential citizens of the county up to about 1835, when he lost his property and his influence.

Notwithstanding his long residence in Wellsboro, Mr. Spencer had contracted a violent hatred of the town, and especially of some of its leading citizens. This dislike had its beginning in 1818, when, by reference to the history of the old Academy, it will be seen that he was refused the loan of $500 by the trustees of that institution, because the security he offered was not considered good. He was one of the original trustees, but was not re-elected in 1818. This se4ems to have so incensed him that ever after he was a bitter enemy of the school. Later, in the attempt to remove the county seat to Tioga, he was a prominent actor in the movement. Mr. Spencer was a man of strong convictions. One who knew him well has left this analysis of his character:

He was no hypocrite. He had never studied the art of blarney, nor did he duly appreciate the true value of soft soap in managing men. What he thought he said. He was not an adept in the use of those soft words that turn away wrath. He was a man of a good deal of natural talent, though deficient in early education; was a Democrat of the strictest sect, and never strayed from the fold or went after other gods. He was a good hater and a warm friend; was never accused of dishonesty, or of altering his opinion when he had once expressed it.

In the closing years of his life his mind began to waver, and he dwelt much on his early land troubles, caused by purchasing Connecticut titles. His son, George, held a clerkship in the postoffice department at Washington, D. C., and while on a visit to his son’s home in Georgetown, about 1850, he died, aged eighty years, and was buried there. His widow, Eleanor, removed to Mainsburg, and died some two years later.

Nicholas Prutsman, Sr., a native of Hamburg, Germany, immigrated to Pennsylvania towards the close of the Eighteenth century and located near Easton. He had quite a large family, and in 1802 came to Tioga county, and settled a short distance below the site of Tioga village. His three sons, Jacob, Adam, and Nicholas, Jr., came in 1804, but the two last soon removed to New York state, leaving Jacob and their father in Tioga county. The latter erected a grist-mill, which he operated until it burned down. He died about 1810.

Jacob Prutsman came to this county with his two brothers in 1804. He had previously learned the cabinet maker’s trade, which he followed many years, and also owned and cultivated a farm. He married Mary Miller, who became the mother of fourteen children, viz: Polly, John, Abram, Elizabeth, Jacob, Andrew M., Adam, Sarah, Catherine, Susan, Eunice, Rachel, Mary and George, only one of whom is living, Adam, a resident of Illinois. Mrs. Prutsman died in 1847, aged seventy-one years, and her husband, in 1862, aged eighty-nine.

Andrew M. Prutsman was born in Tioga township, Tioga county, in 1807, fourth son of Jacob Prutsman. He was reared on the homestead, and in 1830 married Mary A. Bentley, a daughter of Benjamin Bentley. She was born in this county in 1809, and bore him six children, named as follows: Martha J., born December 17, 1831, and married Robert H. Brown, of Canisteo, New York, in 1859, who died in 1862; Christian M., who served as a lieutenant in the Union army in the Rebellion, and now resides in Nebraska; Mary A., wife of Edwin Spaulding, of Corning, New York; Lindley H., who died while serving with the rank of lieutenant in the late war; Henrietta M., wife of John H. Pattison, of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and Melville B., an engineer on the Fall Brook railroad, who resides at Newberry Junction, Lycoming county. Mr. Prutsman died in 1890, and his wife, in 1891, each at the age of eighty-two years.

Capt. Lyman Adams was born in Lenox, Massachusetts, April 12, 1775, and married Sophia Mantor, born April 21, 1782. In the spring of 1804 they came from Tinmouth, Rutland county, Vermont, to Tioga, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, arriving at their destination on July 4. They were accompanied by their three daughters, Anna, Susan and Sophia, and the following children were born to them in this county: Phoebe, Lucy, Maria, Lyman N., William, Julia, Jane, Hiram and Mary B. Anna became the wife of Augustus Niles; Susan married Lorain Lamb; Sophia remained unmarried; Phoebe married Amos Utley; Lucy married Sullivan Power; Maria married G. R. Lillibridge; Julia married Samuel Naglee; Jane married W. E. Crane, and Mary B., became the wife of Dr. A. J. Cole. The only survivors are Julia, Hiram and Mary B. After living a short time in Tioga, Mr. Adams removed to the mouth of Mill creek, where he kept a store and tavern during the War of 1812, and also followed farming. Subsequently removing to Wellsboro, he conducted a hotel there until 1827, when he returned to Tioga township and resumed agricultural pursuits. He was a stanch Democrat, served as collector of taxes in Tioga township in 1809-10, and also as constable for many years. Captain Adams died June 27, 1847, and his wife, July 1, 1868.

Lyman N. Adams, son of Capt. Lyman Adams, was born in Wellsboro, Tioga county, and grew to maturity in Tioga township. He engaged in the butchering business, which he followed during his residence in Tioga borough, where he located in the thirties. He married Caroline Mantor, who bore him a family of three children, viz: Frank H., of Tioga; Mary, wife of Jude Sweet, of Niles Valley, and Charles, deceased. Mr. Adams died November 18, 1880, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. His widow is still living in Tioga.

Frank H. Adams, only living son of Lyman N. Adams, and grandson of Capt. Lyman Adams, was born in Tioga borough, Tioga county, April 19, 1842. He received a common school education and later began clerking in the store of Thomas L. Baldwin, whom he bought out in 1865 and has since conducted the business successfully. He carries a stock valued at $10,000, and owns the building in which his store is located. Mr. Adams is one of the leading business men of Tioga, as well as a progressive, public-spirited citizen. September 26, 1868, he married Ellen M. Carpenter, a daughter of A. Carpenter, of Warsaw, New York, and has one son, Walter C. In politics, he is a Republican, and in religion, a member of the Episcopal church. He is connected with Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M.; Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I.O.O.F., and Phoenix Lodge, No. 933, K. of H., in all of which he takes an active interest.

Ira McAllister was born in Chenango county, New York, November 24, 1789. When about eight years old he came with Ambrose Millard to Tioga, Pennsylvania, and in later years settled on the site of Tioga village. In January, 1824, he married Mary F. Hall, a daughter of Roland Hall. She was born November 9, 1788, and became the mother of three children, viz: Thomas and Eliza, twins, born September 19, 1825, and R. P. H., who lives in Tioga. Mr. McAllister was a blacksmith and worked at his trade for a number of years. He died on March 29, 1854, and his wife, December 31, 1870.

R. P. H. McAllister, youngest child of Ira McAllister, was born in Tioga village, Tioga county, August 17, 1828. He received a common school education, and after arriving at manhood engaged in farming and lumbering. In 1871 he furnished the ties for the Fall Brook railroad. Upon the completion of the road he was appointed ticket and freight agent at Tioga village, a position he held twenty-three years, resigning July 1, 1894, because of ill health. Mr. McAllister was married September 5, 1853, to Phoebe C. Hall, a daughter of Benjamin R. and Deborah Hall. Sic children were born to this union, viz: Mary, who died July 5, 1889; David C., a resident of Tioga; Bennie R., who died in youth, and three that died in infancy. In politics, Mr. McAllister is a Democrat, and has filled the offices of constable, justice of the peace, school director, collector and supervisor. In religion, he is a Universalist, and is also a member of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I.O.O.F. He built and at one time owned every house in Tioga village, and still owns a number of them. He has made an honorable record as an enterprising and public-spirited citizen.

David C. McAllister, postmaster of Tioga, is a native of that borough and a son of R. P. H. McAllister. He was reared and educated in Tioga, and in 1889 embarked in merchandising in Tioga village, as senior member of the firm of McAllister & Shay. In 1891 he bought his partner’s interest and continued the business alone until 1893, when he sold out. On February 10, 1893, he was appointed postmaster of Tioga, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James T. Davis, which position he still holds. Mr. McAllister was married to Ruth H. Daily, a daughter of V. B. and Mary Daily, October 10, 1888, and has three children: Edna, Beatrice and Bennie. In politics, he is a Democrat, and served as township collector in 1890. Mr. McAllister is a member of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I.O.O.F., and also of Lawrenceville Encampment. He is one of the respected and popular citizens of his native place.

Obadiah Inscho was born in Delaware, in 1758, and was a descendant of one of the pioneer families of that State. He came to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, with his family, in 1798, and settled on the east side of the Tioga river, a short distance above the site of Lawrenceville. Here he cleared and improved a farm, upon which he died, May 9, 1820, aged sixty-two years, and was buried in the Bentley graveyard. His wife, whose maiden name was Judith Jennings, survived him until August 10, 1842. Their children were as follows: Polly, who married Dr. Simeon Power; John, Moses, Isaiah, Rachel, James, Thomas, Obadiah, Lavina M., who married John Kemp; Solomon, Ruth, who married Asa Lincoln, and Robert.

John Inscho, eldest son of Obadiah and Judith Inscho, was born November 1, 1789, and came with his parents to Lawrence township, Tioga county, in 1798. He was reared on the homestead farm, and married Lavina Mitchell, a daughter of Richard Mitchell, Sr. She was born at Mitchell’s Creek August 26, 1795. After their marriage they settled in Tioga township, locating a little north of her father’s place, at Mitchell’s Creek. The following children were born to them: Richard J., Ruby K., wife of Alpheus Keeney; Obadiah, Judith J., wife of Rev. Samuel Broakman; John J., William M., Thomas M., and Lavina M. Mr. Inscho died April 20, 1865, and his wife, November 11, 1861.

Richard J. Inscho, eldest son of John and Lavina Inscho, was born on the homestead in Tioga township, there grew to manhood, and married Ruth P. Parshall, a daughter of Asa and Susan (Keeney) Parshall. For a number of years after his marriage he resided in Jackson township, then purchased the Prutsman farm, just north of Tioga borough, where he passed the remainder of his life. By his marriage to Ruth B. Parshall, he became the father of the following children: Susan K., wife of Seth Snell, of Woodstock, Maryland; Lavina M., deceased wife of Ira H. Ayers, of Jackson township; Asa, deceased; John L., of Tioga borough; Jesse P., of Elmira, New York; Albert, deceased; William W., of New Camp, Pennsylvania; R. Louisa, wife of T. F. Rolason, of Mansfield; Mary E., wife of Dr. J. W. Stewart, of Big Flats, New York, and Eva B., wife of Charles T. Rhodes, of Tioga. Mr. Inscho died January 20, 1875. His widow is a resident of Tioga.

