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Bradford County PA
Chemung County NY
Tioga County PA
Tri-Counties Genealogy & History by Joyce M. Tice
Diaries & Letters of Tri-Counties
1865 - Edwin Benedict of Columbia
Diary of Edwin Benedict
Township: Columbia, Bradford County PA
Year: 1865
Transcribed by ?  - Retyped by Nicole DALIA Case
Introduction & Family Report by Joyce M. Tice
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Jan-Apr 1865 May-Aug 1865 Sept 1865-Jan 1866 Family
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Do You Know that you can search just the 355 pages of our
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on this site  by using the Diaries button in the Partitioned search engine at the bottom of the Current What's New Page? But diaries and letters are wonderful sources to understand the culture of time and place. Read them and enjoy them slowly.
Introduction by Joyce M. Tice - Edwin Benedict, husband of Ellen Hulslander, lived on the Austinville Road in Columbia Township just east of the Bradford - Tioga County line. To date we have found three of his diaries. Two of them were found in a trunk in the ruins of the Hulslander-Benedict house by Carlton Wilson. They will be transcribed and presented on this site later. This one, 1865, has been in circulation in typed copy for some time and Nicole DALIA Case had a copy of it. She retyped it for us and we are presenting it here. I do not know where that original document is or who transcribed it originally. At the time of this diary, Ellen and Edwin were newlyweds, having been married in 1864.

Edwin's diaries are unusual in that he was a much beter writer than most we encounter, and he covered his daily life much more thoroughly than other diarists of his time and place. They are a great pleasure to read.

September 2010 - Charles Fillmore of Woodhull phoned. Back in the 1920s his father, who is not from this area [from Washington County NY] , was driving along in this area and got caught in a rainstorm. His auto being topless, he found shelter in a barn where he found an old trunk In the trunk were many diaries. He took two of them. His son some years ago sent one to "a library" in Harrisburg where they transcribed it and returned the original to him. It is from this source that the circulating copy that eventually ended up here, had its origin. [Charles, if there are any inaccuracies in this account of what you told me, please let me know]

Farm Account for 1865 Jan. 2nd Monday

I have been engaged in chopping wood for summer use, cut about 1 ½ cords. Drawed up one sleigh load of wood with team today. The day was cold, cloudy, and windy, a raw keen air. Snow is about 6 inches deep. The sleighing is very good. Father went to the ville, staid all day, returned at night and brought the mail, a letter for Mary from R. Heyes. I harness the horses and hitched on to the pleasure sleigh & took Ellen & Mary to Mrs. Smiths (The Millinery) just night. Mary called for her cap which was to be done today. I called to see Aunt Susan, who is sick with lung fever, was rather better tonight. We returned in good season. Our people are all well. We have 54 sheep, 4 cows, 3 calves and a span of horses on our place. Yes and 30 hens. I aim to work fathers place next summer. I am intending to build an addition to the house this winter. I am feeding the horses about 2 quarts a piece twice a day of oats, and all the hay they can eat. I have been feeding the cows corn stales and have some still left. The cows seem to prefer corn fodder to hay. I am feeding the sheep about 3 quarts of corn mixed with buckwheat bran. Our folks, Mr. Peter Hulslanders people, Elijah, and Julia and James Benedict people are at the house of Daniel Benedict in Troy. The day before New Years, yesterday we, Mate, & I were at Father Hulslanders, went to meeting at the school house there in the A.M., took sleigh in the P.M. The weather is more moderate at P.M.

Jan. 3rd Tuesday

I was employed with the team today drawing timber for the addition to our house. Got it all drawed up to the house. I went and borrowed John Knapp’s bob sled and hauled it on that. The addition I intend to build is to be annexed to the west side of the house and the dimensions are 16 feet front 34 feet back. Shed roof and one stony roof just coming under the eaves of the old upright or main building. Number and dimensions of stick timber drawn, one 34 foot, 3 sixteens, 13 sleepers, 7-16 feet in length & 6 fourteens. Father was engaged in chopping hemlock wood. Amount chopped not reported. The day was clear & still the most of the time but the air was so keen that it did not thaw. Sleighs slip well. Frank Knapp was drawing wood past here for Joseph Billings all day. Geo. Hulslander was down to see us today, he reports all well at home. Came for Elijah’s oxen to draw wood in drags at home according to previous arrangement. Geo. reports that the young folks in his neighborhood are to meet at Geo. Besly’s tomorrow evening. Travel on this road was quite brisk today, the sleighing is quite good & growing better. Tis cloudy this evening & looks like snow.

7 P.M. evening—Father & mother are away visiting at O.O. Besly’s. While I am writing Ellen & Mary are getting supper. They are having a fine time over a cake they are baking. They laugh and giggle so I can not hardly write. I must stop and see whats the matter. For pitty sake the cake is burned. !!! Supper is ready.

Jan. 4th Wednesday

The weather being cold & blustering with occasional squalls of snow, I did not venture out to do much. Father & mother left home with the team early in the A.M. and did not return until evening. Father went on business and mother to see Aunt Susan Austin. She found her getting better of her lung fever. Father got some bolts made for sleigh shoe. I have not learned the cost. I went out between storms and cut down a large pine standing alone in the field for saw logs. I will make 2 logs 16 foot & 2-12 foot. I chopped a little wood at the door & then done the chores. Julia was down here visiting today. Julia & Elijah are going with us up to Geo Besly’s tonight. I spent most of my time in the house today & very pleasantly with Ellen & Mary. The evening is beautiful moonlight, no air stirring but oh how keen the air. The runners or the sleigh give forth a harsh streaking sound proving it is cold. Mother reports that Aunt Susan is getting better & that Jerry Austin has gone home. He has been out here a week visiting at Austins. Pork is 18 cents a pound, fresh. Mr. P. Hulslander took a hog to James Hardy’s at Elmira & received 18 cents.

Jan. 5th Thursday

Owing to our not being at home until late last night we did not get up quite as early this A.M. This make me correspondingly late to get to work. I however got off at 10 A.M. to chopping wood. Chopped some drags I had drawn out in the field sometime ago. Chopped perhaps 1 ½ cords and came to dinner at 8 P.M. I found Mrs. O.O. Besly a visiting our house. Gather was chopping hemlock wood above the house on the side hill. Amount not reported. We had a very pleasant time, or visit at Geo. Besly’s last night. I went with horses and cutter. Elijah, Julia, Mary & Ellen went with me. We went at 7 o-clock at nine some young folks visit, Geo. Hulslander, Homer Card, Mary & Tilly Monroe, Dana & Mary Smith came and added to our number and with Clint Slade & his wife and Alf Slade were there when we got there. Had a very pleasant time. The weather is not so cold as last night, not much wind reaches us but we can hear the hills roar with the wind. Father has gone down to the ville this evening after the paper & mail. We take the daily Philadelphia Enquirer. The mail comes up to the ville four times a week. Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, & Saturday. Mother got some shirting at Austins store for me and is making it up this evening.

Jan. 6th Friday

The morning broke clear and bright and twas warm and thawing. I received a letter from Charles H. Card of Co. A 207th Regt. Penna. Vol. Dated Dec. 26th ’64 and one from Laura A Scott of Cortlandville, Cortland Co. N.Y. dated Dec. 31st ’64. I was engaged nearly all day drawing manure from the barn, drawed two loads on potato hole and the rest on the knoll back of the barn. Finding that the harness hurt the backs of the horses I done no more that day with them. I then went to chopping wood. Chopped 1 ½ cords of hemlock. Father & mother fixed the harness. Father helped me draw manure. Mate & Ellen went up to Julias visiting this P.M. Geo. Hulslander brought Elijahs oxen home & then came down to see me. He says that they intend to get up a writing school in his neighborhood & wants me to join. In the evening he & I went up to Elijahs visiting. Twas rainey all the evening & when Ellen, Mate and I came home twas real splashy in the road & still raining. Elijah received a letter from Charly Hulslander telling what he had for Christmas. Charles Card had received a box from home containing 2 chickens cooked and stuffed and many other good things. The dinner afor consisted of the two chickens, three kinds of cake bread & butter & honey & other things I have forgotten. Ellen received the first number of "The Ladies Friend" today. Tis a ladies magazine & monthly subscription, price $2.00. It contains 86 pages. The postage is 12 cents a year, payable quarterly in advance.

Jan. 7th Saturday

When I arose this morning twas snowing. It having froze up during the night, everything was coated over with ice. It continued snowing until 9 A.M. when it lay 3 inches deep on the ground. The wind arose with the sun and it is very blustering. I went down to the ville to get a sewing awl to fix the harness with. Went to Mrs. Smiths for Mary on business. I called & saw Aunt Susan, I found her looking finely & getting better fast. There was quite a large number of loungers around the grocery and store. Bought 11 cents worth of cinnamon. Sleighing is tip top. ------I received information that Isaac Holly is dead. Died of Fever at Chatanooga in Tennessee.----- I wrote a letter to H.H. Robbins of Co. E 190 regt P.V. of this date. The day was so blustering and cold that I did not venture out to do anything. There was not much stir twas so cold though the sleighing is good. Cattle take hold of the hay well. We lost one of our sheep yesterday, it got so weak it died. We have 50 left. Father & mother went up to Elijahs visiting this evening. Father took up sewing awl to fix pads on harness. Bought awl, paid 5 cents. A few sleighs went by here today, they did not deem to cut through the snow any. There is a good coat of ice underneath. Air is keen tonight. Light but not clear.

Jan. 8th Sunday

Last night is said to be the coldest we have yet had this winter by 10 degrees. I harness the horses this A.M., twas so clear and beautiful and the air so bracing, the sleighing so good that Ellen and I determined to attend a funeral at Mansfield’s meeting house. Elder Reynolds presided. The funeral is Reuben Dann’s, a soldier. Died in the service of the U.S. Text taken in 1st Epistle John 3rd chapter & 16th verse. Twas a good sermon. The house was crowded. The air was very keen & did not thaw up there though twas clear. The trees and fences were glistening with ice & looked like or as though studded with diamonds. I saw Henry Vannochen there & a good many there relatives and acquaintances. Julia & Elijah sent with us. After meeting we went round by Tears’s to P. Hulslanders where Ellen & I are to stay all night. Elijah & Julia went home with the team. We found all well. In the evening Will Bradford called for us with horses and sleigh to go to Grey Valley to church to hear Elder McWood. Geo. Hulslander, Elijah, Orvis, & Hattie Bradford completed the load. Twas a beautiful moonlit evening and still a keen air. I saw at church Emmet Seymour, says folks are well. I paid Willis Bradford $2.00 for Ellen’s Magazine called the Ladies Friend club got up by Hattie and I owed Will for sending for me the money. Stayed at Peter’s all night.

Jan. 9th Monday

I came home from father Hulslanders this morning, left all well. Ellen did not come away with me. I came afoot and across by Elijah’s. He was just harnessing the horses to bring them home. Father & Elijah went with team to the ville. Father engaged Wm. Henry McClellan bob sleigh but did not bring them home. I went down this evening with team after them. I was engaged all the P.M. chopping wood (hemlock) on the knoll back of the barn. Chopped about 2 cords in the A.M. after reaching home & learning tht one of our sheep was up to John Knapp’s I went up and brought it home. It was clear and pleasant most all day. Tis clear and looks like snow this evening. I received a letter from Charles H. Card Co. A. 207th P.V. Army Potomac. Todays mail also brought two letters for Ellen evidently directed by Brother Charles Hulslander. I sent them to her this evening by W. Rice, an old companion in army who lives in their neighborhood. Ogden bought some sheep and Will brought them home from Pickle hill today. Father is making preparations to get lumber tomorrow down to Turners at the mouth of Mill Creek, some 1 mile away. Elijah is to go with him. I hear the owls hooting. The clouds look thick like snow.

Jan. 10th Tuesday

As we were intending that father should go on the creek after lumber we got up at 4 this morning. It was raining and has continued nearly all day. It freezes fast as it comes. Everything is covered over with a coat of ice. Tis so disagreeable that I did not go out to work this A.M. Father went down to the ville, he did not go after lumber, twas so rainey. I wrote a letter to Charles H. Card of Co. A 207th P.V. I hitched up the horses and took down Wm. Henry’s bobs to see if he wanted them tomorrow. I brought them back & intend to use them tomorrow to o after lumber. I got a letter from Brother Charly Hulslander Co. A 207th P.V. It has sleeted nearly all day. Tis very icy now. When I came home Geo. H. was at our house, he reports all well at home. Ellen was engaged sewing & had been writing. Geo. Reports that there is to be a singing school at their school house tomorrow evening. Ogden Besly went home this morning with a load of lumber from Bear’s mill near Tioga, where I am to go tomorrow. Geo. Is to stay all night with me. I learn that business at the coal mines of Fall Brook and Morris Run has been discontinued. The hands turned off & ordered to leave to make room for new to come from England.