John L. Inscho, eldest living son of Richard J. Inscho, was born in Jackson township, Tioga county, April 11, 1844, and was reared upon the homestead farm. He received a common school education, supplemented by a course at the Elmira Commercial College, from which he graduated in 1865. He remained on the farm until 1873, when he embarked in merchandising at Holiday. In 1875 he removed to Tioga and carried on a meat market and grocery there for several years. He is now a member of the firm of Alford & Inscho, coal dealers, and also of Inscho & Kimball, hardware merchants. Mr. Inscho was married February 13, 1868, to Mary E. Miller, a daughter of Cephas C. and Lucy D. (Kelley) Miller, and has had two children, Lena M. and Ida M., the latter of whom died June 17, 1882. Mrs. Inscho’s father resides at Mill Creek, Tioga township; her mother died March 17, 1892, aged seventy years. The family are members of the Baptist church, and in politics, Mr. Inscho is a Prohibitionist, and stands high in the respect and esteem of the community in which he lives.

Alva C. Bush was born in Bainbridge, New York, November 13, 1804, on the place originally located by his father and now owned by his youngest brother, Hon. Joseph Bush. His parents, Joseph and Betsey (Strong) Bush, were pioneers of Chenango county, New York, the first house in Bainbridge having been erected by his grandfather, Elnathan Bush. Alvah C. early displayed great energy and a decided preference for an active business career. At the age of twenty-two he embarked in merchandising and lumbering, and by enterprise, industry and the exercise of good judgement his ventures proved successful. Desirous of finding a more favorable field of operation, he spent the years of 1830 and 1831 in traveling over the West, and in the latter year located in Tioga, Pennsylvania. Here in partnership with his brother, Jabin S., he engaged in merchandising and lumbering on an extensive scale, and through his untiring energy became one of the leading business men of Tioga county. About 1872 he began operating in Wall street, New York, his ventures there also proving successful and adding to his reputation as an able and sagacious financier. During the last fourteen years of his life he and his wife spent their winters in New York City and their summers in Tioga. His Tioga residence was erected in 1841, and is one of the ideal homes of the county, as well as one of the landmarks of the borough. Mr. Bush was married in March, 1831, to Ellen Bigelow, a daughter of the late Hon. Levi Bigelow, and a native of Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York, who came to Tioga about 1850. During his lifetime Mr. Bigelow occupied a number of positions of trust and honor, among them that of judge of the circuit court. Mrs. Bush died December 3, 1831, leaving an infant daughter, now Mrs. John A. Mathews, of Winona, Minnesota. He married for his second wife her sister, Anna Bigelow, also a sister of Mrs. Frederick E. Smith, of Tioga. Mr. Bush was a Democrat, in politics, but never sought or held office, although he took a citizen’s interest in public matters. He was foremost in every movement or enterprise calculated to promote the growth and prosperity of the borough. In 1873 he established Bush Park, on the hillside east of town, as a free pleasure resort for the public. He was known as a large-hearted, public-spirited man; thoroughly practical in all business matters; untiring in energy, and well informed upon everything relating to the commercial interests of the country. In his reading and studies he kept pace with the advanced thought of the day. Mr. Bush died on October 14, 1880, after an earnest and useful life of seventy-six years. His widow survived until August 11, 1895. She was a woman of culture and refined tastes, whose kindly acts, unostentatiously performed, gave her a high place in the esteem and regard of all within the circle of her acquaintance.

Frederick Emerson Smith was born at Amherst, Hampshire county, Massachusetts, November 15, 1822. His father was Samuel Smith, whose ancestors landed in this country, at the mouth of the Connecticut river, about 1635, and thence found their way upward and settled along upon its banks. His mother, Mary (Hastings) Smith, was a daughter of Thomas Hastings, a Revolutionary soldier, the fourth bearing that name in direct descent from Deacon Thomas Hastings, an emigrant from Ipswich, England, in the year 1632, and through him the family lineage runs back to a younger brother of Sir Henry Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, a grandson of Lard William Hastings, a Yorkist Nobleman, born in 1430, the family being one of the extremely few in England that can trace their pedigree as far back as even the Fourteenth century. Hastings, one of the Cinque Ports, still shows the remains of its castle, where William the Conqueror lodged before the decisive battle of Hastings, October 14, 1066, in which he defeated the English under Harold and overthrew the Saxon dynasty. Mr. Smith removed with his parents during boyhood to Marion, New York, where he prepared for college at the Marion Collegiate Institute. In September, 1840, he entered the sophomore class in Union College, Schenectady, New York, and graduated with honors from that institution in July, 1844. When in college he was a Delta Phi, and was graduated with the honor of Phi Beta Kappa. In the same graduating class were James C. Duane, afterwards brigadier-general of the United States army, and chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac; Alexander H. Rice, ex-member of Congress and governor of Massachusetts for three terms, and Frederick Townsend, adjutant general of New York and brigadier-general in the United States army. After graduation Mr. Smith was principal of Wolcott Academy, Wolcott, New York, for one year, and of the Academy at Clyde, New York, for the same length of term. Upon retiring from the principalship of the latter seat of learning, he commenced the study of law with Hon. Chauncey F. Clark, of Wolcott, New York. He removed to Tioga, Pennsylvania, in 1846, completing his law studies with Hon. John W. Guernsey, of Tioga, and was admitted to the bar of Tioga county in 1849, to the supreme court of Pennsylvania in 1852, and to the United States courts in 1865. In 1849 he formed a co-partnership with Hon. Charles H. Seymour of Tioga, in the practice of law, which association continued until 1853. On June 14, 1853, Mr. Smith was married to Stella F. Bigelow, of Tioga, the youngest daughter of the late Judge Levi Bigelow.

In early life Mr. Smith was a Democrat, but became a Republican upon the organization of that party, of which he was one of the founders. He ever after took an active and prominent part in sustaining and defending the principles enunciated by the Republican party and always had the courage of his convictions. In 1856 he was elected a presidential elector on the Fremont ticket and served with distinction, doing all in his power for the success of that ticket. In 1860 he was elected a presidential elector on the Lincoln ticket. During the dark days of the Rebellion, when the glorious Union seemed destined to be torn asunder, Mr. Smith sustained the Union cause with a fidelity and courage only equaled by the brave soldiers at the front, whose friend he ever was, contributing freely of his time and money in defense of the flag. In 1865 he was appointed a United States commissioner, which office he held until his death. In 1867 he was appointed United States register in bankruptcy for the Eighteenth (now the Sixteenth) district, which office he held until the repeal of that law, serving with distinction and having before him many important cases from both his own and other districts in the State. On June 13, 1879, he formed a partnership with Horace and Samuel W. Pomeroy, of Troy, Pennsylvania, in the will known banking house of Pomeroy Brothers & F. E. Smith, at Blossburg, the firm continuing under the same name until July 8, 1895, when it was succeeded by the Miners National Bank of Blossburg. In December, 1883, when the banking house of B. C. Wickham & Company, of Tioga, failed, Mr. Smith was appointed one of the assignees. Considering the resources of that defunct house the affairs were executed in a manner that reflected much credit on his business ability. Mr. Smith was a prominent Mason, being first a member of Painted Post Lodge, No. 117, and afterwards one of the organizers of the present Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M., of Tioga, chartered October 16, 1866. He was also a thirty-second degree member of the Supreme Council Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry, Corning Consistory, of Corning, New York; a member of Wellsboro Lodge, I.O.O.F., and a charter member and first Noble Grand of Adelphic Lodge, I.O.O.F., of Tioga, organized October 8, 1847. He was also one of the trustees of Union College, his alma mater, and always took a deep interest in the cause of education.

Mr. Smith was an able lawyer, at the bar or in the office, well grounded in the principles of law, and had few superiors in northern Pennsylvania as an orator or public speaker. He possessed in a high degree the necessary qualification of the wise counsellor, successful lawyer and safe financier. Conscientious, just and equitable in all his dealings, and endowed with fine legal and literary attainments, he won a well-deserved reputation at the bar. He took much pleasure in collecting rare and valuable books and had one of the best literary and law libraries in the State. Possessing an upright and honorable nature, he required and demanded the same standard of honor from others. The young sought him for advice, and he was ever ready to assist them and point out for their guidance the higher and nobler aims of life. His public spirit, liberality and charity were always up to the fullest measure, and he was ever ready to give his support to every undertaking that had for its object the up-building of Tioga or the welfare and prosperity of its citizens. He was a polished, genial and courteous gentleman, a loving husband, a kind father and faithful friend. Mr. Smith died at his beautiful home in Tioga, on October 8, 1889, after an illness of but a few days. His widow and three sons survive him. Alvah Lee Smith is president of the Miners National Bank, of Blossburg; Frederick Bigelow Smith is an attorney at Tioga, and a representative in the state legislature, and Dr. William Clive Smith, a physician at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

Alvah Lee Smith, president of the Miners National Bank of Blossburg, is the eldest son of Frederick Emerson Smith, and was born at Tioga, Pennsylvania, May 15, 1855. He was educated in the schools of his native town, and in 1871 entered the State Normal School at Mansfield, remaining there two years, when he went to New York City to enter the preparatory schools for Columbia College. In 1876 he commenced the study of law in his father’s office, but instead of seeking admission to the bar he decided to pursue a business career. On June 13, 1879, he entered the banking house of Pomeroy Brothers & F. E. Smith, at Blossburg, as book-keeper, and in September of the same year was appointed cashier and general manager of that institution. In July, 1895, he re-organized the business and established the Miners National Bank, which succeeded the old firm, of which he became cashier. The duties of this responsible position he discharged for seventeen years with such ability and fidelity as to gain for him a well-earned reputation as a capable and conservative financier, careful alike of the interests of the institution under his charge and of its patrons and depositors. On January 12, 1897, he was elected president of the bank, as the successor of S. W. Pomeroy, deceased. Socially, Mr. Smith is a gentleman of culture, of easy manners and approachable by anyone. He is much interested in art, and his fine apartments over the bank are filled with rare works of vertu, such as costly etchings, oil paintings, statuettes, India ink engravings, costly rugs, vases and bric-a-brac. He is a director in the Miners National Bank, and a member of the City Club of Elmira, and the Knickerbocker Yacht Club, of New York. He is also resident agent of many of the leading life and fire insurance companies. In politics, Mr. Smith is an ardent Republican and in religion, a member of St. Andrew’s Protestant Episcopal church, of Tioga. In March, 1897, he was appointed a member of the board of trustees of the Cottage State Hospital at Blossburg—an appropriate recognition of his prominence in the community.