Jan. 11th Wednesday

We were up at 4 this morning, got all things ready for a start & went with team at 6 after lumber. Geo. H., who staid here last night went with me as far as L. Watkins’s he then went across home. Elijah also went with me & was with me all day. We went to Tioga village, stopped on our way there to Nelson Braces mill but could not get such lumber as we wanted & we went on. We got 1000 feet of pine flooring at Bears mill, paid $20.oo for it. We were then 10 miles from home. The sleighing was good. We got started from the mill back about ½ past 10 A. M. Came back the mouth of ill creek and stopped at Mann’s & fed our horses the oats we had taken along. This was two miles this side of Tioga. The mill is one mile beyond. We started again at half past 12 and came on to Mile’s mill where we got 5 boards for sleigh box for Elijah. Cost him $1.35 cents. I engaged Miles to saw my bill of lumber for 8 dollars per 1000 feet. I could not get it done at any other mill at my price for they were not going to saw before spring. Miles would saw as soon as thawed, so he could . The sleighing was so good the team came along with it well between Longwells & nick Watkins is a sharp pitch and fare with ice, here we had to throw off part and take up part to a time. We got home before 7 in the evening all right. I wrote a letter to Ellen last night and gave it George to take to it s destination. In enclosed in it a letter from Charly Hulslander.

Jan. 12th Thursday

Having got fatigued and chilled being out in the keen air yesterday, I over slept myself this morning. Wm. Henry came after his Bobs this morning to draw wood for himself. Father piled most of the lumber overhead in the barn. While I was engaged making a short tongue in Elijahs sleigh we were fixing it with the intention of making it a chaser behind our sleigh as we could not have W. Henry’s bobs nor can we get any other. When Dan Canfield came after Father to to go to the hollow to write and witness a deed for him, he thought we might get Darwin Hardins bobs, so I hitched up the horses and drawed up two loads of wood and then went up to Hardings to see about getting them, but I could not get them. Father went off to the hollow with Dan and I was all alone. So I did not finish the tongue. Elijah came down & borrowed the 2 inch auger and some other tools. He is fixing some runners to draw the old school house on. Ogden was up today after cross cut saw to cut ice with, he is going to lay in his stock of ice for summer. He says tis 12 inches thick on his pond. The air yesterday & today has been very cold, though it has been clear it has not thawed. Tioga village is very pleasantly siuated on the left bank of the Tioga River on a delightful level, its buildings are few but new. Homer Card was down here after Mary when I got home last evening to go to the singing school at Hulslander school house. Mate brought me a letter from Ellen, enclosing one from Charly Card.

Jan. 13th Friday

I chopped wood in the A.M. and in the P.M. I fixed a bolster to put on sleigh for to go after lumber with and also put short tongue in Elijahs sleigh to use as chaser behind our sleigh. Father took the horses and sleigh and went down to the ville to get the horses sharpened and after getting them sharpened he went to Roseville after a load of shingles. He paid 87 ½ cents for quarter 1000 bunches. Sawed hemlock shingles & he got all they had or 7 bunches. I want as many more to have enough. Mate went down to the ville with father. They returned about 4 P.M. Father exchanged sleigh for pair of bobs with P.W. Besly for the purpose of drawing lumber with tomorrow. As Elijah and I had made different arrangements, made calculations to visit some of our relation in town of Jackson. I took the bobs back to the owner in the evening and them came home and prepared to set out on the morrow.

Jan. 14th Saturday

I arose at 4 this morning and hastily fixing went up to Elijahs, where I found them about ready to go. I had come away from home without eating anything, as I did not want to put mother to that trouble so early. I left the horses and cutter with Elijah & I went up across to Father Hulslander to have Ellen get ready when they came along. I took breakfast there. Elijah & Julia came along soon & we got started for Jackson at 9 A.M. The sleighing was good. The weather moderate & we went along merrily. Went by way of Roseville where I stopped & bought a pair of white pocket handkerchiefs, 65 cents. We then had occasional snow squalls during the rest of the day and evening. We passed through Jobs Corners and to Daggetts Hollow where I stopped to inquire for lime. Our course then was over hemlock hill along up Alder Run to Aunt Eliza Stewarts where we stopped for the night. Found the folks all well and glad to see us. We passed Parmenters saw mill & Bennents mill. We stopped to warm a short time at Bennents who were very glad to see Elijah who had taught singing school here in times gone bye. This appears to be a great lumber country, through here. The pine of which there has been a large supply is nearly exhausted. The people have depended on lumbering here before for a living but they are now turning their attention to farming. I saw a few good farms. In the evening Elijah & I met the young people at Aulder Run school house & had a gay old sing. I here saw Jamies & Wilmot Peters pretty tight. Jamie is just from the Rebels prisons. Elijah & I went back and staid at Aunt Elizas all night.

Jan. 15th Sunday

Aunt Elizas man ( Uncle Chester) is away in the army in hospital at Washington D.C. Enlisted four years, time is out next September. She has 5 small children and a farm of 40 acres, 7 head of cattle & 8 sheep to take care of. Wilber, their oldest son aged 13 years is nearly to mans statue grown, is very faithful & does all he can. We left Aunt Eliza early in the morning, went to Uncle Ezekiels, Aunt E. went with us. Did not find them at home, were gone visiting. We then took Aunt E. home & then went to Uncle Williams, found the old folks not at home but the children were. Josaphene lie sick with inflammatory rheumatism. We did not stay long but went on down to Tioga to Uncles where we stopped, had our horses put out and stayed to supper. We had come 8 miles from Aunt Elizas. The river runs along here & the rail road. (Corning & Blosburg) There are 6 stores in this place and a bank. A steam grist mill, saw mill and many other business departments. They are digging for oil or rather boring for oil. They have a 66 horse steam engine doing the work. They have only attained 10 feet depth. We had a very pleasant time at Uncles & came away for home at 5 P.M. and having 14 miles to travel which we accomplished in 4 hours. Reaching father Hulslanders at 9 in the evening. Here we stayed all night. Found all well. Twas a cloudy day and not very cold & we enjoyed the ride very much. We went in sight of Lawrenceville on our ride.

Jan. 16th Monday

Elijah, Julia and I came home from father Hulslanders this morning. Twas awful cold and blustering, it had snowed some last night and twas flying all day before the wind. Elijah got two more geese from home. I saw Geo. Borden with horse and cutter while coming home only to pass the time of day with him. When I arrived home I found Mr. Ruttards and wife here visiting. They soon went away as they stayed here last night. Old Mrs. Knapp was also here. The wind howls so fiercely and cold that I have not ventured out to do anything today. Father has gone down to the ville on business. The snow that has fallen recently is now drifting badly. Father came home in the evening, brought a letter for Mate and 4 Daily Inquires & Elijahs Bradford Reporter. So we had a plenty of news. Elijah & Julia came down in the evening visiting. The wind has gone down with the sun and tis less tedius out but still tis very cold. It has not thawed any today. Father brought with him 2-6 inch bolts to fasten on a bolster on Elijahs sleigh. He also brought home a pair of heavy hip boots for himself. Paid 6 dollars. Bought at Austins Store. Mate went up to Elijahs visiting this P.M. I have the sleighs about fixed to go after lumber tomorrow.

Jan. 17th Tuesday

After fixing my sleighs this morning, I harnessed and started for Miles mill on Mill Creek, started at 10 A.M. On my way there I stopped at Nick Watkins and warmed, visited awhile with Rumsey, who I found pretty smart. He has been sick 6 years. I forgot to take along my pocket book so I was without money. I stopped and borrowed 10 dollars of Frank Knapp for I did not want to come back after it & I knew that I should have to pay for the lumber before I took it away or as I took it. I got there and loaded up with 630 feet hemlock inch boards for which I paid $5.00 and got started for home again at half past one P.M. The lumber was green and covered with ice and being so heavy I did not venture to bring more. Miles reported to me that a bounty jumper was caught on Pine hill in sight of his mill, who had $5000 dollars in his pocket made by jumping bounties. I arrived at home just sundown all right. Father was up to help Elijah put runners under the old school house today. Geo. Hulslander was also there but they gave it up for want of more help. I saw 5 loads of ash lumber as I was coming home, going towards Tioga, 1600 feet in each load. The sleighing was never better. Snow squalls today. Did not thaw.

Jan. 18th Wednesday

I think this was the coldest morning we have had this winter. The cattle were all white with frost. The air was piercing cold. This A.M. I went up and helped Elijah put runners under the old school house. Father went up also. Geo. Hulslander, Frank Knapp, John Knapp & Homer Card was there also. We raised the house and got the runners under about 1 P.M. We then went up and took dinner with Elijah. The back end sill being rotten, Elijah concluded that he had better put in new so he hired Geo. H. to stay and help him get it out. I came home, harnessed the horses & went to the old school house before mentioned and brought the benches & dedks home with me. There were 12 desks. I was intending to go up to singing school with Geo. Who had come down from Elijahs to have me go. Father came home from the ville where he had been all the P. M. and reported that Geo. & Charlotte & Miss Emma Reynolds were going to call on us this evening so I only went up as far as Henry Cards who I wished to see about some lath he had at the mill. Homer came home with me and is staying the evening, Elijah & Julia came down and staid the evening also. Elijah left $2.30 with father to purchase lumber with. Father reports the result of the Republican caucus today as follows: S. R. Craine & John Benedict for Justice of the Peace, Wm. Young-Constable, Wm. Bradford-assessor, Wm. Peck-Judge of Elections, James Strong-Road Commissioner, James Lane-Auditor, Ray Gerrnett-school D. 3 years, P. C. Slade-School Director, Justice Watkins 1 year, J. H. Morgan-Inspector of Elections, E. G. Tracy-Clerk, Wm. B. Watkins for Treasure. Father has concluded to have Emma Reynolds give Mate music lessons. Their visit here to night was for the purpose of getting up a school for Miss Reynolds.

Jan. 19th Thursday

I did not go after lumber as I intended. The women said the wood we had was so green that twould not burn & some dry wood they must have. So I stayed and got up some. Father & I cut a large dry hemlock for the bark and dry limbs which make splendid wood & thus engaged I spent the A.M. In the P.M. I took the team and drawed it up to the house and green wood along with it. 3 loads of dry & 2 loads of green wood. Mrs. John Knapp was down here visiting this P.M. Elijah came & got our wagon bolt to use on his sleigh. The sleighing is still splendid and people are making the most of it. After supper which was a t 4 P.M. I fixed up a little, went up to Elijahs & he and I went at it and colored our whiskers dark and then I went on up to Father Hulslanders & stayed all night. There being a writing school at the school house. I went over with Ellen as she was all ready to go. I signed the paper for 16 schools for Ellen. Signed $1.25 to be paid when school are half out. Charles Palmer is writing master, he had some splendid specimens of penmanship. Birds, lions, men as natural as life, he has been to Commercial College.

Jan.20th Friday

Father H. gave me an order on Paul Herrington for $1.50 to collect for him. I came home about noon and Geo. H. came with me. We found our folks sugaring off. We stayed and eat some sugar and then went down to the ville to Election or town meeting rather for the officers of the town are to be elected today. The voters had turned out well when I got there & the ville was a lively aspect. Sleighs & cutter of every style thronged the way on either side. The bar room was crowded with half intoxicated men and all were in an uproar. I did not stay long at the polls, no longer than to vote. The tickets were 10 in number. Justice, Constable, Town Clerk, Auditor, Treasure, Assessor, Road Commissioner, School Director, Judge of Election & Inspector of Elections. I voted a full ticket. I find there are others running besides those who were on the nomination at the caucus. I got a gallon of kerosene oil at Austins store, had it charged, cost $1.20. Geo. And I came back home before sundown, and we found supper almost ready, so I sat down and wrote to Ellen for Geo. to take up with him. He was going up to Cards he said & Homer was going to take him over to singing school on the state road this evening. Father came home in the evening but the votes were not counted when he came away and did not know the result. Fathers justiceship expires in February if not elected.

Jan. 21st Saturday

I was up early this morning, fed my team & prepared to go after lumber. Got started pretty good season and on my way to Miles mill I called and warmed at Mick Watkins. Found them well. The sleighing was splendid all the way. I reached the mill and Niles was in the woods drawing logs. I went after him, he told me he had logs enough cut for 400,000 feet lumber. He said also that he had a tract of land some 400 acres north of his mill and he estimated that there was a million feet of pine lumber on it. We arrived at the ill and he measured me off 700 feet of hemlock inch boards, 300 feet for Elijah a& 400 feet for myself for which I paid $5.60. I got started back about noon and arriving at Elijahs I left his lumber and reached home at 4 P.M. Henry B. Card had just come from Wellsboro, came in company with me while on my way home he had horses and sleigh and a part of a load of window sash. Got at Tioga. I had just got home when Bateman Monroe called in great haste for Father. He was after a counterfeiter, he said and he wanted a little more authority. Father was at the hollow we told him and away he drove as fast as he could drive for the hollow. He said he was not more than half an hour behind and he hoped to catch him before he took the cars at the Cross Roads. The result of the election yesterday shows that father has lost by 7 votes. Goodinch the tavern keeper won it. John Morgan elected to road commissioner. I have not learned the full returns.

Jan. 22nd Sunday

The weather was so mild this morning that Mate and I went to father Hulslanders with horses & cutter, took in Ellen and Mother H. and went on to Chandlerville to the funeral of Charrindas Dann which was at 1 P.M. in the meeting house. The house was so crowded, densely packed with people. The sleighing was so splendid that all were out enjoying it that could get conveyance. Elder Haskel presided and took his text in Revelation 7th chapter, 17th verse or the last part of it. After meeting came home with mother H. and took supper there. Homer & Millie who went down to meeting came back & stopped with us. In the evening Geo. & Mate & Ellen & I went around to Austinville with the intention of going to meeting there but it was just out when we reached the meeting house, so we came on home and spent the time pleasantly singing and playing on melodeon. I wrote a letter last night to Brother Charles H. Co.l A. 207 P.V. I learned that Henry B. Card holds 7 $300 bonds against Tioga Co. Money advanced on elistments on which he draws 8 percent interest. Cynis Chapman holds three of the same dimensions paid for by money saved in service. I learn that Bateman Monroe caught the man he was after yesterday in James Strongs tavern, Columbia Cross Roads. The man paid them back their money and $15 dollars for their trouble and they let him go. I believe he disclaimed knowing that the money he passed was counterfeit.

Jan. 23rd Monday

Ellen & Geo. Staid all night here last night. This morning when we got up twas snowing right smart. It has kept it up quite all day. Geo. stayed until after noon today. Elijah came and got our horses and cutter to go around to ask help to draw the old school house, he went by the ville & father went down with him as far as there. Elijah came back a little past noon and reported that father Hulslander had gone to Jackson & that mother H. was alone and wanted Geo. to come home immediately so being a good dutiful boy he went. I have been unwell with bad head ache all day. Ellen is staying with us. Mate and Ellen are having a real time today. They are engaged now baking and frosting cakes. I got from the barn 3 eggs today to do the frosting with. Father has returned & gone up to help Elijah put a new sill under the building to be moved. Snow has fallen some 6 inches in depth & still coming. A very wet snow. The trees are loaded and bend low beneath the weight. This evening Frank & his wife, Amos and his wife and W. Eastman were here visiting also Elijah & Julia. We had a very pleasant visit. We had great times playing off key. Frank and Lydia report that Mr. A. B. Austin had an evening party at their house last Friday evening and had dancing also. Decater Goodrich played the violin, Gustus danced with the rest.

Jan. 24th Tuesday

I was still unwell today but as Elijah had a drawing bee I felt I ought to attend if possible. I went up in the A.M. though I first went harnessed the horses, hitched to the cutter and went down to the store for some spikes for Elijah. I then came back and only two teams had come but we hitched on to the old school house & started it out of its bed & across the road. Then Orr Wilson came with two teams and we got it still further. The chains broke so that I was sent to the ville for Colonys cable chain and all others I could get. When I got back they had nearly got the house to the position intended. Only one more team had arrived or 5 teams in all done the work. Got the building in position at 5:00. Then after supper Ellen and I came away home. Ellen had been helping Julia get supper. Em Reynolds came to our house and gave Mary a music lesson, her first. Ellen & I went took Em home to Georges. Ellen took music lesson & then we went on to Father Hulslanders which we reached at 9 O-clock. Found all well. Father and Winfield were at Jackson. Geo. and Homer & I left at our house visiting with Mate and Martha. Mother H. was alone with Lottie, Emma & Uncle Tim, except an old clock tinker who had fixed their clock that day. Mother was alone for the rest had gone to bed when we got there. The day and night was severely blustering cold.

Jan. 25th Wednesday

It being so blustering and cold that I did not leave Hulslanders until near night when the weather had moderated some what but was still tedius. While there I saw a drove of cattle and a flock of sheep go by, going east just from Potter Co. They were nice animals, choice lots and must have cost a great deal of money. Geo. and I spent the time singing and playing on the melodeon. Ellen and mother were engaged washing. Twas washing day with them. The clock tinker left after breakfast. He appeared to be a rather crazy old top. Mother gave him his supper, lodging and breakfast & 50 cents for fixing the old clock. Just before I came away Winfield had arrived from Jackson with some cattle he had bought. He reported all well at Uncles in Jackson. When I came home Martha Elliott was still here & she and Mate were playing on the melodeon. Shortly after dark Emiline Harris came in to stay all night and still later Nelson H. Robbins dropped in, just from the Army of the Potomac on fifteen days furlough. He was well and looked tough. He is to stay all night. We had a pleasant visit and did not go to bed until quite late. He reports that the Smithsonian institute was burned yesterday. Telegraph report at Baltimore.

Jan. 26th Thursday

I spent most of the day visiting with Nelson Robbins. We had a very pleasant time talking over old times, playing, singing. Emiline left quite early in the morning but Mate and Martha were lively and tried their best to make time pass pleasantly. Mother made tis her washing day. Father was called for early to go up in Wells to a Mr. Beardsleys to acknowledge a deed and some other things, was gone away all day. In the P.M. I harnessed up, hitched to the cutter and took Nelson to the ville, he there had an immediate chance to ride to Roseville which he availed himself of. I stayed down until the mail came which was at 4 P.M. and got two letters for Mate, an Inquirer and Elijahs paper. Father having come around came home with me. I then took Martha Elliott up to Frank Knapps. Mate went up with me, we did not stay the evening. Amos & wife and Lydia Millspaw were there and they wanted we should stay but we could not. Got home & Homer Card was here after Mary to go to the concert at Sylvania this evening. So I am alone this evening and I am listening to mother who is reading from the Vols. Manuel of Honor. Julia was down here visiting today. Mary practised her lesson in music. Father received $1.50 for his service today. I st Nelson wear off my vest and hat today, he left me his military cap. He had a nice lot of perfumers & toilet articles – Edwin D. Benedict

Jan. 27th Friday

It being so cold that father did not want to saw logs today, I harnessed the horses & went up to father Hulslanders to help him thrash for the purpose of getting his horse power to saw wood with, when he got through thrashing he said we might have it to saw with. Elijah went up with me to help. We had to fuss with the machine so long we did not get to work until nearly 2 in the P.M. and we only thrashed out enough for a grist & Elijah had to quit on account of his chores. As they had got to go to mill tomorrow, we concluded not to try to thrash anymore this week, so I and Elijah came home. Em Reynolds was there & gave Ellen her second music lesson today. She went on to our house to give Mary a lesson. They were just leaving (Geo. Lott & Em) when I reached home. This has been one of the coldest day this winter. Mate and Homer tipped over last night coming from the concert and broke both tills from the cutter. They borrowed a pair of Geo. Beslys and reached home about 4 A.M. They staid to the party at Orrins, held after the concert. I received an invitation to attend an evening party at Riches in Roseville this evening but I can’t see it, to go so far in the cold. There is a meeting every night this week at Mansfields meeting house or has been so far. I saw what is called a sindog just before sunset, it foretells a change in weather.

Jan. 28th Saturday

Father went to the ville to swear in the newly elected town officers. While I went out into the woods to chopping wood but twas so cold I gave it up, came to the house and took up my violin and practised playing by note. It was a very blustering, tedius day. Mate spent the time playing on the melodeon and ironing. Mother was engaged doing the housework. I fixed up early and went up to Hulslanders for the propose of going to Mr. Bradfords this evening. Twas so blustering we did not go. Geo. had been down to Troy to mill. I received a letter from Charles Card. Father had not returned from the ville when I went away. Today has been the coldest yet this winter. Elijah went to Chandlerville to sell his place but I learn he did not quite accomplish the object. He was to sell to the store keeper, Wood.

Jan. 29th Sunday

I was at father Hulslanders today, came there last night. We were expecting to go to meeting at the school house at half past 10 A.M. but as no one came there was no meeting, though the minister came in the neighborhood. Mr. Hopkin does not seem to get up much interest in religious matters. In the P.M. we harnessed up the horses and mother & father H., Emma, Lottie, Ellen & I went over to David Hulslanders and stayed the P.M. Ellen & I visited with Mr. Freeman and wife who live in one part of the house. John H. and wife were also there and we had a very pleasant time. Geo. H. took one horse & left for Benedict Mansion in the A.M. & while we were away to Davids they came home so Winfield & Uncle Tim said, when we came back but they did not stay long. They went on up to Naught Smiths and stayed until evening when they went to meeting at Mansfield meeting house. I learn that a protracted effort is to be made still for another week. Mr. Freeman and John Vanvalcalnar have purchased the right to manufacture Emerson Bennetts new wagon break in Tioga Co. Pa. I believe they paid $300.00 for the Co. right. They intend to canvass the Co. and sell Town and individual rights. There are 19 towns in Tioga Co. & they calculate to get $100.00 certain from each town on an average. I stayed all night at Father Hulslanders. I received a package from Ames College in Syracuse, N.Y.

Jan. 30th Monday

This morning after breakfast at Hulslanders we got into a real argument on the scriptures. Mother H. is methodist and all the rest of us were opposed to her but she stood her ground and fought right valiantly. Father H. came out in strong terms against the methodists attributing the worst immortality to them in short was bitter in more ways towards them. I came home at 10 A.M. and met Elijah and Father on the way to Chandlerville to draw writings for the place Elijah sold, Wood Nosacked home found a letter from Charly Card awaiting me, it came Saturday evening. John Knapp soon came in and hindered me until 2 P.M. before he made known his business he wanted to borrow money. I had none to lend. Harriett Hoose came up here also after some milk to make a poultice to put on her finger ailing with a fever. I spent the remainder of the P.M. chopping wood, chopped about a load for sleigh. Nathaniel Morgan has been drawing wood past all day, he says John Henry has gone below with drove of cattle. Father has just returned from Chandlerville & reports that Elijah has sold to Tom Wood and the writing are all drawn. Elijah took a horse, cutter and wagon at one hundred dollars. Sold his place for $400.00-$100.00 down and the rest in yearly payments of $50.00 each with interest until paid.

Jan. 31st Tuesday

Father and I went to sawing, saw logs this A.M. Got out 7 by noon. 4 pine logs 2-16 &2 twelves. We then cut a white wood and got 2 fourteens and one twelve. Came to dinner. Hitched up horses to cutter and Mother, Julia and Mary went up to Geo. Beslys. Mary went to take music lesson, Mother & Julia went on and made a visit at Wm. Youngs this P.M. Geo. H. and Elijah came down after dinner and helped me saw & get out logs. Elijah brought his cattle down and drawed out part of the logs. Geo. helped me saw. We sawed out 6 cucumber logs and Elijah drawed them part way down hill. When the women came home which was chore time they brought an invitation from A. B. Austin to an evening visiting party for tomorrow evening. Geo. is still here after supper I hitched to the cutter & Geo. & Mate went up with me after Ellen. Mate went to Mr. Smiths after a music book but as the girls were away they did not get the book. Elijah, Eliza Orvis was at Father H. tonight. They were all well there. Elijah and Julia are going with me tomorrow evening. Leonard Bradford has come home from Harrisburg where he has been studying to be a doctor. The weather has been very warm and pleasant today, it thawed some in sunny places.

Feb. 1st Wednesday

I did not get started for the saw mill as early this A.M. as I intended. I was awaiting Geo., who was to come and go over with me. He came at last but not with team. I went over to Kiffs mill and engaged my lumber sawed at $5 a 1000 feet. I only took one pine log this trip & as twas late I did not go another trip. In the evening Elijah, Julia, Mate, Ellen & I went to an evening party at A. B. Austins. We had very pleasant time, nobody kilt, except the oysters and I punished my share unmercifully. Geo. and Henry were down here together. The day was warm and pleasant, it thawed a little for the first in a fortnight. Elijah came down with his oxen and drew out the remaining logs to the road, where I can get at them with horses and sleigh. I got back from the mill about the middle of P.M. Geo. and Henry were still here. Ellen & Mate went up to Elijahs visiting this P. M. & I busied myself fixing my sleighs for holding the logs. Elijah went down as far as Austinville with me this A.M.

Feb. 2nd Thursday

Being out last night, I did not get up none to early this morning. So I did not get started for the mill until 10 A.M. I took 2 white wood logs to load and made two trips today. I lost a lead strap at the mill yard this evening. I brought from the office two letters for Mate. One from Abarene and the other from Charly Card. Geo. and Homer were here today with horse and cutter. This is what is called Candlemas and it has been clear and cold all day and according to the old farmers, if the bear who comes out today can see his shadow, he will go to his den and stay 40 days or in other words we shall have 40 days of very cold winter weather. There was a circle around the sun this P.M. Mr. Killgore has a vendue, the 9th of this month at his house to dispose of 400 sheep, one 5 year old horse and other farm animals. Advertisements are up.

Feb. 3rd Friday

I went two trips to the mill and took two logs each trip today. I now have 4 more to draw. The day has been warm and pleasant. Emma Reynolds came to out house to give Mate her music lesson. Ellen was so mad she said that she got right up and howled because she rode home with me. Julia is witness to this. I was lucky enough to find the lead strap lost yesterday at mill yard. Tis raining tonight . Emma Reynolds stayed here all night. I called at Sylvania P.O. and got letter for Geo. H. none for Ellen. People are using the sleighing now zealously. Almost every farmer is getting in logs to the mill or getting up wood for summer, drawing manure and some I saw were haying. I learn that they are going to bore for oil on Mr. Merrits farm in Sylvania. I had this from Mr. Smith as I came by Dr. Traceys where he was chopping wood. I now have 9 logs at Kiffs mill. The sleighing is excellent though it is somewhat worn at Sylvania. The dogs were among Mr. O.O. Beslys sheep last night and they killed one. Mr. Besly heard them barking and succeeded in driving them off before they had hurt anymore. Coming home this evening I met Daniel Canfield with a load of coal just from Blosburg.