Frederick Bigelow Smith, attorney-at-law, was born at Tioga, Pennsylvania, April 3, 1863, and is the second son of Frederick Emerson Smith. He was educated in the High School of Tioga, and entered the Kinne and Cascidilla preparatory schools at Ithaca, New York, in 1897, and Cornell University, in September, 1881. After a course at Cornell he began the study of law in his father’s office; entered the law department of Columbia College, New York City, in 1886, and graduated therefrom in 1888, with the degree of A. B. He was admitted to the bar of Tioga county in 1888, and to the supreme court of Pennsylvania in 1893. For nearly a year after his graduation he was employed in the recorder’s office at Wellsboro indexing the records of that office, having been appointed by the court to do that work. In October, 1889, he began the practice of his profession at Tioga, and is now recognized as one of the rising young lawyers of the county, having many important estates in his hands for settlement. Mr. Smith possesses high literary attainments, and takes a great interest in the welfare and business prosperity of his town, of which he has been secretary for a number of years. He is a member of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M., and of Tyagaghton Commandery, No. 28, K. T. , of Wellsboro. He is a director in the Miners National Bank of Blossburg, and local agent at Tioga of the leading fire and life insurance companies. He is also a member of the City Club of Elmira, and City Club, of Corning, New York. In religion, he is a member of St. Andrew’s Protestant Episcopal church of Tioga, and a vestryman in that body. Politically a steadfast Republican, he takes an active interest in promoting the success of his party. Mr. Smith was nominated for the legislature in the spring of 1896 and was elected in November following by the usual party majority.

William Clive Smith, M. D., third and youngest son of Frederick Emerson Smith, was born at Tioga, Pennsylvania, April 18, 1868. He attended the High School of his native town, and in 1886 entered Exeter Academy, at Exeter, New Hampshire, and remained there for two years. In October, 1888, he entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and spent two years at that institution. In 1890 he entered the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, where he graduated in 1893 with the title of M. D. After graduation he became resident physician of the City Hospital at Pittston, remaining there four months, at the end of which period he became resident physician of the City Hospital at Wilkes-Barre, which position he filled one year, leaving there to become resident physician of the Nursery and Childs Hospital, in New York City, devoted entirely to children under four years of age and having over 400 beds. In November, 1895, Dr. Smith located at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, but still retains his old liking for Tioga and his native county. Dr. Smith has been very successful in his profession, has had a large hospital experience in surgical cases and children’s diseases, and is a rising young physician. He is a member of the Luzerne County Medical Society, and the Westmoreland and Country Clubs, of Wilkes-Barre; also of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M., and of the Psi Upsilon fraternity of the University of Michigan and University of Pennsylvania, and the Psi Upsilon Club of New York.

Robert Bruce Smith, physician and surgeon, son of Russell N. and Caroline (Sessions) Smith, was born at Marathon, Cortland county, New York, August 23, 1840. His paternal ancestry was of Holland-Dutch descent. There is a tradition in the family that its ancestors in this country accompanied Henry Hudson on his famous voyage of discovery, in 1609, and that two brothers, Nicholas and Jacob Smith, returned to the New World a few years later and established homes on the Hudson river, in the vicinity of Albany, then Fort Orange. There is in possession of the family a large iron-bound chest which tradition relates accompanied Hudson on the voyage of the Half Moon. This story is doubtless a myth, but the chest is certainly of extreme age and probably was brought from Europe at an early date. It is a matter of conjecture whether the ancestors of the Smith family were Dutch or English, but a long residence among the Dutch settlers of the Hudson river imbued the family with Dutch customs, manners and traditions. The first authenticated record of this line of the Smith family, is that Jacob Smith was living in Albany county, New York, in the middle of the last century, and that he died there about the year 1794. Among other ancient and curious papers found in the old chest, was a bond and deed executed to Jacob Smith, bearing the date 1767, to which was affixed the royal seal of King George III, of England. Jacob Smith had four sons, viz: Nicholas, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, who was born at Albany, New York, in 1768; Hendrick, born at the same place in 1773, and two others who were carried off by the Indians and kept in captivity seven years before being restored to their parents. In 1795 Nicholas and Hendrick, accompanied by their mother, removed to Upper Lisle, Broome county, New York, where Nicholas became the owner of a large amount of land and a prosperous sheep grower. Here he continues to reside until his death, in 1852.

Russel N. Smith, the second child of Nicholas and Elizabeth (Cornell) Smith, was born in Lisle, Broome county, New York, in 1813. He was an extensive land owner, and was noted for his honesty, industry and thrift. He married Caroline Sessions, a descendant of Samuel Sessions, a native of Wantage, England, and a member of the King’s Body Guard. Samuel cane to America in 1630, with Gov. Thomas Dudley, as farmer of his estate, and settled in Massachusetts. The ancestry can be traced in an unbroken chain to Caroline Sessions, who was born in Union, Tolland county, Connecticut, February 20, 1815. She married Russell N. Smith, at Marathon, about 1837, and became the mother of three children, viz: Charles, who died in infancy; Robert Bruce, a physician of Tioga, Pennsylvania, and Elbert Burke, of Lexington, Nebraska. Russell N. Smith died in Cortland county, New York, March 7, 1881. His wife, Caroline, died October 25, 1888.

The subject of this sketch spent his early years on his father’s farm in Cortland county, New York. His primary education was acquired at the district schools of the neighborhood, and he later attended Oxford Academy, Oxford, New York, in which institution he graduated at the age of sixteen. He then began to teach in the schools of his native county, and at the age of nineteen entered the sophomore class of Union College in Schenectady, remaining there until the close of the junior year, in 1861. The war spirit was strongly felt at Union College, which contained about one hundred Southern students, who left in a body at the first outbreak of hostilities. The majority of the Northern students and some of the professors enlisted in the Union service. Among the former was Robert B. Smith, who abandoned his studies and enlisted as a lieutenant in the Sixteenth New York Independent Battery, which command at once proceeded to the front. The Sixteenth Battery was attached to the Eighteenth Army Corps, and served in the Armies of the Potomac and the James. For good service Lieutenant Smith was transferred by order of General Butler to the command of Battery F, First Rhode Island Light Artillery, which command he filled until the expiration of his term of three years’ service. He then returned to his home and began the study of medicine under Dr. S. H> French, of Lisle, New York. In 1866 he graduated at Long Island College Hospital, with the degree of M. D., and immediately afterwards married Ellen A., a daughter of William Vrooman Share, of Lisle, New York.

Mrs. Smith is descended from one of the oldest Dutch families in the United States. Prior to 1670 three brothers by the name of Vrooman came to this country from Holland, one of whom, Hendrick Meese Vrooman, settled at Schenectady, New York, in 1677. The family has figured prominently in the Colonial history of New York state. At the Schenectady Massacre, on the night of February 9, 1690, two of the family were killed and three carried captives to Canada. The fifth in descent from the original settler was William Vrooman Share, born May 29, 1816; he married Lucetta Dunbar Hine, February 7, 1838, and died on January 29, 1861. Their only daughter, Ellen A. Share, was born at Lafayette, New York, April 13, 1840, and was married to Dr. Robert Bruce Smith, August 2, 1866.

Dr. Smith removed to Tioga, Pennsylvania, the year of his marriage, and purchased property on Broad street, which continues as the family residence up to the present. Dr. Smith has three children, viz: Winifred, born August 12, 1868, who graduated from Elmira College in the class of 1891, was preceptress of the Wellsboro High School for two years, and has also taken a post-graduate course at Yale College; Charles Russell, born September 20, 1870, who graduated from Union College, Schenectady, New York, in the class of 1894, and is now pursuing a course in medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, and George Vrooman, born May 10, 1874, who was also a member of the class of 1894 at Union College, and is now a law student at Yale. George V. has a decided talent for archaeological research, and possesses one of the most interesting and valuable individual collections of Indian relics in this section of Pennsylvania. On coming to Tioga Dr. Smith entered immediately upon the practice of his profession, which he has pursued with marked success for the past thirty years, being now the senior practicing physician in Tioga borough. In 1883 Union College conferred upon him the degree of M. A. Aside from his prominence and success as a physician, Dr. Smith is also recognized as one of the foremost citizens of Tioga county. He is a stanch Democrat, unswerving in his adherence to the principles of his party, and a man of wide influence in the community. In 1878 he was the Democratic nominee for Congress in this district, and proved himself an able and effective campaigner. The Republican majority of the district was, however, too large for him to overcome, and his opponent was elected. Dr. Smith has established a fair reputation as a public speaker, having spoken on many prominent occasions, particularly during commemorative exercises of days and events connected with the Rebellion. He is recognized as an authority on expert medical testimony, and his long experience as a physician and surgeon has made his presence of great value in consultation. He is one of the consulting surgeons of the Cottage State Hospital, at Blossburg, and was president of the board of pension examiners of Tioga county about three years. He has been burgess of Tioga for two terms, and has repeatedly served as councilman and school director of the borough. As president of the board of health, he has been efficient in promoting the excellent sanitary condition of the town. Dr. Smith is a member of Etz Post, No. 401, G. A. R., and is also Master of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M. He has been closely identified with the growth of Tioga, and on all occasions contributed liberally towards the social and material development of the community.

William Lowell, a son of Daniel A. and Mary Lowell, was born October 21, 1804, and obtained a common school education. His father was a hatter and he also learned that trade. Early in the thirties his parents, his brother Martin and himself, and Thomas and Herbert Hollis, came from Bainbridge, New York, to the village of Tioga, Tioga county, Pennsylvania. They were all hatters, and erected for their business place the main building now occupied by Paul Kraiss’ furniture store. On February 7, 1832, Mr. Lowell married Rebecca Preston. She was born May 21, 1810, and became the mother of four children, viz: Orlando B., David A., May A. and William A., all of whom are dead. Mr. Lowell worked as a hatter until he purchased the old Goodrich Hotel, which he carried on for a number of years. Shortly before his death, which occurred April 3, 1848, he sold out and retired. He was appointed postmaster of Tioga in 1846 and held the office until 1848. His wife died June 7, 1852.

Orlando B. Lowell, eldest son of William and Rebecca Lowell, was born in Tioga, Pennsylvania, November 28, 1832. He was educated in the common schools and in the Wellsboro Academy, and subsequently clerked in a store at Elmira, New York, four years. He then embarked in the mercantile business in Tioga with Charles O. Etz, the firm being Etz and Lowell, in which he remained two years, and then entered the employ of T. L. Baldwin & Company, for whom he clerked five years. About 1866 Mr. Lowell bought the interest of H. F. Wells in the tannery of Johnston & Wells, of Tioga, and also became interested in several other tanneries in the county. The firm in Tioga became Johnston & Lowell, and afterwards Lowell & Company. Finally the New York partner failed, carrying down the business with him. After retiring from the tannery business Mr. Lowell devoted his attention to the cultivation of his 600-acre farm situated a mile north of Tioga borough, and known as the old Jacob Prutsman farm. While paying due attention to diversified crops, he devoted himself principally to the raising of tobacco and the breeding of Hambletonian horses. He was a thorough business man and brought business principles to bear upon every detail of his farm work. Possessing untiring energy, a clear, well-balanced mind, and good executive ability, he usually succeeded in whatever he undertook, and was regarded as one of the best farmers in Tioga county. Mr. Lowell was twice married. His first wife was Laura Schieffelin, a daughter of Jacob Schiefflin. She died September 18, 1866. On November 18, 1869, he married Mrs. Sarah M. Etz, widow of Lieut. Charles O. Etz, of Company D, Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, who was killed by a shell at the battle of Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862. Etz Post, No. 401, G. A. R., of Tioga, was named in his honor. Mrs. Lowell is a daughter of Samuel B. and Amelia (Green) Wellington, and was born in West Moriah, Essex county, New York, December 6, 1834. She came with her parents to Tioga in 1845, and was married to Charles O. Etz, November 18, 1852. She was postmistress of Tioga from 1863 to 1868. By her marriage to Mr. Lowell was born one daughter, Laura, a graduate of Elmira College. In politics, Mr. Lowell was an ardent Republican, was a member of the borough council of Tioga five years, and burgess from 1874 to 1876. He also served as a school director. He died June 19, 1896, of Bright’s disease, and his death was sincerely mourned by the people of the community wherein his whole life had been passed.

H. E. Smith was born in Sidney, Delaware county, New York, November 4, 1811. His father, Samuel Smith, was a native of Bennington, Vermont, and as a boy witnessed the battle of Bennington, fought during the Revolution. Samuel married Lucy Greenslit, and during the closing years of the last century removed to Sidney, New York, where he spent the remainder of his life. H. E. was reared in Sidney, and when a young man went to Oneonta to learn the boot and shoe trade, remaining there until his removal to Tioga, Pennsylvania, in February, 1839. Upon his arrival in that borough, he embarked in the boot and shoe business, which he carried on in his own name until 1854, when the firm became H. E. Smith & Son, his son, Henry N., taking an interest in the business. In 1856 the latter removed to Buffalo, and September 29, 1859, his brother, C. E., became a member of the firm, the title remaining the same up to the present. Mr. Smith was married January 6, 1831, to Lucy M. Mantor, a daughter of Thomas and Mehitable Mantor. She was born November 25, 1813. This venerable couple, who recently celebrated their sixty-sixth wedding anniversary, are the parents of four children, viz: Maria L., widow of Dr. H. H. Borden; Henry N., a resident of New York City; C. E., and Julia E., wife of C. J. Wheeler, of Wellsboro. In politics, Mr. Smith is a Republican. He was a member of the first borough council, and also served in that body from 1862 to 1865, and again in 1873. He has also served as a justice of the peace and township treasurer, and has been prominent in every undertaking calculated to forward the welfare and prosperity of the borough.

C. E. Smith was born in Oneonta, Otsego county, New York, June 14, 1836, a son of H. E, and Lucy M. Smith, and grandson of Samuel Smith. After acquiring a common school education, he took a course in Alfred University, Alfred Center, New York. The years of 1857 and 1858 he spent principally in St. Paul and Minneapolis, and in traveling over what was then considered the far west. In 1859 he returned to Tioga, and on September 29, of that year, entered into partnership with his father in the boot and shoe business, in which he has since continued. The firm suffered by the fire of 1871, but notwithstanding their heavy loss at that time, have since carried on the business with success. Mr. Smith was married August 24, 1859, to Mary Thorne Miller, a daughter of Abram and Julia Miller, of Southport, New York. Their only child, Harry G., married Lena Phelps, and resides in Tioga. In politics, Mr. Smith is a Republican, has been a member of the borough council several terms, and is one of the leading citizens of Tioga.

Reuben Daggett was a native of Westmoreland county, New Hampshire, and removed to Paris, Oneida county, New York, whence he came to Jackson township, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, in 1807. Here, with the assistance of his sons, Rufus, Reuben and Seth, he erected a mill, at the point since known as Daggett’s Mills, where he spent the remaining years of his life.

Seth Daggett, a son of Reuben Daggett, was born in Westmoreland county, New Hampshire, July 3, 1790, and was seventeen years old when his father settled in this county. He assisted him in operating the mill and became one of the prominent citizens of the county, filling the office of sheriff one term. He built several saw-mills in various localities, and in 1842 came to Tioga borough and purchased the Willard property, and also three farms. He married Eunice Allen, of Barnstable, Massachusetts, who bore him the following children: Allen, who died in Lawrenceville, in March, 1886; George, who died in 1850; Lewis, a resident of Tioga; Clymena, deceased wife of Richard Stilwell; Minerva, widow of Daniel Dewey; Rowena, wife of W. T. Urell, of Tioga; Mary Ann, widow of H. W. Caulking, and Charlotte, deceased. Mr. Daggett died January 2, 1874, and his wife, March 22, 1864.

Lewis Daggett, son of Seth Daggett, and grandson of Reuben Daggett, was born in Jackson township, Tioga county, May 5, 1816. He received a common school education and began his business life as a lumberman and farmer. In 1838 he opened a general store at Daggett’s Mills, and later built a saw-mill. In 1848 he came to Tioga, subsequently removing to Chatham township, where he remained eighteen months. Returning to Tioga, he was engaged in merchandising for a number of years. In 1870 he removed to Lawrenceville, where he ran the Daggett House for a number of years, and was then succeeded by his son, W. L. In 1890 Mr. Daggett returned to Tioga, where he has since resided. On March 4, 1839, he married Ellen S. Wells, a daughter of Norman and Elizabeth Wells. Of seven children born to this union, three are living, as follows: Seth O., of Tioga; W. L., of Bellefonte, and Myrtie, wife of F. W. Fletcher, of Newberry, Lycoming county. Mrs. Daggett was born January 30, 1821, and died on June 22, 1894. In politics, he is a Republican, and in religion, a Universalist. He was appointed postmaster of Tioga in 1851, by President Fillmore, and in 1861 by President Lincoln.

Seth O. Daggett was born at Daggett’s Mills, September 14, 1845, and is the oldest living child of Lewis Daggett. He obtained his education in the common schools and at Mansfield State Normal School, and before he was sixteen years old began clerking for Sly & Alford, of Tioga. In 1862 he bought out the business, continued it four years, and then engaged in lumbering on Pine creek, which he followed one year. He next went west and spent some time in Chicago, Cincinnati and other places. In 1870 he engaged in the hotel business with his father in Lawrenceville, remaining there until 1880, when he came to Tioga and conducted the Park Hotel for a year and a half. He next ran the Kiple House, of Honesdale; then the Ryant House, of Horseheads, New York, two years; the Wilcox House, of Wellsboro, five years; the Seymour House, of Blossburg, a year, and the Stinson House, of Athens, one year. On July 1, 1890, he became proprietor of the Park Hotel, of Tioga, which he conducted till May, 1896. Mr. Daggett was married June 9, 1878, to Ella Boynton, who bore him two children, Georgia A. and Leah M. His wife died October 2, 1885; he was again married on October 19, 1893, to Katie Hymes, who has borne him one child, Aldean M. In politics, Mr. Daggett is a Republican, and is also a member of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M.

Dr. Jacob Schieffelin was born in New York City, April 20, 1793. His father, Jacob Schieffelin, was born in Philadelphia, August 24, 1757, and his grandfather in Germany, February 4, 1732. The subject of this sketch was reared to manhood in his native city. When but seventeen years of age he was an ensign in the militia, at twenty a captain and at twenty-one a colonel. After a thorough preparatory education, he began the study of medicine in 1810 with Dr. Onderdonk, afterward Protestant Episcopal bishop of Pennsylvania, and attended three courses of lectures at Columbia College, from which institution he graduated in 1822. He at once became a partner with his brother, H. H. Schieffelin, in the wholesale drug house of H. H. Schieffelin & Company, of New York. During the next five years he spent his summers in New York and his winters in Savannah, Charleston, Mobile, New Orleans and Havana, acquiring in the meantime a fair knowledge of the Spanish language. He was in command of the militia regiment in New York City that received Lafayette in 1824, and at the reception which followed he was presented to that distinguished visitor. In 1824 he went to Mexico and opened a branch store. While there he made the acquaintance of Santa Anna, then a lieutenant in the Mexican cavalry, but afterwards the celebrated commander-in-chief of the Mexican army. In 1828, having previously purchased large bodies of land in Tioga and Lycoming counties, Pennsylvania, he removed to Tioga county and located on Hill’s creek, in Charleston township. In 1830 he erected a saw-mill and the following year a large frame dwelling. He later disposed of his land and in 1845 removed to Tioga borough, where he passed the remaining years of his life, dying December 27, 1880, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. Dr. Schieffelin married Elizabeth Black and reared the following named children: Clinton, who died in Los Angeles, California; Alfred, a resident of Charleston township; Elizabeth, a resident of Tioga; Laura, who married the late O. B. Lowell, of Tioga, and died in Elmira, September 18, 1866; Cornelia, who lives in Los Angeles, California; Edward G., a resident of Wellsboro and superintendent of the Stokesdale tannery; Jacob, a retired merchant of Tioga, and Mrs. Hannah Lyon, who lives in Illinois. Mrs. Schieffelin died in 1881, aged eighty-four years.

Jacob Schieffelin, youngest son of Dr. Jacob Schieffelin, was born in Charleston township, Tioga county, April 18, 1838, and removed with his parents to Tioga in 1845, where he grew to manhood. In 1866 he was one of the contractors who drilled the oil well on the Abiel Sly land, on Bear creek. In 1867 he established in Tioga a hardware and tinsmithing business, which he carried on with marked success until January, 1895, when he sold out to William Kimball and retired from active business. Mr. Schieffelin was married February 1, 1865, to Ella Ryon, a daughter of Charles and Susanna Gertrude (White) Ryon, and has three children, viz: Lila G., Edward E. and Jacob. Mrs. Schieffelin died in 1894, aged fifty-two years. In politics, Mr. Schieffelin is a Republican, and in religion, a member of the Presbyterian church. Since arriving at manhood he has been regarded as one of the most enterprising citizens of Tioga, and every worthy project has found in him an earnest and liberal supporter. He stands high in the esteem of his fellow-citizens, as a man of sterling integrity and upright character.