Feb. 4th Saturday

I made one trip this morning to the mill & took two cucumber logs. Twas by far the heaviest load I have yet drawn. I got along in time to double teams with Austin, going up hill and we both got along well. The sleigh slips along finely today as it thaws right smart. I was coming home today and twas raining and I could look off on the mountain and see it snow there. The sleighing is getting a little thin in Sylvania in some places bare ground. Geo. H. is here to our house & he and Mate are at the melodeon making mouths and no little noise for children. As I am going away with team this evening I thought it best not to make another trip to mill today. I stopped at Sylvania and got two Tribunes for father Hulslander. Emma Reynolds went home this A.M. Geo. Besly came down after her with horses and cutter. I got two Philadelphia Inquirers (daily) and the most interesting news is to the effect that three Revel Commissioners have come in to our lines and President Lincoln has gone to fortress Monroe to meet them or to confer with them as it is not deemed advisable to allow them to come to Washington. The names of the three Rebels are Vice President Stephens R.M.G. Hunter and J.A. Hunter & Lt. Col. Hatch A.A.G. and Exchange Commissioner. Geo. and Mate went to Mansfields meeting house to meeting this evening & Ellen and I went home to Father H. & then in the evening went up to Daniel Bradfords visiting, staid late, had a pleasant time. Leonard & Wm. Bradford were there also. Staid at Father H. all night.

Feb. 5th Sunday

This has been the most blustering day we have had this winter. A light snow fell last night and the wind kept it hurling in the air all day at times with such vigor that we could not see a rod from us. When we came from our house last night Ellen put my watch in her belt and when we got here she hadn’t it nor could we find it in the sleigh so we gave it up for lost but not however until we had given a thorough look for it where we got out. Mate and Geo. came about noon and then times went more lively. Though it blew a hurricane. Geo. & I went with horse and cutter up to Lorain Dodges. Geo. had made up his mind to enlist and I could not persuade him not to so he went to the prelimary steps to enlist and then we went home. In the evening the wind having nearly subsided we concluded to go the protracted meeting held at Mansfields meeting house. Geo. & Mate went with single horse & cutter & Mother H., Ellen & I went with our horses and cutter. Twas still quite blustering but not very cold. Quite a number of converts have been made about 10 I believe it is stated. The meeting has been held now 3 weeks. Milton Kimer is preacher. Twas quite a shouting time. The attendance was not large owning no doubt to the inclemency of the weather. We got home to H. Hulslanders all right and stayed all night.

Feb. 6th Monday

I came away from Father Hulslanders this A.M. and I had the good luck to find my watch where we got into the cutter, twas all safe and sound. Geo. H. staid at our house last night as Mate & he got home late. The weather today has been quite calm but it did not thaw any. I went one trip to the saw mill today & took one large cucumber log. I got back so late I thought it advisable to not go again, so I drawed up a couple loads of wood in the drag. Father went down to the ville with me in the A.M. and came back with me also. I brought home a letter from C. H. C. for Mate. Father got 10 pounds of sugar (loaf) @6 cents a pound. I learned more about boring for oil at Sylvania. It seems that a man came around a day or two ago and leased two or three farms or the privilege of boring on them for oil. The lease to run out in 90 days unless something is done within that time. Tis said that the man said he would commence work boring the first of April next. Elijah H. is quite lame in his back & almost unable to get around. Father & Mother have gone up there this evening to see how he gets along.

Feb. 7th Tuesday

I went one trip and took my last log to the mill to Kiffs this makes 13 is all I have drawn. I mailed a letter at Sylvania for Mate & also bought 20 cents worth of paper and envelopes. It commenced snowing about noon and has continued up to this hour 9 to fall very fast. My old comrade in arms Melcome A. Rice commenced to draw logs for L. Dodge today. I saw him at Kiffs mill. Emma Reynolds was at our house and gave Mary her music lesson this P.M. At 5 P.M. I went with horses and cutter to Columbia X Roads to meet Cousin Abarene Benedict, who wrote she would be there this evening but I did not find her. The cause I believe to be that the trains did not connect. By todays paper the Peace rumors have all subsided and the conference with the Rebel Commissioners broken up. War! Bloody War! Is now the only alternative! No peace until they come to our terms. Snow has fallen today, 4 inches and is still falling, 9 P. M. The train did not stop long enough at Columbia X Roads for lady passengers to alight and I do not know but Abarene may have been carried on to Troy. I think I shall go down to see tomorrow. Twas so stormy I did not think it prudent to go down tonight having used the team today twould be quite a drive. There was no mail to bring up.

Feb. 8th Wednesday

I went early this morning with horses and cutter Mate with me to the Cross Roads after my cousin Abarene & Mary Jane Benedict. The snow had fallen a foot since yesterday and the roads were not broken. That is we had to make our own roads to the Cross Roads and twas pretty tiring to the team. Got there and found no cars had come through nor did the train come from Elmira until ½ past 6 P.M. Mate & I got tired of waiting and went on to Troy to see if we could not find them at the hotels there surmising they might have come on last nights train, which did not stop long enough at Columbia X Roads for any women to alight. Not finding them we went on up to Daniel Benedicts and took Kenneer and then at 4 P.M. returned to the Cross Roads. Melinda H. came with us from D. Benedicts, they were well. Mary Jane & Abarene came in on the ½ past 6 evening train we then came home after taking them on and a jolly ride we had. Cousins were pretty well tired out for they had been on the road for they had been on the road since yesterday morning. They stayed last night at the American house in Elmira. They report all well at home. After we got home Geo. H. & Henry Rexford came with horse and cutter just from Troy. They were in full soldiers uniform having this day enlisted for Co. A. 207th P.V. for one year. They receive a bounty of $475. They staid until midnight and then went home. Twas very windy at that hour and bid fair to pile up the snow. Twas not very cold today. Mary J. and Abarene were so tired they went to bed early. Mate & Lin set up until Geo. and Hen went away.

Feb. 9th Thursday

I arose early this morning intending to go up to father Hulslanders to thrashing but it was so blustering I concluded not to go. Geo. & Henry came here early having stayed at Elijahs last night. Twas so blustering they concluded not to go farther. The boys did not stay long, Henry took Lin up home and Geo. staid and went down to the ville with me. Geo. got some fixings for Ellen for the party to be held at his house tomorrow evening. We have all had an invitation. The party made in honor of Geo. before he goes to fight for Uncle Sam. We went down to the ville with horses & cutter. The wind blew a perfect hurricane all day and piled the snow up fantastically. It has nearly shut up road along here, a thing I don’t remember to have happen before since we lived here. I took Geo. up as far as Elijahs. He then went up across the hill. Julia came home with me and visited with Cousins this P.M. In the evening Mary J., Abarene, Mate & I went down to the ville for a sleigh ride & the mail. Stopped a few minutes at Gustus, they were getting ready to go to an evening party at John Morgans. The evenings are moonshine and tonight is still clear and cold, a beautiful evening. We are having a pleasant visit with Mary Jane & Abarene. I bought two cakes of soap at store, had the price 20 cents charged. It did not snow anymore today but what snow fell yesterday is piled up.

Feb. 10th Friday

Elijah came down in the A.M. and brought his mare and wanted to drive it with mine. We hitched to cutter and drove down to the ville, his animal went well, better than expected. Em Reynolds came here this P.M. and gave Mate her music lesson. Geo. came down after Mate & took her up to his house to a party held there this evening. Elijah & Julia & Abarene went with me up there also. We had a good time & stayed until one in the morning. There was 22 in all there comprising the young folks of that vicinity and ourselves. It snowed some today but it did not make much addition to the sleighing. The snow is now so deep that the roads are well nigh impassable, roads are not much broken up yet but a few sleighs have passed here since the last fall of snow. Em Reynolds gave Mate only a short lesson this time she said because Mate wanted to get ready to go up to the source at Hulslanders. Mary Jane was not well enough to go and so she did not. We left her with father and mother. Mate had a fit at H. while dancing and for the time being all merriment ceased. Uncle Tim played the violin.

Feb. 11th Saturday

I did not get up very early being out so late last night and the weather being so tedius. I did nothing but visit with cousins all day. I was intending to go up after Ellen to visit with Cousins but Geo. H. & Henry Rexford & Lin H. came down here in the P.M. and I did not get away. Each of the boys had a horse and cutter and just night they took in Lin, Mate and Abarene and went a riding. They went as far as Columbia X Roads, came back to Austinville and the boys bought a gallon keg of oysters and then came to our house and had some cooked. They stayed the evening & had a gay time they tell me. I was away having gone up after Ellen shortly after they went on the ride. Twas so cold we did not come back as I should had I known that the young folks would have been back. I chopped a little wood today. Father was busy writing his justice business on book. The day was real blustering and cold. Mary Jane did not take very active part in the amusements, not being very well. I think the young folks must have had a pleasant time by their tell, for Geo. and Lin did not get home until after midnight. The boys are evidently bent on making the most of the time allowed them. They have a furlough of one week, it runs out next Tuesday.

Feb. 12th Sunday

Having stayed all night at father Hulslanders last night Ellen and I got ready and come home where we arrived a little past noon. Found all well. Geo. and Henry came soon after and towards night came Homer and Lin and just dusk Will & Sana came and then we had a real fine Co. Julia & Elijah were here in the P.M. but they went home early. The rest stayed the evening and we had a very pleasant time playing consequences & Magic music. It has been very blustering all day but tis still and cold tonight. For supper the remainder of the oysters were cooked. Geo. and Henry keep up good courage and appear to be enjoying themselves. Ellen and I and a part of the Co. went away at 9 in the evening. I took Ellen home. Geo. and Hen stayed later. Twas a very bright noonsiney night;. Mate and Abarene got on a train this P.M. and they dressed themselves in my apparel and promenaded around sometime. Mate put on my soldiers rig and Abarene a citizen suit, they out dainties perfection smoked their cigars and strutted around big as life. They made a great deal of amusement for us. This was before the young folks came. Mary Jane seemed to enjoy herself well.

Feb. 13th Monday

As I went home with Ellen last night I stayed with her until this morning. When I came away all was well. I reached home in the A.M. found Geo. & Henry at our house. They stayed at Elijahs last night and went down this morning after the girls to go with them over to Rumseys where they intend to visit today. They left a little before noon. Abarene went with Geo. & Mate with Henry. Mary Jane is not well enough to ride out. Father and I chopped some wood this P.M. Mary Jane had been quite unwell today. I went down to the ville this evening after the mail but did not get it. I got 25 cents worth of Valentines & a box of hair dye of H. Watkins for which I owe him $1.00. Today has been very pleasant it thawed a little where the sun fell warm and fair. The roads are getting broke considerably along here so far as my observation extends. It did not thaw enough today to make the snow pack any. Geo. & Henry have to report at Troy tomorrow. Their weeks furlough runs out on that day. They will then be probably sent immediately to their regt. which is at the front near Petersburg. Tomorrow is St. Valentines day.

Feb. 14th Tuesday

According to arrangements made last midnight with Geo. & Henry, we made preparations to go and Abarene went with me to Troy and Elijah and Julia. We then went around by Hulslanders and took in Ellen, Geo. & Lin. Elijah took 4 bushels of buckwheat for mill. Elijah had intended to go to mill and we went along as far as Troy to see the boys go off on the train. We all went up to Dan Benedicts and took supper. Henry came with horse and cutter and took Mate to Daniels. We had a real lively time. The boys, Geo. & Henry, were with us at Daniels to supper. I packed their knapsacks for them. The boys kept up good spirits. They were intending to leave on the 6:40 P.M. train and we stayed to see them off but the train was loaded so full that twas behind time and they could not get off and the Provost Martial was about to march them back, when Geo. & Henry asked & obtained permission to stay with Dan Benedict tonight. As soon as we found that the boys were not going away that night we left & came by the Troy Steam mill, got the grist and on home. I spent 45 cents for Valentines. When we came through Austinville the ballroom over A.B. Austins store was lit up and a party was in full blast. We arrived home at 10 P.M. Mary Jane was not well enough to go with us today. Geo. & Henry got their pictures taken just before going up to take the train. I bought two 50 cent internal revenue stamps. The day was clear and pleasant. Ellen stayed with us tonight. Lin stayed at Daniels.

Feb. 15th Wednesday

I hitched up this A.M. and took Mate, Abarene and Mary Jane to Austinville. Abarene stopped at A.B. Austins but Mary Jane went on with Mate and I to Geo. Beslys. Mate went to take her music lesson of Em. Reynolds. When we returned, left Mary Jane at Austins. I did nothing in the A.M. but visit with my lady cousins. After returning from Geo. Beslys I treed up two loads of hemlock wood. It commenced snowing about middle P.M. and continued until night or 9 in the evening. As I was calculating to thrash for father Hulslander tomorrow, I went up there this evening, as Ellen wanted to go up I went with horses and cutter and took her along. Elijah is to come up tomorrow to help thrash. Geo. Besly was at Troy today getting his mowing machine fixed. I received a Valentine from Ellen today mailed at Austinville this morning. Mate called in to the office this morning after the mail & she took it in for Ellen and mailed it and then brought it out with her little expecting that I smelt a large mice. But I did as soon as she handed it to me and how it come there. The valentine is as follows:

I think of Thee

Afar from thee? Tis solitude!