W. T. Urell was born at Rath-na-leen, County Tipperary, Ireland, in May, 1832. He immigrated to the United States and settled in Tioga, Pennsylvania, in 1848, where he found employment in the store of Lewis Daggett. He afterwards served as deputy postmaster under C. G. Dennison during the presidency of Taylor and Pierce, and in 1857 was appointed postmaster by President Buchanan, a position he held until 1861. He was also postmaster during President Cleveland’s first term, resigning at that time the office of justice of the peace, which he had filled for several terms. In 1857 Mr. Urell embarked in business, confining himself to groceries, provisions, books and notions, and has to his credit a continuous and successful business career of nearly forty years. He owes his success in life to persistent and persevering industry, strict honesty, and sterling integrity, which have won for him the respect and confidence of the community in which he has lived for nearly half a century. Mr. Urell united with the Presbyterian church about 1860. He married Rowena Daggett, a daughter of Maj. Seth Daggett, to which union have been born five children, all natives of Tioga, viz: Robert Emmett, born June 4, 1851; Charles Allen, October 16, 1852; Mary Lottie, November 4, 1864; Tom Moore, May 3, 1857, and Richard Daggett, June 19, 1859. Robert E. married Eva Squire, only child of Aaron Squire, June 21, 1893. Mary L. married H. L. Baldwin, a lawyer of Tioga, June 26, 1884, and has two daughters, Marguerite and Dorothy. Tom M. married Maud Babcock, a daughter of F. G. and Frances L. Babcock, of Tioga, October 12, 1893. Richard D. remained at home until 1887 and then took charge of the Brooklyn Hotel, which he has since purchased and still conducts. He married Emma VanGorder, who has borne him two children, Nona, deceased, and Walter. With the exception of a few years the three elder sons have been and are the efficient assistants of their father in the mercantile business. The whole family have been life-long Democrats and have taken an active interest in promoting the success of the principles and measures of that party. Robert E., especially, has been prominent in local politics. He believes in free trade and advocates the single tax theory on land values as the only means to insure and preserve the equal rights of all men to a fair share of the land. He was the Democratic county chairman in 1890, and his party’s nominee for state senator in The Twenty-fifth district in 1892. Though unable to overcome the large Republican majority he made a vigorous and creditable canvass.

Stephen C. Alford was born in Connecticut, in 1817, and removed with his parents to Bainbridge, New York, at an early age. About 1831 he came to Tioga, Pennsylvania, and began clerking for A. C. Bush, with whom he remained several years. In 1855 he embarked in merchandising in partnership with Abiel Sly, and the firm of Sly and Alford continued in business for seven years. Mr. Alford married Ruth Lindsey, a daughter of David B. Lindsey. She was born in Wellsboro, Tioga county, in 1824, and is still living. She became the mother of two children: James, who died in 1862, and H. S., of Tioga. Mr. Alford died in January, 1871, after a residence in Tioga of some forty years.

H. S. Alford, only living child of Stephen C. and Ruth Alford, was born in Tioga, Pennsylvania, February 8, 1855. He received a good English education, and subsequently found employment with the Erie Railroad Company, serving as assistant telegraph operator under J. Dillistin, whom he succeeded in 1883, as ticket and freight agent of the Erie Company in Tioga, a position he still holds. He is also a member of the firm of Alford & Inscho, coal dealers. Mr. Alford was married September 30, 1880, to Mary E. Doane, a daughter of Jesse B. Doane, and has one daughter, Bessie. In politics, Mr. Alford is a Republican, and is also connected with Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M.; Phoenix Lodge, No. 933, K. of H., and Tioga Tent, No. 176, K. O. T. M. In the discharge of the duties of his position, Mr. Alford has proven not only loyal to the interests of the railroad company, but has made himself deservedly popular with the traveling public by his uniform kindness and courtesy.

Jonas Galusha Putnam was born in New York state, in 1810. In early life he was a millwright and built several of the first mills erected in northeastern New York. In 1849 he came to Tioga, Pennsylvania, where he continued to follow the same business up to 1886, when he retired from active labor. He was married in Essex county, New York, to Sophia Havens, who became the mother of three children, as follows: George Stevenson and Mrs. R. S. Hickok, both residents of Buffalo, and John H., a lawyer of Tioga. Mr. Putnam died in 1893, and his wife, in 1886, in the seventy-second year of her age.

Philo Tuller, druggist, was born in Butler, Wayne county, New York, October 26, 1827, a son of Worden and Elizabeth (Olmstead) Tuller. His father settled in Wayne county at an early day, but afterwards removed to Hastings county, Ontario, Canada, where he passed the remainder of his life. Philo received a common school education and at the age of eighteen began learning the cabinet-making trade in Lyons, Wayne county, New York. In 1851 he came to Tioga, where he carried on the cabinet-making business until 1860. From 1862 until after the war, Mr. Tuller was employed by the government in the construction department. He then returned to Tioga and embarked in the drug business, which he has carried on successfully for the past thirty years. On December 14, 1850, he married Harriet Mack. In politics, Mr. Tuller is a Republican; was one of the signers of the petition asking for the corporation of Tioga borough; served in the council in 1866, 1871 and 1872; was a justice of the peace from 1867 to 1870; postmaster of Tioga from 1868 to 1885, and was elected burgess in February, 1897. During a residence of nearly half a century in Tioga, Mr. Tuller has been identified with every movement for the upbuilding of the community. To a successful and honorable business career, he has added the reputation of a public-spirited citizen. In his business he has kept pace with the times, and has a well-stocked store, especially attractive in its interior arrangement.

Joseph Smead was born in Massachusetts, in 1759, and removed to Swanzey, New Hampshire, at an early day, where he followed the blacksmith’s trade. He was an ardent patriot and served with honor in the Continental army during the Revolution. He was twice married. His first wife, Sarah Lyman, bore him one daughter, Sallie, who died in youth. His second wife, was Mrs. Sarah Wetherell, nee Brown, widow of Ebenezer Wetherell. She became the mother of three children, as follows: Persis Lyman, who died in 1840; Joseph B., a retired machinist of Massachusetts; and Ephraim A., of Tioga. Mr. Smead died in 1834, and his wife in 1858.

Ephraim A. Smead, youngest child of Joseph and Sarah Smead, was born in Swanzey, New Hampshire, February 1, 1822, and there obtained a common school education. When seventeen years old he went to Boston and learned the tinner’s trade, at which he worked until 1852, when he came to Tioga county and bought some land. Soon afterwards he secured a patent for making square pans, the right to use which he sold in New York, Boston, Philadelphia and other cities. In 1862 he came to Tioga borough and embarked in the hardware business, which he has successfully continued up to the present, and erected his present store building on Wellsboro street in 1873. On September 28, 1846, Mr. Smead married Susan Knight, a daughter of Joseph and Sarah Knight. She was born in New Hampshire, November 6, 1826. In politics, Mr. Smead is a Republican. He was one of the signers of the petition asking for the incorporation of Tioga; served in the council from 1877 to 1881; was elected burgess in 1882, 1892, 1893 and 1894, and was borough treasurer from 1884 to 1887, and again in 1889. He is a member of St. Andrew’s Protestant Episcopal church, of Tioga, and also of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M., and Tioga River Lodge, No 797, I. O. O. F. Mr. Smead is one of the leading citizens and substantial business men of Tioga.

Eli S. Farr was born and reared at Windham, Vermont, and there married Mary Putnam. Four children were born to this union, as follows: W. O., a bookkeeper in Seattle, Washington; Abram, superintendent of the Middlebury tannery, and a resident of Niles Valley; C. B., of Williamsport, and Leroy, a resident of Tioga. About 1854 Mr. Farr and family came to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and located at the old railway station below Tioga borough, where Mr. Farr operated a saw-mill and carried on a grocery store for a short time. He then moved back to Vermont, where he stayed a year or two. About 1857 or 1858 he returned to Tioga county, and after a short stay in Tioga borough, located in Wellsboro, and conducted a hotel on the site of the present Coles House. About 1859 he removed to the site now occupied by the Wilcox House, where he kept hotel for several years. In 1863 he returned to Tioga borough, and took charge of the Goodrich Hotel. He retired from active business in 1880, and died October 8, 1890, aged seventy-six years. His widow is living in Tioga borough.

C. B. Farr , a son of Eli S. Farr, was born in Windham, Vermont, February 22, 1846, and was about nine years old when his parents came to Tioga county. He attended the common schools of Wellsboro and Tioga. He later clerked for A. P. Cone, on Pine creek, and next became a clerk for Reddington, Maxwell & Leonard, of Troy, Bradford county. In 1868 he took an interest in the mercantile business with T. A. Wickham, which then became Wickham & Farr. He remained in this firm until 1878, when he became interested with O. B. Lowell in the Tioga and Middlebury tanneries, which partnership was dissolved in 1884 and the business discontinued. Mr. Farr then embarked in the lumber business on Pine creek, under the firm name of C. B. Farr & Company. In May, 1893, the firm sold out to the Union Tanning Company, and he later removed to Williamsport, where he is engaged with that company. Mr. Farr was married December 13, 1870, to Ella A. Wellington, a daughter of Samuel B. and Amelia Wellington, and has two children, Lowell W. and Quincy W. The family is connected with the Protestant Episcopal church. In politics, Mr. Farr is a Republican, and was prominent in the local councils of his party. He served in the borough council in 1869, and from 1878 to 1883; also as burgess of Tioga from 1887 to 1891. He has also filled the office of school director, and is a man of commendable enterprise and public spirit.

N. R. Shappee was born near Horseheads, Chemung county, New York, November 24, 1833, a son of Abner K. and Polly (Brooks) Shappee. His parents resided in Chemung county until their death. They reared a family of seven children, as follows: David, a resident of Alpine, New York; Abner, who died in Nebraska in 1893; Thomas, a resident of Elmira, who died in 1895; Knapp, of the same city, who died in 1896; Nathan R., of Tioga; Mariett, deceased wife of Louis Larrison, of Horseheads, and Rebecca, wife of Burton Stanley, of Tioga. The subject of this sketch received a common school education, and came to Tioga in early manhood, where he followed the occupation of teaming for many years. By industry and prudence he has accumulated a valuable property. On May 17, 1852, Mr. Shappee married Julia Schoch, a daughter of Frederick and Rosina Schoch, who has born him four children: Rosa, wife of F. C. Prutsman, of Elmira; Mollie, who died in infancy; Anna, who died March 17, 1892, and Frederick W., a stenographer of Tioga. During the Civil War Mr. Shappee served as a corporal in Company H, Forty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and for a part of the time was quartermaster sergeant. In politics, a Republican, he has served in the council from 1890 to 1896, and also filled the office of street commissioner for three years. He is a member of Etz Post, No. 401, G. A. R., also of the E. A. U., and in religion, is an adherent of the Presbyterian church.

Frederick W. Shappee, only son of N. R. Shappee, was born in Tioga, Pennsylvania, July 27, 1872, and was educated in the Tioga graded school and at Miller’s Business College, Elmira, New York. He clerked for G. G. Saxton for three years and in November, 1893, accepted a clerkship in the law office of F. B. Smith, of Tioga, Pennsylvania, where he has since been with the exception of about six months, when he was with the wholesale grocery house of C. R. Maltby & Brother, of Corning, New York. In June, 1895, he married Ann Wilkin, daughter of Daniel Wilkin, of Morris Run, Pennsylvania, who has borne him one daughter. Mr. Shappee is a Republican, and was elected auditor of Tioga borough in 1892, which office he filled for three years, and at the expiration of his term was elected a justice of the peace in February, 1895, which position he still holds. He is a charter member of Smead Hose Company, No. 1; also a member of Tioga Lodge, No 373, F. & A. M., of Tioga. He is very fond of athletic sports and was a member of the Smead Running Team which gained an enviable reputation as sprinters in Tioga county in the summer of 1894. During the spare moments he finds time to pursue the study of law and gives promise of attaining a creditable place in the ranks of that profession.

John J. Davis was born in Millbrook, Pembrokeshire, Wales, in 1837, and immigrated to the United States when ten years of age. He became a door-tender in the coal mines at Hyde Park, Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, and worked in the mines until eighteen years of age. He was then made a foreman, and later explored and put down a number of shafts for the company. He subsequently came to Blossburg, Tioga county, and was employed by the old salt company and its successor, the Morris Run Coal Company, in exploring and developing the mines at Morris Run. Mr. Davis opened up the East and Salt Lake drifts. He advocated and adopted the T rail for mine tramways, and was the first to introduce mules in the mines. He resigned in December, 1874, upon which occasion he was presented with a gold watch inscribed as follows: "Presented to John J. Davis, by workingmen of Morris Run, Pennsylvania, as a token of their esteem, December, 1874." In 1876 he was appointed superintendent of mines at Arnot, by the Blossburg Coal Company, a position he held until the fall of 1880. While filling it Mr. Davis explored and re-opened the lower drift, experimented with the coal, and demonstrated its adaptability for coking purposes. In the fall of 1880 he resigned and removed to Mansfield to educate his children. In 1882 Mr. Davis was employed as superintendent of construction of the Tioga Coke and Coal Washing Plant, at Tioga, by the Fall Brook Coal Company, and upon the resignation of Hon. Simon B. Elliot, he became superintendent of the plant. He died while holding this position, January 21, 1891, after an illness of three months. He was succeeded by his son, James T., who held the position until July 1, 1894, when the plant closed down because of its inability to meet ruinous competition. Mr. Davis married Mary V. James, who was born in Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, in 1837, and is now a resident of Tioga borough. Seven children were born to this union, viz: Alfred J., shipping agent at Philadelphia, of the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburg Railroad Company; Rowland W., clerk in the office of the Fall Brook Coal Company, at Fall Brook; James T., of Tioga; Anna M., who died in September, 1885; Mary G., John J., a resident of Philadelphia, and Franchot R. In politics, Mr. Davis was a Republican, and cast his first vote in 1860 for Abraham Lincoln. In religion, a Baptist, he organized the Union Sunday-school at Morris Run, and was active in church and social affairs.

James T. Davis was born at Morris Run, Tioga county, February 19, 1865, a son of John J. Davis. He was educated in the common schools and at the Mansfield State Normal, and read medicine with Dr. H. H. Borden, of Tioga. In the autumn of 1886 he entered the Medical Department of the University of New York, and in 1887 became a student at Columbia College. Ill health compelled him to abandon his studies and forego a professional career. Returning home he clerked for his father, and February 10, 1890, was appointed postmaster of Tioga, which office he resigned February 10, 1893. In January, 1891, he succeeded his father as superintendent of the Tioga Coke and Coal Washing Plant, which position he filled until the business was abandoned. On July 1, 1894, he succeeded R. P. H. McAllister as local ticket and freight agent of the Fall Brook Railroad Company, at Tioga, which office he still holds. In politics, a Republican, he has filled the offices of constable, school director, collector and township clerk. He is a member of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M., and is one of the most popular men in the community.

S. P. Hakes, physician and surgeon, was born in Parish, Oswego county, New York, June 2, 1861, a son of Richard and Minerva (Mack) Hakes. He is one of nine children, named as follows: Montrose, a resident of Parish; Lucius A., of Syracuse; Harriet J., wife of Frank Jones, of Utica; Marie H., wife of Charles Aldrich, of Parish; Rollin, deceased; Catherine, wife of John Crim, of Parish; Nettie, deceased; S. P., and Ella, wife of John Dennis, also a resident of Parish. The subject of this sketch was reared on his father’s farm, and after pursuing a course of study at Mexico, New York, he came to Tioga, Pennsylvania, and entered the drug store of Philo Tuller, where he clerked three years. He then began reading medicine under Dr. Robert B. Smith, of Tioga, and later became a student in the Medical Department of the University of New York, from which institution he graduated in the spring of 1888. Returning to Tioga he at once began the practice of his profession, which he has continued up to the present. Dr. Hakes was married April 2, 1891, to May Cole, a daughter of A. C. Cole, of Hammond, Tioga county, to which union has been born one son, Howard. In politics, Dr. Hakes is a Republican, and is also a member of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M., and of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F. He is the local medical examiner of the Equitable, New York Life, Prudential, Mutual Benefit, Odd Fellows, and other insurance companies and associations, and is also a member of the board of pension examiners of Tioga county. Dr. Hakes has built up a large and lucrative practice by close attention to his professional duties and persistent industry. His success is a merited recognition of his personal integrity and professional honor. He is progressive in his ideas, and keeps himself fully abreast of the improvements in medical science.

William Kimball, son of Dayton C. and Mary (Dunham) Kimball, was born in Catlin, Chemung county, New York, April 18, 1848. He was reared on a farm, and when fifteen years of age ran away from home and enlisted in Company C, One hundred and Sixty-first New York Volunteers, and served until the close of the war. Returning home he engaged in farming and lumbering. On January 1, 1869, he married Sarah Dunham, a daughter of Wright Dunham, deceased, of Bradford county, to which union have been born the following children: Jesse, Grace, Harry and Frank. From 1881 to 1893, in addition to his lumber interests, Mr. Kimball also kept a general store at Mitchell’s Creek. In the early part of January, 1895, he purchased the hardware and tinsmithing business of Jacob Schieffelin, in Tioga, which he carried on in connection with lumbering, until January, 1897, when John L. Inscho purchased an interest in the business, and the firm became Inscho & Kimball. Mr. Kimball is an ardent Republican, and has filled the office of county commissioner and also that of road supervisor. January 1, 1897, he was appointed superintendent of the county almshouse and farm, which position he still holds. He is a member of Tioga Lodge, No. 373, F. & A. M.; Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F., and Etz Post, No. 401, G. A. R., in all of which he takes an active interest.

Wilbur Brown was born in Tioga township, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, May 6, 1829, a son of Joseph and Eva Brown. His father, a native of Connecticut, came to this county at an early day, where he followed farming and lumbering. His mother died when Wilbur was a child, and his father remarried, and died in 1849, aged seventy-two years. The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm, and throughout his earlier years followed farming and lumbering. He served in Company H, Two Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, and took part in the battles of Fort Steadman, Port Royal, Spottsylvania and Petersburg. In 1866 he located in Farmington township, on a farm which he still owns, remaining there until 1892. In that year he removed to Tioga village, where he owns a residence and a small tract of land, and is living retired from the active duties of life. Mr. Brown was married August 17, 1849, to Lucy Sharp, a daughter of Philip and Catherine Sharp, and a native of Campbell Town, Steuben county, New York. Her ancestors came from France and settled on the Delaware river, and later became pioneers of Steuben county. Her father died in 1849, aged seventy-five years, and her mother, in 1873, at the age of eighty-eight. Mrs. Brown is the mother of four children, viz: Della, wife of Thomas Spencer, of Farmington; Frances C., who died at the age of thirty-five; Reuben T., of Tioga township, and George, of Chicago. Mr. and Mrs. Brown are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics, he is a Republican, and is also a member of Etz Post, No. 401, G. A. R.

Walter C. Adams was born in Tioga, Pennsylvania, May 9, 1868, a son of Frank H. and Ellen M. (Carpenter) Adams. He was educated in the common schools and Selwyn Hall Military School, Reading, Pennsylvania. He learned telegraphy and worked in the office of the Fall Brook Railroad Company at Tioga, four years, and later for some time in Buffalo, New York, in the Western Union Telegraph office. He then clerked in his father’s store in Tioga for two years. In June, 1894, he engaged in the meat market and grocery business in the Park Hotel block, Tioga, continuing until June, 1895. Since July, 1895, he has been employed in the passenger service of the Fall Brook Railway Company, and now resides in Wellsboro. Mr. Adams was married September 18, 1886, to Nettie VanGorder, a daughter of George and Derinda VanGorder, and has one child, Dorothy. In politics, he is a Republican, and in religion, a member of the Protestant Episcopal church.

Daniel L. Nobles, son of Loron and Jane C. (Russell) Nobles, of Delmar township, Tioga county, was born in Delmar, November 16, 1850, and is the fifth in a family of seven children. He received a common school education, was reared upon the homestead, and after arriving at manhood followed lumbering about ten years. He next kept the Guide Board House, on the Wellsboro road, in Delmar township, for four years. In 1890 he came to Tioga borough and embarked in the livery business, which he still carries on. Mr. Nobles was married April 22, 1872, to Emma J. English, a daughter of William and Mary Ann English, and has had two children, William H. and Charles Wesley, the latter of whom died at two years of age. Mrs. Nobles’ father died February 4, 1890, and her mother, May 26, 1870. She is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church, and with her husband has been connected with Keystone Lodge, No. 105, Order of the World. He is a member of Tioga Tent, K. O. T. M., and in politics, a Republican.