Though smiling crowds around maybe,

The kind, the beautiful, the good,

Yet I can only think of thee.

Of thee, my kindest, lookest, best,

My earliest, and my only one!

Without thee I am all unblest,

And wholly blest with thee alone.

Feb. 16th Thursday

As I was up at father Hulslanders I did not know how things went on at home but I surmise that they were all right. I was up early this morning and fed the team and after breakfast we went on the hill to thrashing. I used my horses on the machine. Shortly after getting to work Elijah came & he assisted us until chore time when he went home, but I did not as we intended to finish tomorrow. We finished the winter and spring wheat. As we have not cleaned it we do not know how much there is. We only cleaned up 9 bushels of mammoth spring wheat for seed. We had some trouble with horses but got along quite well. The weather was quite warm and it thawed a good deal. The snow has settled very fast today. Geo. & Henry left Troy on the 6 O-clock morning train for the army to join their regt. at or in front of Petersburg. As we had the wheat to winnow on the morrow before more threshing could be done, Elijah said as he wanted to get up some wood in the A.M. for himself would not be up until P.M. We tried one of father H. horses on the machine but he got untied and jumped out of the machine and strained himself and we did not put him on again, and old Pat caught one of his fore shoes fast in the power and pulled it nearly off, bent it so bad that it had to be pulled off. We however, straightened it and nailed it on again & threshed this P. M. with him.

Feb. 17th Friday

After breakfast this A.M. we went on the hill and went to cleaning up grain. We had been thus engaged sometime when Elijah came all dressed up for Troy. He said that all those who were liable to draft in out town were going to Troy to be examined for exemption. Elijah being liable wanted to go down to be examined and try to get clear. He wanted father H. to go down with him to help him get off. He claimed exemption on his eye being blind or nearly so in his right eye. They hitched to my cutter & mother H. went along with them to Daniels. They went by way of our house and father went down with them as a consequence we could not do anymore threshing today. Uncle Tim & Winfield helped me clean up the grain and it amounted to 40 bushels wheat and a barrel of grass seed. Got done about 2 P.M. came down to the house & found Ellen quite alone. Marriet Havens was there a visiting. They gave me notice of an invitation to an evening party at Joseph Bradfords tonight. I harnessed up and went home & then went after Mary Jane & Abarene and brought them home. I found two letters awaiting me, one from Hattie Benedict and the other N.H. Robbins, containing a two dollar bill to buy postage stamps with. As Mate was not well enough to go with me the girls stayed at home. Em Reynolds came in the evening and gave Mate her music lesson. I went back at night & went with Ellen to Mr. Bradfords, had a real pleasant time, the Co. number was 43. Elijah did not get exempt from draft. A.B. Austin got his name off book of draft. Father & Elijah returned about sundown. Mother H. staid to Daniels.

Feb. 18th Saturday

After the party last night I went home with Ellen and stayed all night. This morning we went on the hill and finished thrashing. Got done about 2 P.M. Had barley and oats to thrash. We did not clean them up but left in chaff. Did the thrashing today entirely by our horses. Elijah was up and helped us. He did not get up until we had nearly threshed the barley. The day was chilly and did not thaw much. I think there was about 20 bushels of barley and 15 bushels of oats. When came down to the house Elijah went home but as Ellen was alone & felt lonesome she prevailed on me to stay all night with her. It snowed some in the evening. There was school today. The teachers in Tioga Co. have to teach or make up time for every other Saturday. Mother H. is still at Daniels and it looks and is lonesome without her at home. All went off well at the party last night. We played magic music, consequences, fortune telling, winhum, forfeits, hunt the Reg. We had a real merry time. Uncle Tim Hubbard got out his fiddle this evening and he and I had a few tunes together. We retired early this evening being up so late last evening. I spent the latter part of this P.M. very pleasantly in my dear Ellens society.

Feb. 19th Sunday

I left Father H. about noon today. Daniel & Mary was expected to come up there and bring mother H. home but they had not come when I left. Ellen has done all the work since mother H. has been gone. Ellen was not very well today but as I had been there the past 3 or 4 days I thought best to come home with my team and see Cousins Mary Jane and Abarene. I found one of my horses was lame on hitching them up but I managed to get him home. On arriving home found Gustus and Debby and children at our house visiting. They stayed until evening. All were well at home. Abby and Mary Jane were as musical as ever and chatted away like two magpies. In the evening Julia & Elijah came down visiting. Mate & Mary Jane passed the time writing Valentines. While Abby entertained the Co. Abbys spirits seem to be up for she is on a real train and keeps us convulsed with laughter with her witty saying and actions. Mate and Mary Jane have to stop writing to join in the laugh every now and then. I spect some one will get some Valentines if the industry of the girls in that direction means anything. Mate has received two splendid valentines, price $1.00 marked on the back. I speck she knows who they came from and is now answering them. Old Pat is still very lame rather worse of anything this evening.

Feb. 20th Monday

I arose quite early, went to the barn and found old Pat so lame I could not get him out of the barn. I immediately fixed a wash of vinegar & red pepper and thoroughly rubbed his leg with it. His lameness seems to be more in his hip now. I went down to Austinville in the A.M. to get some stamps to send N. H. Robbins but was able to get only 20 2 cent ones. The mail came in today from Mansfield and Seely Creek. I purchased a full set of snaps for my harness at Grocery, paid 60 cents for them, spent for cigars 15 cents. Elijah was down to the ville also. I rode his horse home & he rode up with Orr Besly who bought his sleigh for $20. Mother, Mary Jane, Abarene & Mate went up to Julias visiting this P.M. While gone, dog and I caught a raccoon in the creek below the barn. I was not well this P. M. and did nothing but sleep. I did not feel able to sit up from the effects of smoking a cigar and the effect of the snow on my eyes. I was snow blind. Sheep are dying off with what is called by some blind staggers. Supposed to be caused by the sun shining so bright on the snow. I lost one sheep today, this makes three died since the snow came on. Frank Knapp has 6 sheep affected with blindness and I heard a man from Springfield complain of the same malady among his sheep. They can not see to eat and consequently fall away and die. Elijah, Abarene, Mate and I went for a sleigh ride to the ville this evening. When we came back the northern lights were streaming up in the sky. Old Pats lameness does not seem to be getting any better yet. I gave it a cold water wash.

Feb. 21st Tuesday

This morning was cloudy and cold but it cleared away soon and was a real fine day and thawed a considerable where the sun shone warm. Old Pat is still so lame that he cannot get out of the stable. Emma Reynolds came here and gave Mate a music lesson. Mr. Billings called this A.M. and invited father and mother to attend a visiting party at his house for this evening. Clayton Besly was drawing wood for him. I wrapped wet cloths around Old Pats leg wet in hot water and it took down the swelling. I put on sweet oil this evening. The infection appears now to be in the spine joint. I chopped drags of wood above the house this P.M. In the evening Mr. Lester Parmer & lady came to our house a visiting so our folks did not go down to Billings as intended. By permission of Mr. Parmer I took his team and took Miss Reynolds home to Geo. Beslys. Mary Jane, Abarene & Mate went along. Mary Jane stopped at Gustus’s for the night but Abarene came home with Mate & I. Mary Jane & Gustus and Debby being ready came back with us as far as Billings, where they went in. We did not as twas only an old folks gathering. There appeared to be quite a number there from what I could see through the window. Mr. Parmer and Lady staid until midnight and we had a very pleasant visit. Mate played the melodeon & we sung some pieces for their edification and which were well received. There was northern lights last night & very bright they were. They are less bright tonight. [Note from Joyce - The name Palmer was pronounced as Parmer locally and thus the spelling. This is Lester Palmer and wife Adaline Provin]

Feb. 22nd Wednesday

This morning Gustus, Debby and Antinett Stevens came up on a ride and after Mary Jane, Abarene & Mate according to previous arrangements with Gustus. The girls went down & spent the day with them. I hitched Nelly into Elijahs cutter & went after father Hulslander to come and doctor my horse as he was still no better. I found all well there. I was there introduced to a Mrs. Parshall, a cousin to Ellen & a Miss Pitts from Troy, who is peddling or agent for Wilson and Gibs Sewing machine. Father H. came back with me and looked at the horse and pronounced him "bad off" he put a Spanish fly blister on his spine joint and told me to wash his leg, both hind legs in a wash made of a half bushel white oak, put in a dish, cover with water & let boil down to a gallon then put into the liquid ¼ pound salt peter. Mr. & Mrs. Morgan were here visiting today also Mrs. Louisa Morgan & Mrs. Kate Blood and child. We had a very pleasant visit. Father is building a shaving house, to fix over the sap tubs upon. The day is warm and thawy. I bought ½ pound of salt peter, paid 10 cents went down to the ville in the evening & brought the girls home. Mary Jane and Abarene have decided to go home tomorrow in spite of our opposition to it. Ellen told me that Monday evening past was the last writing school. She paid 60 cents tuition, paid for 8 schools.

Feb. 23rd Thursday

Arose early this morning went and got Elijahs horse and hitched in with Nellie and took the girls to the cars at Columbia X Roads. Mate went with us, went early so as to take the 10 A.M. train but it did not get in until ½ past 12 noon. We stayed and seen them off. They were pretty well tired out waiting so long before starting. I got the mail and then came home. Brought up from there a barrel of Tobacco for A.B. Austin, came home and found the horse no better. I felt unwell and did not do anything this P.M. I have washed the horses leg in pork brine this evening to take down the swelling. Took Elijahs colt home. Mother was there visiting this P.M. Father cut some timber for sap tub hoops. This evening I went down to the ville with horse and cutter after our Cross Cut saw at Austins, got mail, a letter for Elijah, for Mate & one for me. All from Geo. H. who is at camp Biddle Carlisle, Pa. Got papers today dated yesterday containing account of occupation of Charleston. Twas occupied on the 18th of this month by General Gilmore and the flag was hoisted over Ft. Sumpter.

Feb. 24th Friday

I got up this morning found my horse no better but rather worse. I determined that something must be done soon as there was a fine prospect of loosing him should the swelling reach his vitals. So I went in search of some white oak bark. I spent all the A.M. tramping through the woods in the deep snow after it and only succeeded in finding two or three small bushes of it. I got about half a bushel of bark, brought it home and on steeping it to make a wash for the leg. Father got out some Elm hoop timber this A.M. John A. Perry and wife & Mrs. Phil Besly were at our house this P. M. visiting. Mr. James C. Benedict & wife & child & Mother were at Julias visiting this P.M. The day was clear and pleasant but it did not thaw much. Pat Quni came as far as here just night on his way to Hulslanders but having a good chance to go to the Cross Roads he availed himself of it. I washed the horses leg in pork brine at short intervals today. I gave it a wash of vinegar and salt peter this evening. I drawed 4 or 5 drags of wood with Nelly this P.M. A Mrs. Rumsy with horse and cutter tipped over at Elijahs this A.M. nothing hurt.

Feb. 25th Saturday

I washed my horses leg today in a solution of white oak bark and salt peter. It brought it to a head immediately and it broke at the spine joint and run freely. Father H. came down late this P.M. and pronounced it as getting along finely, he prescribed a poultice for it, now made of Pond Lilly root, slippery Elm bark boiled up together & Indian meal mixed in to a thick paste like consistency. He examined the leg and said it did not run freely enough so he put his knife in and let out the matter. I went down to the ville and wrote a letter to N.H. Robbins and sent 22 two cent stamps. Father got out whoop timber at Elijahs. I chopped wood and took care of the horse. The day was changeable, cold & clear A.M. warm and cloudy P.M. with rain at night. I got Elijah colt and hitched in with Nelly and went up to father H’s after Ellen.

To cure cuts or bruises that are fresh hold them over a smoke and give them a real thorough smoking and nothing else is required. Twill heal speedily so says Bradford Reporter.

Feb. 26th Sunday

I was at Father Hulslanders all or nearly all day. I had tooth ache all day. It rained at intervals nearly all day. Weather was warm but not pleasant. Father H. received a letter directed to Wm. H. Hulslander. Father H. was called to go to a Mr. Ballards to see a sick colt. Called in great haste. He returned before Ellen and I came away and reported that the colt was but little better than dad. He has 7 horses to doctor now. Three at Warren Smiths. Ellen and I came home just night. Father H. gave me some medicine for my horse. Pond Lilly for poultice and Skokie root for a wash. I also got some liniment for Elijahs colt which is lame in fore shoulder. I had Elijahs colt to drive today, he went well. The weather was cloudy and warm and it thawed a good deal. When we got down to John Knapps the creek had over flown the flats, but the snow impeded its progress so that it had only got to Elijahs by night but twas gathering strength at every step. Mother and father had prepared and put on the horses leg a poultice of slippery elm bark.