Thomas Graves was born near Covington, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, in 1820, a son of Josiah and Polly Graves, pioneers of that locality. He there grew to manhood, and for a number of years afterwards conducted a hotel in Covington, keeping at different times the Covington and Mansion Hotels. He married Samantha Howe, who bore him the following children: Esther M., wife of Edward Doane, of Mansfield; Harry T., editor of the Millerton Advocate; Frederick L., editor of the Tioga Argus; Fannie, wife of W. J. Keeney, of Southport, New York, and Walter A., a resident of Seely Creek, in the same State. Mr. Graves is still living, at the ripe age of seventy-seven years.

Frederick L. Graves, editor of the Tioga Argus, was born in Covington, Tioga county, April 8, 1852, second son of Thomas Graves. He received a common school education, and in October, 1870, began learning the printing trade in the office of the Blossburg Register, then conducted by his brother, Harry T. He later acquired an interest in the paper, the firm becoming Graves Brothers. In the spring of 1875 he sold his interest to I. R. Doud, and continued in the office as an employe. In 1878 he became Doud’s partner, and two years afterwards they sold the plant to John L. Sexton, Mr. Graves continuing to work in the office. From 1882 to 1884 he published the Elkland Journal and then worked at his trade in Mansfield for a time. He next became interested in the Blossburg Register, as a partner of S. N. Havens, and subsequently with C. H. Ely. He afterwards worked in Mansfield, remaining in that place until July 22, 1892, when he came to Tioga and established the Argus, which he has since edited and published. Mr. Graves was married January 29, 1879, to Maggie Lanane, who died December 10, 1893, leaving a family of six children, viz: M. Flora, Fred L., Lulu E., Raymond J., Max V. and T. Walter. In politics, Mr. Graves is a Democrat. He is a member of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F., and of Tioga Tent, No. 176, K. O. T. M.

Jeptha Hughes was born in Danville, Pennsylvania, where his father, Thomas Hughes, settled before the Revolution. On March 26, 1816, he purchased of John Harrold, a tract of land in Lycoming county, on which he laid out the village of Hughesburg, now the borough of Hughesville. He sold out his interests in July, 1829, to Daniel Harrold, and removed to Tioga county, locating finally at Beecher’s Island, where he remained until April 12, 1838, when he settled at Mitchell’s Creek, in Tioga township. Here he passed the remainder of his life. While a resident of Lycoming county, Mr. Hughes married Betsey Hill, to which union were born eight children, three in Lycoming and five in Tioga county, as follows: Rachel, who married Charles Button; Sallie, wife of James Dewey; Frederick, a resident of Tioga township; Polly, widow of John VanWey; Betsey, who married Charles Gray; Rebecca, who married David Cunningham; George, a resident of Jackson township, and Catherine, who lives with her brother George.

Frederick Hughes, oldest son of Jeptha Hughes, was born in Hughsville, Lycoming county, November 13, 1829, and came with his parents to Mitchell’s Creek in 1838. He remained with his parents on the homestead farm until he was twenty-three years old, and thus assisted to rear and support his younger brothers and sisters. He then worked out by the day for one year, and by prudence and economy saved enough from his earnings to give him a start in life. He bought 130 acres of the Bingham estate, near the head of Mitchell’s creek, containing some improvements. With this as a beginning, he farmed in summer and followed lumbering in winter, investing his earnings in land. By the exercise of good judgement he eventually acquired 1,600 acres lying along Mitchell’s creek, thus becoming one of the largest land owners and leading farmers in Tioga county. On June 17, 1847, Mr. Hughes married Harriet VanWey, a daughter of Henry and Betsey VanWey, who bore him the following children: Henrietta, Benjamin, who died March 9, 1896; Betsey, wife of George Meeker; Phoebe, wife of Alonzo Gage; George A., of Tioga township; Frank, a resident of Lawrence township; Sim, Charles, John, Hattie, who died in childhood; Frederick, a resident of Denver, Colorado, and William K. Mr. Hughes has divided his land among his children, giving to each a liberal amount of his large estate, retaining for himself only 100 acres surrounding the family home at Mitchell’s Creek. In politics, he is an ardent Democrat, and takes a deep interest in public affairs. He is recognized as one of the leading and public-spirited citizens of the township, of which he has been a resident for nearly sixty years.

George A. Hughes, oldest living son of Frederick Hughes, was born in Tioga township, Tioga county, June 28, 1853. He was reared on the homestead farm and remained with his parents until his twenty-second year. In 1875 he rented a farm from his father, which he cultivated up to 1887, and then purchased the old Peter Guernsey farm of 103 acres, on the Tioga river, one mile south of the borough of Tioga, upon which he still lives. Mr. Hughes was married October 7, 1890, to Ruby Smith, a daughter of Garrett and Abigail Smith, and has three children: George, Thomas and Alfred. Mrs. Hughes’ parents are residents of Jackson township. In politics, Mr. Hughes is a Democrat, and is one of the prosperous and progressive farmers of Tioga.

C. F. Miller was born in Big Flats, Chemung county, New York, July 12, 1825, a son of John S. and Ruth (Larison) Miller. His father was a native of New Jersey, and his mother of Connecticut. They were the parents of nine children, as follows: Horace D. and J. Foster, both deceased; Maria, wife of Austin Reeder, of Big Flats; Enoch Ward, deceased; C. F., of Tioga township; Deborah, a resident of Elmira; John A., deceased; Orpha, and Hester, wife of John Campbell, of Chemung county. Mr. Miller was reared on a farm, and when thirteen years old began to earn his own living, working out as a farm hand. In the fall of 1844 he came to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and located on the Major Bentley farm, in Tioga township, purchasing 100 acres of it, to which he added 200 acres more in 1883. Mr. Miller was married in 1847, to Mary D. Lawrence, a daughter of Minard and Clarissa (Mix) Lawrence, which union has been blessed by five children, viz: Charles L., of Wellsboro; Frank S. a resident of Eau Claire, Wisconsin; Waldo W., a resident of Wellsboro; Simeon P., who lives at home, and Thomas M., who died in childhood. Mr. Miller has one of the finest and best improved farms in the township, and the family residence is a substantial and handsome structure, built with a view to making it a cheerful, homelike abode. In politics, Mr. Miller is an ardent Republican, and a prominent member of his party in Tioga county. He served as one of the county commissioners from 1862 to 1865, when he was elected county treasurer and filled that office one term. He has also served as supervisor, assessor and school director in his township. He is a member of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F. In religion, the family are Presbyterians, and liberal supporters of the church. Mr. Miller is not only a successful and progressive farmer, but is recognized as a popular and public-spirited citizen, who gives his support to every worthy project.

Michael Hickey was born in Middle Swanzey, Cheshire county, New Hampshire, May 25, 1850, and is the only child of Charles and Mary (Hogan) Hickey. His parents were natives of County Clare, Ireland, and immigrated to New Hampshire in 1844. In 1850 they removed to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and settled in Tioga township, where his father found employment with Joseph Aiken. His mother died in December, 1851, and his father was again married to Ellen McNamara. Michael was reared in Tioga township, and in early manhood began work on the railroads, which he has pursued in connection with farming up to the present. He has been section boss for the Erie company at Mitchell’s Creek for twenty-nine years, and is one of the oldest and most faithful employes of the company. In 1877 he purchased sixty acres of land half a mile east of Mitchell’s Creek, to which he has added at different times until he now owns a well-improved farm of 320 acres, which is managed for him by his oldest son, Charles D. Mr. Hickey was married December 19, 1869, to Mary McCarty, of Caton, Steuben county, New York. Seven children have blessed this union, named as follows: Charles D., Michael. James, Mary C., Anna, Margaret and Theresa. The family are members of the Catholic church, and in politics, stanch adherents of the Democratic party. Mr. Hickey’s father makes his home with him. Although a man who has had to make his way in the world by hard work, Mr. Hickey has found time by liberal reading to keep well abreast of the progress of the age, and is one of the intelligent and well informed citizens of the township.

C. W. Loveless was born in Saratoga county, New York, and there married Leafy Graham, a native of the same county. In 1854 they came to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and settled on Mill creek, in Tioga township, a mile above the present home of his son, C. O. Here he followed lumbering until 1884, when he sold out to his son, C. O. , and went to South Dakota, where he died March 22, 1894, aged sixty-five years. His widow makes her home with her children in Tioga county. The following named children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Loveless: C. O., of Tioga township; William and Frank, residents of Potter county, South Dakota; Fannie, wife of Frank Woodward, of Wysox, Bradford county, and Leafy, wife of William Archer, of Tioga township.

C. O. Loveless was born in Saratoga county, New York, December 7, 1850, and was in his fourth year when his parents, C. W. and Leafy Loveless, came to Tioga county. He was reared on the homestead in Tioga township, attended the district schools in boyhood, and has made farming and lumbering his life vocation. In 1884 he bought out his father, and now owns a well improved property of 413 acres, a part of which is timber land. On December 20, 1871, Mr. Loveless, married Harriet VanNess, a daughter of Peter V. and Celia VanNess, who has borne him five children, viz: Harry, Edith, Fred, Mark and Ella. Mrs. Loveless’ parents are residents of Mansfield. In politics, Mr. Loveless is a Republican, and has served as supervisor and school director. Both he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church of Tioga, and he is also connected with Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F. Mr. Loveless is a successful farmer, and a man of integrity, enterprise and public spirit.

Jeremiah Miller was born in Claverick, New York, December 19, 1783, and married Sally Campbell, May 17, 1808. She was a native of Nobletown, New York, born January 16, 1787, and was of Scotch ancestry, while her husband was of German descent. Mr. Miller was an early settler of Bradford county, Pennsylvania, where he followed farming until 1854, in which year he moved to Tioga County and settled on Mann Hill in Lawrence Township. He died in Illinois, October 1, 1859, while on a visit to relatives. His wife died in Tioga, October 3, 1862.