Feb. 27th Monday

We prepared a poultice for the horses leg make as follows: Slippery Elm bark pounded fine and Pond Lilly root pounded fine steeped together and thickened with Indian meal and then on applying, two tablespoons of linseed oil is spread over the poultice. Made a wash of 2 quarts vinegar and handful of Skokie root steeped up together, applied every time poultice is changed. Poultice is changed 3 times a day. The horse does not appear to be better today. Father and Elijah went to the ville today when they returned they brought a letter for Mate from Geo. H containing picture and one from Bathuel Blood for Mate. I received a letter from Charly H. dated 16th. I did nothing much but tend to the horse. I dropped some wood at he door. Ellen & Mate & I went up to Elijahs this evening and made a call. Elijah received a letter from Geo. containing picture also. I wrote a letter to Geo. H. this evening and one to N.H. Robbins and sent him 30 letter stamps. The auditors met at Austinville today. It thawed a good deal today. Frank and Amos were drawing hay today. I let the sheep out on the side hill today to feed on the bear spots. One of them got stuck in the deep snow and was smothered to death so I had but 50 left me now.

Feb. 28th Tuesday

I went up and chopped wood in the sugar bush at Elijahs a part of today. Elijah worked with me. Father was engaged hooping tubs all day. Julia was down here visiting this P.M. Father H. was down to look at the horse this P.M. he pronounced him in a very bad way, a change of poultice is recommended. Geo. Besly got run away with this P.M. coming up here with Em Reynolds, had Charlotte and the baby with him also. The tongue was broken all to pieces & the nose of the cutter split other wise nothing was hurt, though they were thrown out into the snow. It snowed about an inch last night and today the wind was tossing it two and fro. Mr. Love was here after house key this P.M. but did not get it. Emma Reynolds gave Mate her music lesson today. I went down to the ville this evening and mailed some letters and bought some linseed oil. One pint 25 cents, had it charged at A.B. Austins. An old folks evening party at L.E. Havens this evening. No mail today. The weather cold today is more moderate tonight. Ellen is still here. Geo. got my cutter and he and Charlotte went on up to Batemans. Em stayed here until they came back. Ellen is here and everything is lovely and the goose hangs high.

March 1st Wednesday

I did nothing today but take care of the horse. Father H. was down to see him, he pronounced him very much better, left some butter of antimony & caustic to be applied. Father was up to Elijahs hooping tubs. Elijah came down and got what tubs we had in our bush & father hooped all that required it. I wrote a letter to Charles Hulslander. Air cold and cloudy, felt like snow. I took Ellen home this evening & will stay all night.

March 2nd Thursday

I left Hulslanders early this morning and came home. Mr. Whitney & Cady was here this P.M. and evening. He made out my marriage certificate. The horse is some better today. I received a letter from Geo. H. Mate received one from Abarene and Mary Jane. I went down to the ville this evening and got the mail. Got a letter for Elijah too. I did nothing today but tend to the horse. I put on a poultice of just cow manure. Emma Reynolds is here giving Mate her music lesson. Geo. Besly returned my cutter, took his own. The day cold and blustering. Daniel Benedict was here last night, stopped while on his way to Jamies (B.) He is fixing to go to Titusville, Venango Co. Penna to book keeping at $60 dollars per month and found the draft took place in Sullivan & Rutland yesterday quite a number of my acquaintances drew prizes.

March 3rd Friday

Today was cloudy and cool, it misted all day. It thawed some but the air was chilly. I put on a poultice of soap and salt in the A.M. and left him loose on the barn floor and he got down some way while I was up to Elijahs washing the tubs and we left him on his broad side all day. He was glad to get up. This is the first time he has laid down since lame and he needed the rest. Miss Reynolds is here today, did not get to go home today. Father, Elijah & I were engaged nearly all day washing and plugging worm holes in the tubs. We have 128 tubs to put in the bush, washed them all clean.

March 4th Saturday

It rained quite hard this A.M. About noon it slacked up and Father & Elijah went to Troy to mill. Father took 4 bushels of corn & Elijah one. Elijah went down after Daniel Benedicts cow. Miss Reynolds went home today. Geo. B. came after her. The day warm but windy. The water is high and raising rapidly. The horse is rather worse today, put soap & salt poultice on today. Julia was here visiting this P.M. I have been up in the woods chopping drags of wood all the P.M. Geo. Besly and Frank Knapp traded horses today but how I do not know. The mail this evening brought two letters for Mate, one from Geo. H & one from C.H. C. Mates Magazine "The Ladies Friend" came tonight also. Father & Elijah came home, got their grist and father got some tar., got $.50 cents worth. Father traded corn for buckwheat flour at the mill today.

March 5th Sunday

Elijah, Julia & I went up to father Hulslanders today with horses and cutter, found all well. Lin came home about noon. A Mr. Case brought her. Elijah and Julia came home this evening. I stayed all night. The day was clear and beautiful but did not thaw much. Mr. Case stayed the evening. Lin reports that there is a letter for me at Daniels. Mary is coming up tomorrow and she will bring it.

March 6th Monday

I came home this A.M. and found the horse much worse. Father and mother have about got discouraged. Think he will never get well, is very much worse. In the P.M. I went up to Elijahs and chopped wood in the bush while Elijah and father tapped 42 trees, placed Elijahs tin pans under trees tapped today. Sap did not run much. The crust all around among the trees was strong enough to hold us up. Did not break through. Went with horse and cutter to Sylvania and got 1 quart tanners oil, paid 50 cents. Mother went as far as store at the ville & to trade, came home with me. Gustus and Aunt Susan are both sick. Gustus has the lung fever. For Scours in sheep, mix wood ashes and salt together and give them, receipt taken from Bradford Reporter March 2, 1865.

March 7th Tuesday

The horse was so much worse today that we all felt discouraged, thought he would die, he got down on is side yesterday and we let him lay to rest himself and today he could not get up or raise his head without assistance. I went up after father H. but he was not at home. Got Elijah to help made a windlass and raised him up on his legs. Was thus engaged until after P.M. Father H. came down just night, gave him some medicine and he was much better. Had coughed, gave him stuff to drive it off his lungs. Tapped 50 more trees, set tubs under, got pan set in arch, trees tapped yesterday has runners half full. Father gathered it in. Em Reynolds here this evening.

March 8th Wednesday

Went in the bush this A.M. and tapped 50 more trees and cut and broke roads through the bush. Sap run but little today. Twas to cold and wind in the east. Horse pretty well today and getting better. Eddie Besly is very sick with lung fever. Drawed up some drags of wood with Nellie this P.M. and then went to the ville, got pair of boots, had them charged. Got at A.B. Austins, price $4.00, bought for Mary 30 cents worth of paper at Grocery. Got my hair cut. The commissioners (County) were at the ville today. I learned today that my name is on the list of enrolled for state militia, about 301 got their names off today. I did not get mine off for I did not make application. It snowed and rained some today. Miss Reynolds gave Mate her music lesson and left this morning.

March 9th Thursday

It was rainey this A.M. but we went up in the sap bush to work. Elijah and I tapped 45 more trees while father was engaged in boiling. We gathered 3 barrels of sap today, had a barrel and a half on hand. Boiled down 3 barrels and syruped off, boiled only with pan. We have now 187 dishes under trees, could tap as many again had we dishes. A dense fog hung over all day, it has thawed fast all day. Mother has been to O.O. Beslys nearly all day. Little Eddie is sick with lung fever. Father & Mother are down to Beslys this evening to see Eddie. Mate was up to Julias all day visiting, we has a pail of nice syrup. Horse is better today. Sap run quite well where we tapped today. The snow is pretty deep in the woods. We draw our sap by oxen and sleigh in a barrel. Mate is not very well this evening, has sick head ache. We left syrup at Julias. We like this new boiling pan very much, had not used the kettle yet. Mate wrote a letter to Geo. last night.

March 10th Friday

The horse is much better today and looks as though he might get along now. I wrote a letter to Geo. H. today. Mate wrote one to him also. Father boiled down what sap was left in the store tubs last night, amount, about 2 barrels. There was none together, it froze up and snowed last night and was snowing lightly this morning. Not more than two inches fell in all. Twas tedius cold all today and froze very hard though clear. Julia sugared off today, she thought there would be over 20 pounds. Twas very nice & white. Elijah and I split wood at bush. Mother has been at Ogdens all day, is staying there tonight, Eddie is worse. Elijah arrived from the ville & says our quota has been reduced to 10, an effort is to be made to fill it by volunteers, only two more men are wanted. Mate received a letter from H. Rexford & one from uncle Nelson. Elijah and Julia sit up to Ogdens tonight

March 11th Saturday

The weather was unfavorable for sap running so we did not have to enter the bush. The wind was intensely cold and it froze all day thought clear and sunny. Father went to the ville, gone all day. I helped Elijah hitch up his colt in cutter & single, he found twould go all right so went to Chandlersburg after his wagon. Father H. came down and looked at my horse, thought he was going finely, advised me to keep poulticing it same as usual. I done a little chopping logs & some wood at the door & late in P.M. went up to Father H. to stay all night.

March 12th Sunday

I was at Father H. until noon today when Ellen, Lin, and I went up to Ed Rexfords & spent the P.M. and part of the evening. The day was clear but very cold, did not thaw any. There was preaching at Father Hulslanders this P.M. The assembled neighbors were addressed by Elder Hopkins of Troy. Father H. was away doctoring horses of which he has lately his hands full. I went home with Ellen & Lin & stayed all night. We had a very pleasant time at Rexfords.

Receipt to preserve boats: take a pound of tallow, a pound of Rosin and melt them together and apply with a paint brush while hot, soak the lecher bull. If desirable to black immediately, put in an ounce of was and lamp black each apply & let dry.

March 13th Monday

I stayed last night at Father Hulslanders and this morning not promising a good sap day I went to Troy for mother H. Took her butter down for her. Ellen went with me, had their horses and democrat, they had 4 furkins, 3 of them brought 30 cents per pound and one 25 cents. The whole came to $18.95 one half they received in cash and the other in trade on account. Went up to Daniels and got Mary & brought her home with us, got home just before dark & I am going to stay all night. Father & Elijah tapped 70 more trees today, got 45 tin pans of Ogden Besly, we have now 285 trees tapped.

March 14th Tuesday

I came home this morning early and found old Pat down, he had fallen last night. Father said that sap had run smartly yesterday P.M. and we had a large quantity to gather and boil. Father went up to John Knapps and got his boiling pan, and we drawed stone & laid more arch and put in the pans. Elijah was so lame that he could not help us a might so he went to the house & I gathered 8 barrels of sap. Elijah got a new barrel and I now use two barrels instead of one to gather in. We draw it on sleigh with oxen. Two barrels make a good load for a team. I gathered until after dark when father syruped off and we came down, boiled 3 ½ barrels. Had to do our chores after dark & get old Pat up to which we did with windlass but twas very late in the evening when we got all done and retired. The men liable to the draft met at the ville this evening to decide what to do about raising money to hire two volunteers to fill our quota. I haven’t learned the result. Received a letter from H.H. Robbins containing photograph dated March 3rd.

March 15th Wednesday

We arose early this morning and got into the bush in good season but the snow had melted so last night that it liked to drowned our fire out, had a hard time getting it started. I gathered sap and drawed up some dry wood. I found a great many of the dishes tipped over and away from the trees, on account of the snow foundation melting away. I gathered 4 barrels sap today. Elijah was so lame he could not help us today and syruped off just dark got home and had to do chores after dark this evening. Ambro type salon passed here today for the ville. Water is very high, thus very fast & is dreadful muddy.

March 16th Thursday

We got into the bush in pretty good season this morning. Nellie killed one of the sheep this morning by stamping it under her feet while out to drink. Gathered the bush over today and had 4 barrels. It has not run much today, the snow has nearly all gone off. The water is very high. I tended the boiling works today, boiled in 4 ½ barrels. We have on had 4 barrels to boil tomorrow. Elijah was able to be out & help gather part of this P.M. It was very windy all day & large trees were uprooted and our pans were scattered from the trees like chaff before the wind. I brought a large cake & teacup cake from Julias this evening. Tis raining hard this evening. The first we have had in a long time. The frost is coming all out of the ground and it looks like spring.

March 17th Friday

We went to the bush in good season this morning and turned the snow out of the pans that fell last night. It rained very hard last night and turned to snow towards morning. It lay about two inches deep on the ground this morning. We boiled in all the sap we had except about 4 barrels, boiled in 4 ½ barrels.

March 18th Saturday

I was quite unwell today with nervous headache, was sick abed until noon. I then went into the bush & helped gather sap. Elijah & father had been to work all the forenoon and they had nearly got it in store, boiled in 6 barrels. Little Eddie Besly died last night at half past 11. Father and mother staid all night (last) at Ogdens & saw the child die. About 4 P.M. I, Elijahs colt and Nellie went up after Ellen. I found the roads in an awful condition but I came home this evening all safe & brought Ellen. Very high wind today, mud dried up fast, road all washed out at Maines farm & impassable. Father Hulslanders people were all well. They tapped 80 trees. Little Eddies funeral is fixed at one P.M. tomorrow. Ellen, Mary, Elijah & I have received special invitation to sing at the funeral tomorrow. No mail today in consequence of the flood washing away all the railroad facilities.

March 19th Sunday

Elijah & I hitched up our horses together and took the women folks down to the funeral at the ville school house. The number consisted of 17 carriages and followed the remains from the Besly Mansion to the school house. The day was cool but pleasant like spring. Elder Brough delivered the address in his usually tedius style. As the minister did not use his text and did not repeat it, I did not remember it. The house was crowded & nothing occurred to mar the occasion. Father H. & lady was here this P.M., called on their way home from James Benedict where they had been. Father H. thought my horse was getting better & he gave me a receipt for a liniment to be applied to the wound.