Cephas C. Miller was born in Smithfield, Bradford county, August 17, 1817, a son of Jeremiah Miller, and removed to Lawrence township, Tioga county, in 1854. He remained in that township nine years, and then located in Tioga borough. In 1874 he returned to Lawrence, remaining there until December, 1880, when he settled on the farm on Mill creek, in Tioga township, now owned by his son, Charles L., where he has since lived. Mr. Miller was married December 20, 1846, to Lucia D. Kelley, a daughter of Lewis and Matilda Kelley, of Bradford county, and has four children, viz: Mary, wife of John L. Inscho, of Tioga; Flora, wife of Arthur Tilden, of Waverly, New York; Charles L., of Tioga township, and Katie, wife of George Castle, of Elmira.

Charles L. Miller, only son of Cephas C. Miller, and grandson of Jeremiah Miller, was born in Lawrence township, Tioga county, March 10, 1856. He obtained a common school education and was reared a farmer. On March 25, 1885, he married Mary T. Kimball, a daughter of Dayton C. Kimball, of Mitchell’s Creek, and has two children, Harry Ray and Flora May. In politics, Mr. Miller is a Republican, and in religion the whole family are members of the Baptist church. He has served as township auditor for three years, and is an enterprising and progressive citizen.

Jacob H. Westbrook, son of Solomon and Elizabeth Westbrook, was born in Middlebury township, Tioga county, October 1, 1832. He was reared on his father’s farm, and received a common school education. On October 12, 1859, he married Mary Angie Dutton, a daughter of Dean and Sallie (Stevens) Dutton. She was born on the farm where they now reside, October 12, 1841. Her parents were natives of Vermont and early settlers of Tioga township. Her father died April 27, 1871. aged sixty-two years, and her mother in November, 1883, aged eighty years. Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Westbrook, as follows: Elroy, a resident of Olean, New York; Walter, who lives in Elmira, and Anna, wife of George L. Strait, of Mansfield. In politics, Mr. Westbrook is a Republican. He is one of the successful farmers of the county, and is the owner of a well-improved farm of nearly 300 acres.

John G. Kentch was born in Meissen, Saxony, Germany, there grew to manhood and married Sophia Stanoel, to which union were born the following children: Morris S., Pauline, Julius, a resident of Silver Bow, Montana; Otto, a resident of Blossburg; Hulda, wife of Frederick Coster, of New York; Mary, wife of Joseph Poggendorf, of Tioga township; Francis and Thomas, both deceased, and John G., a resident of Tioga county. The oldest son, Morris S., came to Tioga, Pennsylvania, in 1850, and in 1854 his father and other members of the family followed. Mr. Kentch died September 28, 1854, a few days after his arrival in Tioga, aged sixty-four. His wife died in November, 1887, at the ripe old age of eighty-seven.

Morris S. Kentch, oldest son of John G. Kentch, was born in Meissen, Saxony, Germany, July 24, 1827, grew to manhood in his native land, and in March, 1850, married Caroline Matte. They immigrated the same year to Pennsylvania, and settled in Tioga township, Tioga county, where four children were born to them, viz: Oakley, a resident of Farmington; Amanda, wife of Edward Sticklin, of Wellsboro; James, a resident of the same place, and Ellen, wife of Frederick Sticklin, of Fall Brook. Mrs. Kentch died on November 7, 1874, and October 7, 1876, he married Laura Clarke, a daughter of Septimus Clarke, of Chatham township. She died September 11, 1880, aged thirty-six years. He was again married November 19, 1884, to Mary Hussey, a native of England and a daughter of William and Elizabeth Hussey. She was born January 20, 1832, and died March 5, 1897. Mr. Kentch enlisted October 16, 1861, in Company D, Fifty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, and participated in the Peninsular Campaign, the battle of Fair Oaks, and the Seven Days’ Fight before Richmond, in all of which he proved himself a brave and patriotic soldier. While on duty at Hampton Roads as brigade butcher, he met with an accident which resulted in crushing and permanently crippling his right leg. He also received a gunshot wound in the right index finger, necessitating its amputation. His brother Thomas served in Company K, of the same regiment. In politics, Mr. Kentch is an ardent Republican, and in religion, an adherent of the Lutheran faith. He is a member of Etz Post, No. 401, G. A. R., and also of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F.

Joseph Poggendorf, a son of Samuel and Mary Poggendorf, was born and reared in Prussia, Germany, where his parents lived and died. He came to the United States in 1862, and settled in Tioga, Pennsylvania. In 1867 he purchased his present place of twelve acres, one mile west of the borough. The same year he married Mary Kentch, a daughter of John G. and Sophia (Stanoel) Kentch, natives of Saxony, Germany. To this union have been born the following children: John, a resident of Tioga borough; Lisa, Lena and William, who live with their parents. Mr. Poggendorf is a Republican, in politics, and in religion, is a member of the Lutheran church. His only brother William, is a resident of Rochester, New York. Mr. Poggendorf is an intelligent, public-spirited citizen, and enjoys the respect and esteem of all who know him. He has lived a quiet, unassuming and industrious life, and by prudence and economy has accumulated a valuable property.

Richard Hetfield was born in Southport, Chemung county, New York, in 1793. His father, who was born in 1766, was one of the first settlers of Southport. Richard was a farmer and hotel-keeper, and conducted the Summit Hotel, between Horseheads and Elmira for fifty-eight years. His wife, Susan, was born in 1805, and was the mother of the following children: William D., who died in 1864; Charles, who served in the Eighty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and is now a clerk in the postoffice department, Washington, D. C.; Abner, who died May 3, 1858, aged fifteen years, and Thomas G., of Tioga. Mr. Hatfield died April 21, 1870, and his wife, September 2, 1882.

Thomas G. Hetfield, youngest son of Richard Hetfield, was born in Southport, New York, November 21, 1847. He was reared upon the homestead farm, and before arriving at manhood learned the cigarmaker’s trade. In 1870 he embarked in the manufacture of cigars at Horseheads, which business he carried on there and in Elmira until 1880, when he came to Tioga, Pennsylvania, and was employed in the factory of Voorhes, Aiken & Company, until its removal to Mansfield, where he worked at his trade until 1888. He then returned to Tioga and established a cigar factory on the Wellsboro road, a short distance west of Tioga borough. His factory and residence were destroyed by fire on September 15, 1893. After the fire he resumed business in Tioga borough, remaining there until April, 1895, when he returned to his former location, having rebuilt both factory and residence. Mr. Hetfield was married in May, 1866, to Lucy DeLapp, a daughter of Hiram DeLapp. She died on October 31, 1887. In politics, Mr. Hetfield is a Democrat. He devotes his attention to the manufacture of special brands of cigars, such as "Hetfield’s Best," "T. G. H.," and "Gilt Edge." He is a popular business man and citizen, and enjoys the respect of the community.

Willard Redner, a son of William and Mary J. (Kennedy) Redner, was born in Steuben county, New York, November 20, 1856. His parents were natives of Tompkins county, and his paternal grandfather, of Orange county, New York. His mother died March 25, 1892, aged sixty-nine years. His father died February 20, 1896, aged seventy-two years. Seven children were born to William and Mary J. Redner, as follows: Adeline, wife of Charles Robb, of Athens, Bradford county; Simeon, a resident of the same place; Willard, of Tioga township; Willis, who lives in Tioga township; Frank, a resident of Tioga; Florence, wife of George Farnsworth, of Big Flats, New York, and George, who resides in Harrison Valley, Pennsylvania. Before coming to Tioga county Mr. Redner resided in Tompkins and Cameron counties, New York, Ashtabula county, Ohio, and Big Flats, Chemung county, New York. In 1880 he removed from the latter place to Tioga township, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and located on the H. W. Caulking farm, subsequently removed to Chatham township, and later bought his present farm of 148 acres, in the western part of Tioga township, formerly known as the H. H. Goodrich farm. Mr. Redner married Mrs. Sophia Kennedy, nee White, December 9, 1879, and has five children: Frank, Henry, Ira, who died November 11, 1895, aged eleven years; Vera, and Stanley, who died July 19, 1896, aged fifteen months. In politics, he is a Republican, and has filled the office of constable. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, also of Tioga River Lodge, No. 797, I. O. O. F., and is one of the prosperous and successful farmers of the township.

D. W. Hurd was born in Caton, Steuben county, New York, August 2, 1849, and is the only child of Charles and Jane (Harrison) Hurd. His parents were natives of the same county, and his father died there in 1851. His mother resides with our subject. Mr. Hurd learned the trade of stationary engineer in his youth, which he followed in Steuben county up to 1870, when he went to Kane county, Illinois, where he was engaged in farming eight years. Returning east, he located on a farm in Lawrence township, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, upon which he lived until 1881, and then purchased his present farm of ninety acres in Tioga township. Mr. Hurd was married to Mary Colder, a daughter of Hiram and Sarah Colder, of Lindley, Steuben county, New York, December 26, 1869, and has four children: Jennie, Harry, Harriet and Walter. Mrs. Hurd’s father died July 28, 1891, aged fifty-nine years; her mother lives in Lindley, New York. Her brother, James, is also a resident of Lindley, while her sister Kate, is the wife of William Terwilliger, of Caton, New York. In politics, Mr. Hurd is a Republican, and has been township supervisor for the past three years. He has made his way in life through his own unaided efforts, and is a man of honest, upright character.

Joseph Bergh was born in Sweden, in 1858, a son of Andrew Olsen and Christina (Torstens) Bergh. He was reared in his native land, and came to Pennsylvania in 1881, where he found employment for two years in the coal mines at Arnot, Tioga county. He then went to Elkland township and worked on a farm three years; next rented a farm near Osceola, on which he remained until he came to Tioga township, in 1892. He rented the T. J. Berry farm of 200 acres, in the northern part of the borough of Tioga, which he has since managed with success, and now ranks among the intelligent and progressive farmers of the township. He devotes his efforts to dairying and the growing of grain and tobacco, and is enjoying the prosperity due to persistent and well-directed industry. Mr. Bergh was married September 15, 1883, to Anna Mangnuson, a native of Sweden, to which union have been born the following children: Charles J., Jennie C., Frank A., Oscar W. and James Walter. In politics, Mr. Bergh is a Republican, and in religion, an adherent of the Lutheran church. He is a member of Elkland Lodge, No. 800, I. O. O. F., and of Tioga Tent, No. 176, K. O. T. M. His brother, John A., is a farmer at Elkland; Otto, another brother, lives in Tioga; while his sisters, Emma Sophia, widow of Olaf Danielson; Caroline, wife of John Hanson, and Ida, wife of Alexander Anderson, reside in Arnot, Tioga county. 

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