March 20th Monday

I went up to father H. and got his bay mare to work with Nellie this week as he was not going to use it himself. I thus hitched her up with Nellie & went over to Sylvania to see to my lumber being sawed at Mr. Kiffs mill, found they had sawed part of the lumber wrong, some 600 feet sawed into 2 inch plank which we did not want. The rest sawed was all right. I piled up the lumber & drawed home about 500 feet siding. The day was very warm & pleasant wind in the west all day. Father & Elijah have been busy in the bush all day. Elijah reports having gathered 11 barrels sap. Father boiled in and syruped off 6 barrels. The degarian artist at the ville appeared to be doing a lively business today. No mail, trains do not run yet on our rail road. The sun crossed the line today.

March 21st Tuesday

The weather today was as warm and beautiful as summer. Elijah tried to plow this A.M. but twas so warm he could not. His oxen lolled so I took the horses up and drawed up some wood at he bush this A.M. And this P.M. Elijah came up with oxen and he and father gathered sap while I tended the kettle and pans and kept them boiling. Boiled in & syruped down 6 barrels, there is 5 more to boil in tomorrow. Bush is all gathered. Saw some snakes today. Ellen & Mary at Julias all day. Mrs. Daniel Benedict came to our house late this P.M., will stay all night. Old Pat got down in the bay last night & we got him up tonight. A light shower of rain tonight. Tis said that the peepers have been out, wer out today, I have not heard them myself.

March 22nd Wednesday

Twas warm and cloudy today but it grew colder and windy and the P.M. we had several squall of snow and rain. Mother & Mrs. D. Benedict went up to Julias. Father went in the bush & boiled down the sap left from yesterday while I stayed at home & fixed fence where twas down. I was thus engaged all day. Mate & Ellen were engaged in making a picture frame of moss & hemlock cones, it looks real neat. The weather was real disagreeable this P.M. & is much colder tonight and the ground is quite white with snow. Mother got some butter of sister Julia today, it wighed 6 ½ pounds pail & all. Mrs. Daniel Benedict stayed up to Julias & did not come home with mother. This evening Mate & Ellen are at the melodeon playing & singing, "Old Greenville" & other familiar pieces. There is no sap to gather today, it has not frozen since Saturday evening, wind is in the west.

March 23rd Thursday

As it snowed a little and froze some last night, we went into the bush early and hacked the trees over and emptied out the snow and rain water, finished about noon. Elijah & father helped me. Ellen & Mate were up to Julias all day. Mrs. D. Benedict is there and they had a real train, they sugared off. This P.M. I went with team to Sylvania after a load of lumber, got it & returned home just dusk. Father went as far as the ville with me. The weather is very much colder. Twill freeze tonight. Received a letter from C. H. Hulslander from Camp near Petersburg, Va. March 12. Father got some papers today, the first for a week. I got lumber at Kiffs mill, pine boards & ½ inch stuff.

March 24th Friday

I went up and got Elijahs oxen and drawed wood in drags at the door. Drawed them from above the orchard. Elijah took the team (horses) and wagon and took Mrs. Daniel Benedict, Ellen, & Julia up to father Hulslanders. The weather was cold with squalls of snow. I commenced taking tar syrup for my cough today, made by mother, it seems to help me right away. Ellen did not come back with Elijah and Julia at night. Father was up in the bush this P.M. and said the sap run well, though there was icicles under the water spout all day.

March 25th Saturday

Old Pat got down this morning out in the road where I had let him travel to satisfy him a little & we had an awful time getting him into the barn, finally drawed him in on the drag. We then harnessed Nellie & the Dumpling and went into the bush and drawed up some dry wood to the boiling works. Sap run well this P.M. We quit early enough to get up the horse whom we drawed into the barn on the drag. Elijah helped us. Had our first calf today, the darkened heifer came in. Sheep won’t eat anymore hay, grass has started so this evening I fixed up and went up to father Hulslanders to stay all night with Ellen. I took the Dumpling horse home this evening having used her three days this week.

March 26th Sunday

I staid all night at Hulslanders last night. I came away this A.M. as I expected to have to work in the bush, the sap had run so yesterday. Father H. came home with me to look at old Pat. The horse was slowly on the gain. This P.M. father, Elijah and I went up in the bush and gathered such trees as were running away. Mary went up to Frank Knapps visiting this P.M. & returned this evening. Julia just received a letter from Jane Iresh (Mrs. Weber) yesterday. I have written a letter to C.H. Card and so has Mate and put in one envelope. I also wrote a letter to Nelson H. Robbins of this date. The weather is cold and freezing slightly. Elijah & Geo. Besly traded yesterday (horses) and today Geo. returned Elijahs horse & no trade the consequence. Father H. left a liniment to apply to the horse, also blood root for his blood.

March 27th Monday

Father H. left me yesterday two kinds of medicine for the horse, blood root & brimstone to be given internally, and a liniment of ether and oil of cedar, the first to be taken once a day, last to be applied to the sore twice a day. We went up in the bush and boiled and gathered sap. Gathered about 2 barrels yesterday & we gathered 10 today. Boiled in and syruped down 6 barrels. The day was very pleasant and still quite warm. The sap run very fast this P.M. We gathered the bush all over. I killed the young calf and took off his skin and this evening Father & I pulled the wool off 4 sheep we lost this winter. Tis warm tonight, will not freeze.

March 28th Tuesday

I was up very early this morning and went in the bush to boil & by driving the kettles fast I managed to boil in 8 barrels. Father & Elijah gathered sap, I syruped off just before dark. This evening Father boiled in 3 barrels by 10 o-clock before coming to the house. I went up to Father H. after more liniment for the horse & staid all night. Ellen had bad cold, was at work on new pillow ticks. It will not freeze tonight. Gustus & Debby came up here for a ride today & brought Aunt Susan who is staying with us tonight. Mary (Daniel) went home yesterday to Troy. Found waiting her, two letters from Daniel. We got another Philadelphia Enquirer today. So it seems that the mail has come again once more. Sap run splendid today. The fastest I ever saw it run. Have 3 more barrels in store, will have to gather the bush all over tomorrow should it run all night, and it promises to be so. The weather is warm and beautiful, nice for farming.

March 29th Wednesday

I came away from Hulslanders early this morning and went right in the bush. Got the kettles to boiling in good season, boiled down last night are counted in, I tended the kettles all day. Father & Elijah gathered sap. The day was warm and pleasant. The frogs were out singing merrily. We syruped off and got down home just dusk. All the sap is now gathered & we have 7 barrels in the bush to boil tomorrow in store. The weather indicates rain, tis very warm, no signs of freezing. I wrote a letter to C.Frank Hulslander Co. A 207th P.V.

March 30th Thursday

I went up in the bush early this morning and set the kettles boiling. Boiled all day alone. Twas rainey and nasty. Elijah & Father drawed hay from the stack Elijah bought of Frank Knapp. They drawed two loads. I did not get syruped down until after dusk. Aunt Susan is still at our house visiting. Father went down to the ville this P.M. and got the mail. Got a letter for Ellen & a paper for Mate. This run of sap has been a large one. We have gathered from our 260 trees, eccentric women came along today while twas raining, she puddled along through the mud singing & acting strangely, other wise her actions were like a person partially deranged. The sap did not run any today.

March 31st Friday

As it rained all day I went up to Elijahs. Took up the harness and mended it. Old Pat got down last night and we had to get him up this P.M. Upon examination we found him much swollen along his back bone until it reached his neck. I was scared and went immediately up to Father H’s to consult what to do. He thought him not particularly dangerous so I stayed all night with Ellen. All were well except Ellen & she had a bad cold, was very hoarse. Father H gave me some drops to give to the horse to stimulate him & give him an appetite.

April 1st Saturday

I came away from Hulslanders very early this A.M. Got home & gave the horse some medicine & then went to chopping wood at the door. I spent some of the time looking to the sheep. The day was cold and snow squally. Father hitched Nelly to Elijahs wagon and took Aunt Susan and Mother up to Elijahs visiting this P.M. Elijah fixed fence, Father emptied the rain water that fell yesterday out of the tubs this P.M. I felt so sleepy I went to bed early this evening. Aunt Susan went home this P.M. & Father took her home.

April 2nd Sunday

Today was very nice and pleasant. As I expected Father H down to look at Pat I did not get away. Father, Elijah and I tapped or hacked the trees over and sap ran well. Was at Elijah most P.M., where had sugared off late P.M. Elijah and I went up to Father H., found all well at home but Father H. had gone for our house another way, so we did not see him. I stayed but Elijah goes back. Weather is very beautiful. Ellen, Mother H. & I wrote a letter each to Brother Charles this evening. The horse is better today, has got attack of the fancy.

April 3rd Monday

I did not return home today, but Father H and I went to Chandlersburg. Got horses shod. I went to see a Mrs. Dan about getting one of her horses to keep for the work it would do this spring. I succeeded in getting the promise of one next week. We returned before noon and I in accordance with Father H’s request went down to Troy after a load of things for Mary (Daniel) I got load and returned. Mary did not return with me. Lin came up by stage to Sylvania and foot the rest of the way. Met her at Rexfords. I did not go home this evening. Day warm and pleasant. Mary (Daniel) gave me a washboard to bring home to use. Divided the sugar today and brought our part home, it weighed 417 pounds. Elijah traded off his cattle with his Father, got an old horse, double harness, neck yoke, $100 dollars for his cattle.

April 4th Tuesday

Moved Ellen down home with me, had their team. Came with Democrat wagon and brought her things. We arrived home before noon. I went up in the bush & found Elijah and Father gathering sap. They had nearly got it gathered. I put in and helped them. Got done gathering about noon. Came down and drawed hay from the log house to the barn with Father H’s team. Drawed two loads. We heard tonight official dispatch from Stanton, that Richmond was our. Taken yesterday morning at 8. I took team home at night and saw Mr. Bradford from whom I heard the glorious news. He heard it at Troy today. There is great rejoicing over the event. Guns are being fired at Troy and an illumination also this evening and other places west. We hear the report of heavy guns. Elijah received a letter from Geo. H. I received a paper and an Elicit Magazine from N.H. Robbins, containing list of Benedict in 3rd Division 5th Corps and a few words from Nelt saying that a fight had taken place the 25th of March.

April 5th Wednesday

I was up early this morning and went immediately in the bush. Built fire and boiled sap all day. Boiled in 7 barrels and syruped down just before dark. Brought the syrup down home. Ellen and Mate were up to help me this P.M. Elijah was engaged plowing with his horses this A.M. They worked well. Father went down to Austinville, got the mail, brought me a letter from Geo. Mate got one from Geo. & one from Henry. Ellen is engaged this evening piecing blocks for bed quilt. Guns are being fired in every direction this evening. No doubt some good news has come. Mr. Hasting & Brother in law were here this evening.

April 6th Thursday

I was engaged all day fixing fence. Fixed the line fence between us and Besly on the flats this A.M. Have to take fence all down and lay it all over again. This P.M. I fixed a portion of the road side fence toward the ville. Father was quite unwell all day. Old Pat got down last night and we let him lay all day. Got him up this evening. Elijah came down and helped us get him up. I put on a mixture of beech bark & beefs gall. I can’t tell how much good it does yet. Our folks sugared off today, they had two five quart pan cakes and about 7 pounds besides. Ellen is at work piecing bed quilt. Mate sewing carpet rags this evening. Heard heavy guns today in every direction. The people are no doubt celebrating the capture of Richmond and other good news. Elijah and Julia were down here visiting this evening a little while. The weather is fine, the roads good and dry. Plowed ground is in fine order for sowing. The peepers are singing very lively tonight. The wind is high, much signs of summer. We have not received any news today.

April 7th Friday

I was engaged fixing fence along the road below the house. The day was very windy. The going is good, plowed ground is in excellent order for working. Daniel Benedict and wife & Mother H. were down here visiting this A.M., also Sister Julia. We had a real pleasant but short visit. Daniels folks went away this evening to James, Mother H. went home afoot and across lot. We have received no mail yet, don’t know what is going on out side of the line of our vision. Daniel reports that they had a jollification at Troy this week Tuesday, over the capture of Richmond. Old Pat appears to be some better today. Ellen is piecing bed quilt. We have had real good time singing this evening. Mate played the Melodeon. I have not heard any big guns today. Daniel came from Titusville Monday, arrived home Tuesday. Sold John Knapp half ton of hay for 10 dollars today.

April 8th Saturday

I was engaged all day fixing fence along the road. Set several barposts. Father & Mother went with horse and wagon down to the ville. Gone all the P.M. Brought a large number of papers & letter for Mate from C.H. Card. Mate & Ellen sugared off today. It was very warm and pleasant. Elijah drawed another load of hay this P.M. Daniel & Mary came back from James just night on their way home. They stopped and Ellen went home to Father H’s with them. Daniel was in better health today. I worked quite late fixing fence this evening. There has been a good deal of travel on this road lately. Firing of artillery I hear tonight. We have heard much good news and expect much more has come in to cause the jubilee tonight. Mate had a fit tonight at the supper table. Bright moonlight tonight.

April 9th Sunday

This morning Elijah hitched his horses into our Democrat wagon and took Julia, Mary and I over to Father Hulslanders. We had a fine visit with Daniel and Mary before they went home this P.M. We came home early. Brought Ellen with us. Mrs. Dan failed to let me have one of her horses as promised last Monday. I shall have to buy one now. We came by way of Chandlerville. Found Mr. Whitney & Mr. Peckem at our house. David McClure & Betty Wolf were here this evening. I commenced a letter to Geo. H.

April 10th Monday

Father went down to the ville to see about hiring or buying a horse for spring work. He returned unsuccessful. Saw a good many horses for sale but none that were desirable except Frank Knapps team and Father did not buy because he wanted to know my mind. I have decided that Frank Knapps team is the one I want. I have gathered the tin pans in from the bush and while after the kettles I broke the reach out of Elijahs one horse wagon. I went and cut stick and blocked out a new one but haven’t put it in yet. Daniel Benedict was here a few minutes today. He called to bid us good bye while on his way to Troy. He has now made up his mind to go back to Titusville and take his wife along. They both hire by the month. He gets $60 a month & she $15, so they think to lay up $75 a month. Twas rainey today. Elijah sowed some spring wheat today. I received a letter from Geo. H. today and I finished writing the letter to him I commenced last night. Ellen wrote a sheet and sent in the same envelope. Good news today, Lee & his whole army have surrendered. They are having great times at Troy today, but no one was hurt by it. Ever so many were drunk. Old Ballard treated out over 30 dollars and they had a high time in Troy over the good news. They are jubileeing all over all about us but as yet none at Austinville.

April 11th Tuesday

Old Pat got down last night and we got him up this P.M. His leg broke and run where it was swelled on out side early this morning. Having decided to try and trade with Frank, Father & I went down to see what we could do. Took Nellie down and traded her for the team. We gave him Nellie &$165 for his creamers, gave him our note due one half in the first of Jan. next & the other half a year from next Jan. I brought them home, hitched them up and went down with light wagon to the ville after seed oats. Bought of A.B. Austin 13 bushels & 5 pound at 65 cents a bushel. Had them charged. Came home, Father sowed 4 bushels of oats on knoll back of the barn & I dragged a part of it in with our new team. They work well & I am well suited. Alfred Slade has bought the grocery at Austinville & is there tending it. Bought it Saturday last.

April 12th Wednesday

I arose early this morning and went down to the ville and took Austins bags home. It had rained in the night and it rained this A. M. so that I could not drag in the oats sown yesterday. I put in a reach to Elijahs wagon and this P.M. we harness the team and took sleigh and gathered in the sap tubs, store tub & boiling pan. Stored the tubs in the old school house. We put away 128 tubs. We took old Pat off the barn floor and put him under the shed so that he would not skin himself anymore. The wind has blown so this P.M. that the plow ground on the knoll was dry enough to drag this P.M. So I did so after got back from the bush. I dragged over nearly all that has been sown.

April 13th Thursday

I finished dragging in the oats that were sown yesterday and then dragged over the rough ground before sewing so the seed would not get to deep. As Father went to Troy this P.M., I got the ground dragged over and then I sowed 4 bushels of oats. This is the first I ever sowed. Father went to Troy with John Knapp. He returned at night and brought a host of papers and we all engaged reading this evening. Elijah got a letter from Geo. H. Mailed at Baltimore, Maryland. Today was warm and pleasant. I worked late, the horses seem to stand it well.

April 14th Friday

I went early to dragging and Father sowed two bushels more, which finished the piece I went over, and finished dragging abort middle P.M. We have sown 11 ½ bushels on this piece, back of the barn the ground was in excellent condition, dry and nice. After finishing the water had washed deep ravines through and I plowed them full by turning the furrows into them. I got done time enough to come to the house and plow a garden spot just east of the house. The weather has been beautiful today. The team seem to stand it well. Ellen and Mate are crocheting tidys for cakes. Father was engaged with his bees and watching the sheep. Ellen has just completed a splendid star shaped cake tidy.

April 15th Saturday

Father and I went at it and shelled out the corn by the end of Beslys shelter. We were until the middle of the P.M. shelling. Finished and had 26 bushels of shelled corn. We put 19 ½ bushels in the barn and some in a bee hive & 6 bushels in bags. I let the horses rest today, twas rainey this P.M. I chopped wood at the door the latter part of the P.M. Father H. was down to see old Pat this A.M. He thought him better, gave orders to have his leg washed in weak sye, also to continue the wash of beefs gall & beech bark. Father went to the ville for the mail this evening. He returned with the melancholia news. [THE PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. ABRAHAM LINCOLN WAS ASSASSINATED LAST NIGHT IN A THEATHER AT WASHINGTON, SHOT THROUGH THE HEAD AND DIED THIS A.M. AT 10] Father H. has sold his place at $40 per acre. He sold to Geo. Besly. Total amount to $6,200, as he has 130 acres.

April 16th Sunday

Today was Poss, and we – Mate, Ellen and I stayed at home and had our own time. Father, Mother & Mr. Ogden Besly & wife went up to Elijahs and spent the day. They had poss too. Twas real cold and rainey, unpleasant outside. Mate acted as visitor while Ellen done the cooking and talking. Had eggs boiled, fried, and made into custard. John Knapp called in just as we say down to dinner but he would not eat, as he had just been eating, so we enjoyed it alone. John said that Ira wrote home that his Co. killed and wounded and took prisoners 3000 in one hour.

April 17th Monday

We sold a half ton of hay to John Knapp and came and took it away this A. M. Father & I went down in the lower field to breaking up with horses, plowed a little while and then went to pulling stumps and drawing of logs of the piece we are to plow this P.M. We fixed up the shed at the barn and built a new windlass to raise old Pat with, as he fell down sometime last night. We got him up and at 4 P.M. I went about and plowed until night and made out about ¼ of an acre. Tis a stiff day and works badly. Father has gone to the ville this evening for the mail. John is to give us at the rate of $20 a ton for our hay.

April 18th Tuesday

I plowed with the team this A.M., breaking up a place for corn this P.M. I drove out to the field with sleigh to draw stone off the plowed piece. I had just got there when the off mare laid down in the harness and fouled, so I did no more with the team today, but I turned the other loose to feed on the young grass. Father H. was down today to look at a horse for Austin. Elijah went to Troy and took a tub of butter, got 32 cents for it. Old Peter Furman died today at Austinville. Mother went down to the ville with Elijah. The day was warm and pleasant . I spent a part of my time this P.M. fixing fence along the road. Elijah reported that tomorrow all business was to be suspended in Troy and all the churches were to observe the Presidents funeral.

April 19th Wednesday

I was engaged all day fixing fence on the farm. The little colt does not seem well. I let the horses out to nip the green grass. The weather was beautiful, the bees were out lively. Father fixed the west shed to keep the mare and colt in nights. Ellen & Mate were engaged fixing lounge cover in the evening they came out and helped clear away the rubbish along the road in front of the house. Father is unwell, has a bad cold. It seemed just like Sunday today. Will Budd exchanged roosters today with us, gave us a rooster and hen for ours. We had one hen come off with 11 chickens today.

April 20th Thursday

This A.M. Father and I yarded the sheep and tagged them and tarred their noses. It took us all A.M., as they were badly dunged up. The funeral of Old Peter Furman was today at the Austinville school house at 11 A.M. This P.M. it rained and I did nothing but tend the young colt which is very sick. He appears to have a very bad cold. I think he will die tonight though we do all and more than we know how. He appears to be much distressed to get breath. I went down to the ville this evening and got the mail. Got two papers. I bought 1 ½ yards of calico & spool of thread which amounted to $50 cents. Had it charged, got it at Austins store. Father has been unwell all day and is no better this evening. Ellen and Mate were engaged cleaning house, took up carpet in front room, shook it and put it down again.

April 21st Friday

I hitched up the horses and drawed two loads of hay from the old log house to the barn. The sick colt is still alive, though he is still in much pain. I have spent a good deal of time doctoring him today. He seems a little better tonight. I chopped some wood at the door this P.M. and tended the colt part of the time. There was several showers of rain today. Ellen & Mate went down to O.C. Beslys visiting this P.M. Old Mrs. Knapp was here this A.M. I sold deacon kin to tin peddler for 75 cents worth on tin, got wash dish and tin square and cake cutter. I lost another sheep today. I know not what was the matter. I took his pelt off, secured a wood chuck skin today also. Mate & Ellen went down to Beslys this P.M.

April 22nd Saturday

It looked like rain and did rain a little this A.M. So I fixed for working in the barn but it cleared away. I made new whiffle tree this A.M. and while at it I was called away twice to kill a wood chuck for Dapper. We got two, I skinned them both and put them in ashes to get hair off before tanning. The colt is so much better today that we now have hopes of raising him. It was very windy today. I fixed fence along the road towards Elijahs this P.M. and chopped wood at the door a while also. Elijah says his squealer has the horse distemper and he cant use her. Ellen is piecing blocks for bed quilt this evening. She manages to always be busy about something. Tis very cold this evening and promises to freeze hard before morning if it does not cloud up. I built my first picked fence today, a short string along the road. Father went down to the ville this evening after the mail, he returned with paper but no letter. E.D. Benedict

April 23rd Sunday

Ellen & I went up to Father Hulslanders today. I did not drive both of my horses. I got one of Elijah & drove with the mare that had a colt. We found all well at home. We went to church at the school house at 3 ½ O-clock P.M. We came home in good season as we left the colt at home. We found them all at home.

April 24th Monday

This A.M. we prepared ground for planting potatoes. Father borrowed Ogdens corn plow & I marked the ground. We planted 8 bushels or dropped that many, did not finish covering, had to quit early to get up old Pat who got down last night. We dropped our potatoes in the furrows so it was not so much work to cover them. We planted about an acre. We planted various kinds: Californias, Dooryards, Prince Albert and an other kind I know not the name. Ellen was very unwell today, could not sit up, but she is better now this evening. Mate went up to Elijahs to work today. Our folks say that she has hired out to help Julia with her daily.

April 25th Tuesday

I sowed a piece of oats below the road. Sowed about two bushels and ragged it in after fitting the ground, drawed 3 loads of manure on it where the fresh had washed away the soil. Old Pat got down today & we had to get him up again. Finished covering up the potatoes dropped yesterday. Day warm and pleasant. Ellen is quite well today, is so as to be around the house. Mate is home this evening and writing a letter to her sweet heart.

April 26th Wednesday

Father I went away right after breakfast to Elijahs and helped him raise up his granary. We came home about noon having finished. Elijah sold O.O. Besly 8 bushels of potatoes today. This P.M. I plowed a quarter acre for flax & plowed furrows for the water to run in. I also went up to Elijahs and got his side hill plough to plough the piece by the barn for barley. Uncle Geo. Benedict came to our house this P.M. afoot. The day is warm and pleasant with signs of rain. Father got a half bushel of early potatoes of Darwin Harding, paid 25 cents. Planted them this P.M. Ellen and Mother white washed the kitchen, bed sink and stairway.

April 27th Thursday

I have been ploughing all day. Ploughed the whole piece by the barn. Uncle Geo. is here, has been up to Elijahs today. It has been showery today. This is the first rain we have had in a long time & it is getting very dry. We have another hen coming off with chickens, 10 are hatched. We have now 38 young chickens. We got another pail of lime today at the store. Ellen & Mother have been cleaning house. The back room and whit washed it and it looks like parlor now. I let old Pat out to nip the green grass for the first time on trial and he did not fall down.

April 28th Friday

Turned the cows off the meadows this A.M. I dragged smooth the piece by the barn and then Father sowed 2 ¾ of barley on it and I dragged it in and drawed stone off & manure on the piece. Was thus engaged all day. I let old Pat out to graze and he got down this P.M. Had a shower just night. Uncle Geo. went up to Julias visiting today, came here tonight. Ellen has been hard at work washing. She washed my shawl, good cuckolds & pants and many other things besides ironing. We moved into the back room this A.M. Moved stoves also.

April 29th Saturday

It rained very hard all last night and old Pat lay out in it all on the cold ground. It has showered hard today. I went at it and made a stone boat to draw Pat in with. Elijah and Julia went to Troy to mill and took a tub of butter. They got 32 cents per pound. Uncle Geo. & Father went down with Elijah as far as the ville & were gone all day. Mate came & stayed, while Elijah and Julia were gone. In the evening Ellen, Mary and I went up and done chores for them. Elijah came home, brought half ton plaster. They got wet being out in the heavy rain. This evening we drew old Pat in and got him up, and he now appears all right. Elijah got a letter from Geo. H. today. He has got to hinorgt and is well and is encamped at Holiway CHG.

April 30th Sunday

This was a pleasant day but cool. I went up to Father Hulslanders this P.M. and found all well. I got a pick of flax seed and came home. Uncle Geo. is still here. Mate and Ellen picked our first mess of greens today (dandelions). Elijah and Julia were down here visiting today.

The History Center on Main Street, 83 N. Main Street, Mansfield PA 16933   histcent83@gmail.com
Bradford County PA
Chemung County NY
Tioga County PA

Published On Tri-Counties Site On 22 MAY 2004
By Joyce M. Tice
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